What are the types of anemia?

Absolutely anyone can be diagnosed with anemia. This is a serious disease that can develop for completely different reasons and for various reasons. And because all types of anemia are classified according to various criteria, as well as for reasons that have become provocateurs of the development of the pathological process. Only a detailed study of the classification according to various criteria will help to better understand the essence of such a disease as anemia.

Types of anemia

Acquaintance with this disease is best to start with the question, what are the types of anemia. The main types include four anemias, which will be characterized by common signs of the disease. The main species are progressing due to extensive bleeding or impaired blood cell production. The main and common symptom is fatigue and a rapid heart rate.

In the table, the types of anemia. Here are the main reasons that caused the development of the disease.

Type of anemiaCause of anemia
Post-hemorrhagicAcute and chronic blood loss (injuries, bleeding)
HemolyticIncreased destruction of red blood cells
DeficientLack of vitamins, iron or other elements necessary for the process of blood formation
HypoplasticThe most severe type, which is associated with impaired blood formation in the bone marrow

What are the anemia

There are varieties of anemia by the type of blood. These include: normoblastic anemia and megaloblastic anemia. Hereditary, acquired, autoimmune and mixed anemias are also distinguished. Congenital dysyarthropoietic anemia belongs to a special group of hereditary pathology, which is characterized by an inefficient process of formation of blood cells.

Differential diagnostics determines the following major varieties, which are determined by color index:

  1. Normohromia. It includes acute post-hemorrhagic anemia, sometimes hemolytic (often acquired). Hypoplastic and aplastic anemias are also normochromic. The indicator is equal to 0.82 - 1, 05.
  2. Hypochromia. Hypochromic is often a railway anemia, as well as most hemolytic anemias. The rate of this variety will be less than 0, 82.
  3. Hyperchromia. There is an increase in color index - above 1, 05. This phenomenon is observed in the case of an increase in the average size of the diameter of blood cells. Anemia, which is caused by a lack of folic acid (vitamin B12), is often hyperchromic.

The classification of anemias at WHO (World Health Organization) is based on the following indicators: the decrease in hemoglobin concentration in men is below 130 g / l, in women - below 120 g / l, in pregnant women - below 110 g / l.

Stages of anemia

An anemia that was caused by a critical lack of iron in the blood is called iron deficiency anemia. There is a generally accepted classification of iron deficiency anemia in stages. Depending on how pronounced the lack of this element in the human body, there are several stages.

Stage 1 anemia is characterized by a deficiency of this trace element without any clinical manifestations (latent anemia, prelatent). At this stage, iron depletion only occurs. It is impossible to determine the presence of this stage without laboratory examinations.

The developed clinical and laboratory picture of iron deficiency anemia occurs in the second stage, which follows the first in the absence of adequate medical therapy. This stage is characterized by a critically insufficient iron supply to the body tissues. The picture of symptoms proceeds as follows: change in taste preferences, weakness in muscles, structural changes in hair and nails, pallor of the skin.

Laboratory values ​​are much more pronounced at this stage of disease progression. If at the first stage the depletion of the reserves of the necessary trace element occurs, then at the second stage the content of serum ferritin decreases. At this stage, it is extremely important to select the necessary adequate treatment, which is aimed at stopping the symptoms and the cause of the progression of the disease.

Types of iron deficiency anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is caused by a deficiency of such an essential element in the body as iron. Iron deficiency anemia is mainly divided into two types:

  1. Normoblastic. At the same time, there is a lack of red blood cells and an extremely low level of hemoglobin. However, those red blood cells that are produced in the body are full-fledged and mature. Color indicator below normal
  2. Hyporegenerative. This is the final stage of postemorphic chronic anemia, which lasts a long time. It depletes substances that are so necessary for the formation of red blood cells. Red blood cells are degeneratively modified, normoblasts can disappear in the myelogram.

Types of hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia suggests that the lifespan of red blood cells is markedly reduced compared with their normal life cycle duration, which ranges from one hundred and ten to one hundred and twenty days.

