The mollusk on the skin is often called the "infectious mollusk."
This is a kind of special form of viral infection that affects the skin.
The virus quickly penetrates into the basal layer of the epidermis and provokes an excessively rapid division of cellular structures, with the result that round-shaped and small nodules with a umbilical depression in the center are formed on the skin surface.
This destroys a certain number of epidermal cells.
It is worth noting that this is a benign disease. This is due to the fact that the growth of nodules occur in a small place. At the same time in the layers of the epidermis is not observed inflammatory process.
People of different age groups, regardless of gender, suffer from this disease. But this problem is especially relevant in childhood. Namely, for children of preschool age and the elderly (after 60 years).
Kids up to a year almost never become infected with this virus. Doctors explain this by the fact that through the placenta they passed a large amount of maternal antibodies.
Individuals with a weakened immune system, rheumatoid arthritis and receiving cytotoxic drugs or glucocorticoid hormones are particularly affected.
But caution should be exercised and those who are in contact with someone else's skin. For example, massage therapists. In addition, the infection factor does not depend on the location and characteristics of the climate zone.
Each clam looks like a small bump. Pale pink or slightly transparent shade (sometimes with mother-of-pearl shimmer).
As mentioned earlier, the disease causes a virus, which, according to some experts, is a smallpox virus.
Even in the era of active medical research did not manage to get rid of the pathogen. This is attributed to the fact that it remains in the structure of DNA.
But with the help of systemic prevention, and strengthening the immune system, relapses are minimized successfully.
Due to reduced immunity, various clinical manifestations are possible. In this case, the localization zone is different.
It all depends on how the infection process proceeded.
The main causes of molluscum contagiosum:
- Bad environmental situation. This significantly increases the risk of infectious diseases.
- The AIDS epidemic, unfortunately, also increases the number of sick people. Many patients who have been diagnosed with HIV have contagious dermatosis.
- Active sex life, which can be expressed in promiscuity with regards to sexual partners.
- Densely populated areas - one of the factors of transmission of the virus through contact-household means.
According to statistics, the virus is often found in children's institutions.
Also detected in adults during a medical examination. Contagious mollusk in babies can affect every part of the skin.
When infected in the domestic environment it is difficult to determine the zone of occurrence of rash.
Infection can occur even due to the use of some items.
For example, children often do not even suspect that they already carry viruses. Therefore, molluscum contagiosum is transmitted from one child to another during games.
How does the infection appear. Main symptoms
Infection with the virus occurs in various ways.
Possible as a result of sexual intercourse, and domestic infection.
The incubation period of molluscum contagiosum lasts from two weeks to several months.
After the end of this stage, the manifestation of the main symptoms begins.
The clinic disease is quite pronounced. Localization of molluscum contagiosum:
- external genitals,
- hip area
- buttocks or lower abdomen.
Raised nodules appear on healthy skin. They have a hemispherical shape. The color coincides with the natural color of the skin or a little pinker than her, single or multiple.
In the middle of the hemisphere there is an impression slightly resembling a human navel.
The nodules are smooth to the touch and only slightly different from the natural color of the skin. Around these formations, the skin does not usually change. But sometimes the bezel is inflamed around them. The person especially does not test special discomfort.
Significant increase in manifestations is observed already after about 3 weeks. And with a slight pressure allocated cheesy tube.
It should be borne in mind that in most cases the symptoms can go away by themselves in six months. Clinical manifestations are nodules of a dense type, sometimes of a light pearl shade.
Painful sensations may not be observed at all. Often these are small skin rashes that are located in certain small areas.
Such nodules can have different sizes. This greatly complicates the diagnosis. But the specialist will immediately understand what the problem is. Because the symptoms are quite specific. If you press on the manifestation, a slightly whitish liquid will appear.