Hemolytic anemia can be hereditary and acquired:

  1. Hereditary hemolytic anemia is caused by abnormalities at the genetic level. They can be represented by violations of the structure of the membranes of red blood cells, a decrease in the activity of enzymes that play a role in the vital activity of red blood cells, as well as a violation of the structure of hemoglobin itself. The two most common forms of such anemia are considered to be thalassemia, in which hemoglobin develops more slowly than it is supposed to, and sickle cell anemia, in which the erythrocyte takes the form of a sickle,
  2. Acquired hemolytic anemia. It occurs when antibodies are produced against their erythrocytes, which is called autoimmune anemia. Another factor causing this type of anemia is the effect of provoking factors such as parasites, mechanical damage and toxic substances.

Red blood cells will be adversely affected by substances such as:

  1. Arsine (arsenic hydrogen). Occurs during industrial production and through the respiratory tract enters the body,
  2. Hyperies Used in the manufacture of rubber, fiberglass, acetone, polyester resins,
  3. Phenylhydrazine. Used in the manufacture of medicines,
  4. Toluylenediamine. This substance is often found in factories for the production of polymers and dyes of various kinds.

Characteristics of anemia: types

Types of anemia: table - what is it? Such a table can be found online and it is designed to present all existing varieties of this disease in a convenient and compact form. What types of anemia is still taken?

In addition to hemolytic and post-hemorrhagic anemia, which have already been discussed above, there are deficiency and hypoplastic anemia. Deficiency anemia is caused by a lack of certain vitamins, trace elements or minerals in the body. Hypoplastic anemia is the most severely occurring variety that is associated with pathologies of blood formation in the bone marrow.

Hidden form of anemia and pseudo-anemia

Depending on the condition of the body, anemia can take two forms:

Blood thinning (a large percentage of water) is hydremia. People call it pseudo-anemia. Due to abundant drinking, the tissue fluid enters the bloodstream.

Blood coagulation (latent form of anemia) occurs as a result of the loss of a portion of liquid blood due to severe dehydration. The latter provokes vomiting, heavy sweating or diarrhea. With latent anemia, hemoglobin is at an optimal level. Contributes to this thickening of the blood.

There are two types of signs of anemia: specific and non-specific. The first type is expressed strictly individually and belongs to a certain form of the disease. In the second form, signs of manifestation are suitable for all varieties of anemia.

Forms of anemia

  • pernicious,
  • iron deficiency
  • medicinal,
  • sickle cell,
  • aplastic,
  • congenital spherocytic.

What do these species represent? Vitamin B12 deficiency causes pernicious anemia. The brain badly needs this element. This form of the disease is most susceptible to people whose stomach cannot reproduce enzymes capable of absorbing vitamin.

Insufficient amount of iron provokes iron deficiency anemia. It often occurs in women during pregnancy and during labor due to blood loss.

The medicinal type of the disease affects people prone to allergic reactions to medications. For example, the very aspirin.

Sickle cell anemia is genetically transmitted. In this case, the red blood cells take the shape of a sickle. As a result, the blood flow may slow down or Botkin’s disease may appear.

If there is no tissue in the bone marrow responsible for the reproduction of blood cells, aplastic anemia may occur. This kind of subject people who have received any kind of radiation.

Congenital spherocytic anemia refers to a hereditary disease. In this case, the cells take a rounded shape, destroying the spleen. With this form, kidney stones or spleen may grow.

The disease can trigger various factors. According to the pathogenesis in medicine there are four forms of anemia:

  • hemolytic species
  • post-hemorrhagic,
  • in short supply,
  • hypoplastic.

The rapid death of red blood cells causes a hemolytic form of anemia. The second type is associated with severe blood loss. Lack of vitamins and mineral trace elements provokes deficient anemia. The third type is hard tolerated by the sick. It is associated with an anomaly of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow.

Feature and Symptoms

If you have the following symptoms, you should contact a specialist:

  • weakness in the body and dizziness,
  • skin takes on a pale hue
  • severe fatigue
  • change in CP and leukocytes,
  • regular headaches and drowsiness,
  • sudden weight loss
  • sleep disturbance, severe shortness of breath,
  • menstruation is not stable,
  • low hemoglobin
  • reduced red blood cell count
  • heart disease.

Similar symptoms are inherent to nonspecific features. There are several causes of anemia:

  • an abnormality of red blood cells produced by the bone marrow,
  • prolonged bleeding
  • a short lifespan of red blood cells (hemolysis).

The first reason. The basis of anemia lies in the violation or reduction of the red blood cell level. Associated with the disease:

  • kidney abnormality
  • protein depletion
  • oncology,
  • endocrine insufficiency
  • chronic infections.

The second reason is prolonged bleeding. This form is especially characteristic in the period of labor and injury. In addition to iron, all the key elements of erythrocytes can be restored. For this reason, chronic blood loss causes anemia.

The third reason. Lack of beneficial vital elements leads to a reduction in red blood cells.

The fourth reason. The causative agent of anemia is hemolysis - abnormal work of red blood cells, in other words, their anomaly. The destruction of red blood cells provokes a violation of hemoglobin or a change in the function of internal organs. Spleen disease can also cause hemolysis.

What are the degrees of the disease?

According to the pathogenesis of anemia has a working category. This is what laboratory technicians in the clinical department take into account. In medical practice, the degree of disease is determined by four indicators:

  • light, medium and heavy - they are determined by the severity of the disease,
  • color indicator (CPU)
  • serum iron content
  • erythrocyte diameter (SDE) - the average is taken.

The division of the disease into a classification allows you to make the correct diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

There are three types of anemia - light (hemoglobin less than 100 g / l, red blood cells less than 3 T / l), medium (from 100 to 66 g / l, 3 - 2 T / l) and severe (hemoglobin less than 66 g / l) .

The blood CP determine three degrees of anemia:

  • normochromic (color of the indicator is from 0.8 to 1.05),
  • hypochromic (1.05).

In the first case, the level of hemoglobin is normal, in the second - lowered, and in the third - increased. Each degree has its own type of disease. Normal chromic anemia - post-hemorrhagic and hemolytic. Hypochromic - iron deficiency, chronic post-hemorrhagic thalassemia. Hyperchromic is deficient and a disease associated with a lack of folic acid.

The following types of anemia are diagnosed with SDE:

  • normocytic (from 7.2 to 8.0 microns),
  • microcytic (9.5).

In normocytic anemia, erythrocytes have a normal diameter, in microcytic - reduced, in megaloblastic - increased.

The level of serum iron disease is diagnosed as:

  • normosideremic (from 9.0 to 31.3 µmol / l),
  • hypersidemic (more than 32),
  • hyposideremic (less than 9.0).

The first type is post-hemorrhagic anemia, the second type is hemolytic and deficient, the third is iron deficient, post-hemorrhagic (chronic) and thalassemia.

You know the types and signs of anemia. Now you will learn how they manifest themselves and what modifications in the body have to face?

All about post-hemorrhagic anemia

This type of disease can be expressed in chronic and acute form. Chronic anemia occurs with prolonged bleeding in small doses. The acute form progresses very quickly during large blood loss.

Symptoms of post-hemorrhagic anemia manifest as follows:

  • pale complexion
  • dizziness,
  • periodic loss of consciousness
  • rapid pulse,
  • body temperature drops below normal
  • protruding cold sweat
  • regular nausea and vomiting.

With this type of blood loss is approximately 30%. Such an indicator is dangerous to human life.

For the diagnosis should pass the appropriate clinical analysis. The reticulocyte index exceeds 11%, immature erythrocytes acquire an abnormal appearance.

Therapy of acute post-hemorrhagic anemia is only stationary and is aimed at restoring the normal form of the elements, of good blood circulation, and to maintain the established indicators. The initial task is to stop the bleeding.

Symptoms of chronic post-hemorrhagic anemia:

  • odor intolerance,
  • skin takes on a pale color
  • taste preferences change
  • pastos legs
  • skin becomes dry and rough
  • swelling of the face
  • abundant hair loss
  • nail plate breaks down.

In addition to the main symptoms, shortness of breath, weakness in the body, regular dizziness and nausea can occur, and the pulse is above normal. But also iron deficiency causes involuntary urination and glossitis. The level of acidity drops significantly.