In some situations, patients complain of itchy skin. It should not exclude the risk of a bacterial infection. Few know, but the symptoms may appear for several years. The manifestation of these bubbles is possible anywhere. But on the palms and feet, such formations are rare. Most often, the “zone of the cloister” of the mollusk is the face and neck.
The first sign that should alert this small seal on the skin. Then there are other nodules.
In the case of small sizes, they merge into a single seal. It can be 1 cm.
Therefore, not to notice it is quite difficult. Already at this stage it is important to immediately consult a doctor.
As for the general malaise and fever, this is rare.
Curious fact: In addition to the appearance and slight itch, clam on the skin does not cause discomfort. Therefore, the child can not guess about his illness. After the course of therapy, there are no scars on the skin. There is only a small depigmentation. In some situations, there is inflammation of the skin around the nodules. In this regard, the use of antibiotics is important.
Main transmission options
The virus that causes the disease is transmitted from one person to another. Representatives of the animal world are not carriers of orthopoxvirus. There are 3 main types of infection:
- Because of sexual intercourse with an already infected person,
- through the water,
- contact-household method.
The last case occurs most often. You can become infected through tactile touches (hugs, travel in public transport, massage of a sick subject). This explains why children are often treated for this disease.
Indirect contact pathway is dangerous, because a person cannot be sure that infection will not occur even in the absence of obvious signs (an incubation stage is possible).
You can just go to an unfamiliar room, sit on the sofa and already become a carrier of the virus. After all, it is wonderfully preserved in various materials. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out thorough disinfection in housing and public places.
Another situation is frequent change of sexual partners. In this case, the person takes responsibility for their health. You need to understand that contraception is not able to protect against all diseases.
In this case, even hugs will be enough to ensure health problems. Although it is predominantly the foci of the virus are located in the genitals, therefore, a condom can still protect against infection.
Waterway is often not separated into a separate group. In fact, infection occurs through water, but viral particles enter it from an infected subject. Therefore, many experts are inclined to believe that this is also a contact-everyday path.
A similar outcome of events is possible when visiting pools, saunas and public beaches.
In addition, a person who has previously been ill with a contagious mollusk may have repeated self-infection. This happens when the friction of the skin. But regardless of the method of infection, the clinical symptoms are very similar.
Some people have immunity to this infection.
How is the disease
From the beginning of infection to the onset of early clinical symptoms, it takes from 2 weeks to 6 months. Then there are small nodules, which subsequently increase in diameter.
Often these nodules disappear by themselves within 12 weeks. But medicine has known cases of persisting symptoms for several years. Of course, without proper treatment.
In addition, the difficulty lies in the fact that until all these rashes have disappeared, there is repeated self-infection, so the disease can drag on for a long time.
Often people decide to remove the nodules cosmetologically, without treatment. This is wrong, as the virus is in the body, and new formations will appear.
The disease is triggered by orthopoxvirus, which belongs to the family Poxviridae, the subfamily Chordopoxviridae, and the genus Molluscipoxvirus. Such a virus is related to variola, varicella and vaccination viruses.
Scientists distinguish 4 types of orthopoxvirus (MCV-1, MCV-2, MCV-3, MCV-4), but molluscum contagiosum in most cases is caused by viruses 1 and 2 types.
In the case of abundant accumulation of mollusk on the skin or when they occur in different parts of the skin, we can talk about immunodeficiency. In this case, it is better to seek help from an immunologist.
You also need to be vigilant when bubbles appear on the eyelid. This is often fraught with visual impairment and loss of hair follicles of the eyelashes.
Symptomatology is quite specific, so when symptoms appear, diagnosis is not difficult. For example, a rash with an umbilicous impression and cortical contents is typical of molluscum contagiosum.
A dermatologist after examining the nodules can immediately make the correct diagnosis.
It is rarely required additional examinations. To do this, take a small amount of skin from the tumor. Further, it is studied under a microscope.
Such biopsy bioptana thoroughly shows all the features of the disease. The nodules of a contagious mollusk are often confused with similar formations, which happens in certain diseases.