The disease is diagnosed by color, number and shape of red blood cells. In the chronic post-hemorrhagic form, they are slightly colored, oval in shape and have a tiny size. The number of leukocytes is reduced. The causes of this condition are the following factors:

  • tumors
  • gastrointestinal disease, liver and kidney,
  • roundworm,
  • uterine bleeding,
  • anomaly of the blood coagulation system.

Therapy occurs in stages. First of all, it is necessary to identify the cause of blood loss and eliminate it.Then develop the right diet, filling it with products that are rich in useful items. But also the doctor will prescribe the appropriate drugs.

All about hemolytic anemia

In this case, red blood cells are more destroyed than produced. Hemolytic anemia is hereditary and acquired. Symptoms:

  • enlarged liver
  • fever and chills appear,
  • spleen increases in size,
  • urine becomes dark color
  • bilirubin density is not normal.

Hereditary hemolytic anemia is of two types: thalassemia and sickle cell. The latter is caused by an anomaly of the hemoglobin molecule, which is formed into a spindle-shaped crystal, giving the sickle form to the erythrocytes. Symptoms:

  • hemoglobin appears in the urine,
  • vision is impaired,
  • spleen becomes larger than its size
  • there is a disease of Botkin,
  • hemolytic crises (oxygen deficiency).

The disease is diagnosed by clinical research. The blood test shows a small amount of hemoglobin (from 50 to 80 g / l), and erythrocytes (from 1 to 2 T / l), a high growth of reticulocytes (over 30%).

In the treatment of sickle cell anemia, it is very important not to allow a hemolytic crisis, therefore the only way out is red blood cell transfusion.

Thalassemia

The disease appears as a result of the disturbance of the red blood cell form and the rate of hemoglobin formation. Thalassemia is a curable genetic disease. But it is possible to alleviate the condition. Symptoms:

  • skin becomes jaundiced,
  • mental retardation
  • weak physical form
  • enlarged liver
  • cranial deformity
  • the spleen is large,
  • hemosiderosis,
  • eyes become narrow.

Clinicians detect target erythrocytes, hemoglobin density is reduced to 20 g / l, the number of erythrocytes - to 1T / l. In addition, the number of leukocytes and platelets decreases.

Types of Thalassemia

In medical practice, there are three types of anemia: hemolytic, immune, non-immune. But one of the important types is iron-refractory anemia.

The latter type occurs due to lack of enzymes involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin. The iron index remains normal. The main reason is the improper digestibility of this element.

Symptoms of iron refractory anemia:

  • frequent headaches and shortness of breath,
  • tinnitus and regular dizziness,
  • drowsiness,
  • painful palpitations,
  • weakness and sleep disturbance.

With a high blood content may develop hemosiderosis (iron deposition due to its excess).

Iron-refractory anemia is diagnosed through a clinical analysis study. In this type of disease, the CP is reduced to 0.4–0.6. Red blood cells have a different shape and size, their number does not correspond to the norm. In addition, sideroblasts are formed in the bone marrow - some cells around which a rim of iron is formed, their number can reach up to 70% at a rate of 2.0 to 4.6%.

Experts have not yet found a way to cure this disease. However, there is an alternative - substitution therapy by infusion of red blood cells.

Causes affecting the development of other anemias

Consider the causes and treatment of other types of anemia. Provokes B12 deficiency anemia, an insufficient amount of vitamin. Usually this element enters the human body with food. Lack of vitamin provokes the disease. Most often, deficient anemia occurs in vegetarians and pregnant women, as well as people with oncology and gastrointestinal tract.

  • slow response
  • numbness of limbs
  • staggering gait
  • partial memory loss
  • difficulty swallowing food
  • an increase in the size of the liver.

Clinically, deficiency of B12 anemia is diagnosed. In the blood, giant-sized red blood cells are formed - short lived. They have a bright color and pear shape.

The treatment takes place in stages. First of all, you need to adjust the gastrointestinal tract system through a balanced diet rich in vitamin B12.

There are many types of anemia. We reviewed the most basic. The manifestation of any signs of anemia requires an urgent visit to the doctor. He will make the correct diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment. In addition, experts recommend regularly donating blood for hemoglobin. Life depends on health.

Watch the video: Different Types of Anemia (January 2020).