Among them are the following formations:
- Flat warts. Usually they appear on the face or back of the brushes. They are small in diameter, smooth.
- Keratoacanthoma - education convex shape. They are usually hemispherical and slightly reddish in color.
- Miliums are small white dots located in the sebaceous glands of the skin. They occur if an excessive amount of dense sebum is secreted. It does not stand out completely from the layers of the skin and the pore blockage begins.
- When scabies appear on the skin small pink papules.
- Basal cell carcinoma really resembles a clam on the skin. They are also light pearly in color and protrude above the surface of the skin. The main difference is a single location. But the "infectious mollusk" just occurs in the plural. And these rashes are nearby.
But the risk of confusing this disease with warts or with lichen red is minimal.
Cause of illness
The causative agent is the VKM contagious mollusc virus (in English MCV) of the family of pokso viruses (Poxviridae), it is also called Molluscum Poxviridae. The virus is more active and more often affects children due to unformed immunity and structural features of the skin, but it may well settle on the skin of adults. A total of 4 types of viruses differ today, while all of these viruses cause skin damage with typical elements:
- 1-2 types - are more common in adults or adolescents in the sexually active age, they are mainly transmitted through unprotected sex.
- 3-4 types of virus are more typical for children, and are mainly transmitted through household contacts.
Approximately 80% of all people with this infection are children, and:
- children under one year of age do not suffer from this infection due to innate immune mechanisms,
- from year to 4-5 years - cases are most often recorded
- between the ages of 5 and 14 - infection occurs less frequently
- from the age of 15 years and in adults the genital forms of molluscum contagiosum are more common.
The virus belongs to DNA-containing viruses, therefore, it is difficult to form an immunity and can be kept for a long time in the body of children or adults, without giving a clinic. The virus can be activated and begin rapid development with a weakened immune system or with the presence of provoking factors:
- severe diseases
- immunodeficiencies, HIV
- cancer pathology
- long-term treatment with hormonal drugs
- skin lesions
- hormonal disruptions or adjustment (pregnancy, etc.)
It is not uncommon for molluscum contagiosum to be confused or combined with another skin disease - the human papillomavirus, which also gives skin growths like warts and growths. Features mollusk is a uniform type of rash and lack of education in the area of the palms and feet of children and adults.
How can you get infected?
The virus and its properties are still under study, so it is not known for certain how long the virus itself can be infectious and how long the rash will be dangerous to others, therefore, today it is believed that having a rash a priori makes a child or adult infectious and dangerous to others.
Among domestic and Western scientists, there is still no unity in opinions about this virus, except that it is transmitted through household contact, i.e., from person to person through direct and indirect contacts. It is this that once again underlines the importance of having personal belongings - towels, linen and hygiene products.
Molluscum contagiosum is a typical disease of humans, animals cannot hurt them or carry them to humans, therefore:
- you can get infected either directly by contact with the skin of a sick person
- either from his personal belongings and the objects to which he touched, and on which remained viral particles
- increased population infection in a warm climate zone with a humid climate
- in areas with high population density, poor medicine and poor sanitation (close and frequent conditions for contacts between children and adults, as well as failure to follow basic hygiene rules)
On average, the virus "sits" in the skin from 2 to 8 weeks, which can be considered a kind of incubation period for molluscum contagiosum.
What increases the risk of infection?
- Skin damage - infection occurs if the virus penetrates into minor and even microscopic skin damage (peeling, dry skin, abrasions, scratches).
- Bathing - especially contributes to this maceration of the skin (swelling) when bathing in ponds and pools.
- Non-observance of personal hygiene and use of other people's personal hygiene products (towel, washcloth ...)
- Athletes - athletes involved in swimming, wrestling or gymnastics often suffer from clam, there is more frequent contact with viruses (close, or through water and objects).
Many people are in contact with the virus without getting sick of them, because they are immune, and then the virus does not penetrate the skin and the rash does not occur. If there is no immunity to the virus, while the local immunobiological protection of the skin is reduced, the viruses penetrate into the skin and begin to multiply there, preparing to give rise to rashes after a while.
The virus infects only humans, is not tolerated by animals and is close to smallpox viruses.There are 4 types of molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV-1, MCV-2, MCV-3, MCV-4). Of these, MCV-1 is most common, and MCV-2 usually occurs in adults and is often sexually transmitted. It can also be transmitted through water (for example, a pool). Inside the formation there is a fluid through which it is transferred and multiplies.
The molluscum contagiosum infects a virus (molluscum contagiosum virus), which is included in the poxvirus group. This virus passes from person to person through direct contact and is most common in children. In addition, they can become infected during sexual intercourse, the most susceptible to the virus are people with impaired functioning of the immune system. Molluscum contagiosum can spread during scratching or rubbing of the affected skin.
The skin formations of a contagious mollusk are sometimes confused with the formations caused by the acrohordon virus.
Symptoms Causes and risk factors
The causative agent of molluscum contagiosum is an orthopoxivirus belonging to the family Poxviridae. The same family includes viruses that cause chickenpox and smallpox, as well as monkeypox. There are 4 strains of molluscum contagiosum virus - MCV-1, MCV-2, MCV-3, MCV-4, the first two are the most common (MCV-1 and MCV-2), and children usually have MCV-1, and MCV-2 is more common in adults.
The virus is transmitted from person to person in a contact-domestic way (through the use of common bath accessories, toys, underwear, close skin-to-skin contact). Often, infecting children with contagious shellfish occurs when visiting a pool. Inoculation of the virus contributes to microtrauma of the skin, it is for this reason that molluscum contagiosum often affects children suffering from skin diseases such as eczema or prickly heat.
After infection, the virus penetrates into the keratinocytes of the epidermis, where it begins to actively synthesize its DNA. Further, it inhibits the activity of T-lymphocytes, which explains the slow production of antibodies by the body to it.
Children with molluscum contagiosum are not recommended to visit the pool, public baths. Compliance with these rules greatly reduces the transmission of infection from a sick child to other people.
There are a number of diseases that increase the risk of contagious molluscum in children. These include:
- immunodeficiency states of different etiology, including those after infectious diseases, as well as HIV infection,
- allergic diseases
- systemic (autoimmune) diseases.
The risk group includes children receiving therapy with corticosteroids and / or cytotoxic drugs - that is, drugs that suppress the immune system.
The incubation period for molluscum contagiosum in children lasts from 15 to 180 days. After its completion, single rounded nodules of dense consistency, ranging in size from millet grain to large pea with a slightly depressed center, form on the skin. The skin color above them is usually not changed, but in some cases it becomes slightly pinkish or pinkish-orange, sometimes acquiring a waxy or pearly luster.
Over time, the number of nodules increases. Separate elements can merge with each other, which leads to the appearance of large-sized elements, which are hemispherical papules with a depressed central part. If you press on the knot with tweezers with a jaw, then a small amount of a pasty white mass will stand out from it. It consists of lymphocytes and dead cells. When examining this mass under a microscope, it is possible to notice the presence of rounded inclusions, which received the name of mollusk-like bodies and gave the name to this disease.
The elements of molluscum contagious in children are arranged in a chaotic manner, and their number can be in the hundreds. Initially, the nodules are located in the area of the virus. Later they appear on the skin of the upper body, neck, face and hands. Involuntary scratching promotes further self-infection and an increase in the number of new rashes.
Contagious mollusk in children in most cases is not accompanied by the appearance of any unpleasant sensations. Only rarely can there be a slight infiltration of the skin and a slight itching. There are no general symptoms.
The skin rash with an atypical form of a contagious mollusk in children can be very small (miliary form), in this case there is no concave center in them. Children with debilitating leukemia, atopic dermatitis, HIV infection may develop a profuse (generalized) form of the disease.
Treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children
The difficulty of treating a contagious mollusk in children is due to the fact that the causative agent of the disease is a DNA-containing virus. To date, there is no possibility to rid the body of it completely, that is, the disease belongs to chronic pathologies. However, to prevent the occurrence of relapses is quite possible. To do this, it is necessary to carry out activities aimed at the general strengthening of the body of children and increasing the immune defense:
- normalization of the day regimen
- balanced diet,
- regular stay in the fresh air
- course taking multivitamin preparations.
Treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children involves the use of antiviral agents. Basically, they are applied topically in the form of ointments, creams, and only in severe cases (the profuse form of infection) are indications for systemic antiviral therapy.
At the present time, the use of the contagious mollusk in children is extremely rare, since with time the rash disappears from the skin itself. If necessary, the removal can be made by one of the following methods:
- Curettage It is performed under local application anesthesia. At one time, it is possible to remove a significant amount of skin nodules, since the procedure is not too painful and less traumatic. Curettage can be performed no more than once a month. Full disposal of the elements of the rash is achieved in several sessions.
- Cryodestruction Removal of molluscum contagiosum in children through exposure to ultra-low temperature, provided by liquid nitrogen.
- Removal by laser.
With a small amount of therapeutic rash, irradiation of the affected skin with ultraviolet radiation can be achieved.
Also, in order to remove molluscum contagiosum in children, a new technique is used, consisting of applying tuberculin to the affected skin. Before treatment, children must receive the BCG vaccine, and during therapy they are prescribed Isoprinosine. Due to the fact that the method of treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children with applications of tuberculin is used recently, there is still not enough data on its effectiveness and safety in the long-term period.
Antibiotics for molluscum contagiosum in children are prescribed only in the case of the addition of a secondary purulent infection.
Dr. Komarovsky on the treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children
Many pediatricians, including EO Komarovsky, believe that the molluscum contagiosum in children does not require any medical manipulations. According to Dr. Komarovsky, over time, the child's body copes with the infection on its own, and the disease in 6-18 months goes into a remission stage, which in many cases lasts a lifetime. To speed up this process, restorative measures are recommended, and to prevent self-infection and spread of the rash, it is enough to treat the elements with antiviral ointments. In case of itching, antihistamine medication is justified to prevent scratching of the affected skin.
E. O. Komarovsky argues that the removal of contagious mollusk in children by any method known to date to avoid the further spread of infection is impossible. In addition, the artificial removal of rash elements often leads to the formation of coarse scars on the baby’s skin that remain for life. If skin eruptions pass by themselves, this is not observed.
Possible consequences and complications
Complications in molluscum contagiosum are extremely rare. Most often they occur in children with weakened immunity and are associated with the addition of a secondary infection at the site of scratching, which causes the development of purulent complications (abscesses, phlegmon).
The prognosis for molluscum contagiosum in children is favorable. When joining purulent complications on the skin can later remain rough scars and spots with impaired pigmentation.
Molluscum contagiosum in children does not pose a serious health hazard and in most cases does not require treatment, as it is prone to spontaneous resolution for 6-24 months.
Given that the disease most often affects children with a weakened immune system, a medical examination of the child is required in order to establish the cause of immunodeficiency. The presence of a profuse form of the disease or giant contagious mollusks is the basis for conducting an HIV test.
Prevention of molluscum contagiosum in children includes:
- careful observance of the rules of personal hygiene and home hygiene (using only personal washcloths and towels, weekly change of bed linen, daily change of underwear, daily shower),
- isolation of the sick child from the children's team,
- regular preventive examinations of the children's skin in organized groups (kindergartens, schools),
- mandatory shower after visiting the pool, public bath.
Parents should regularly inspect the skin of their children. At emergence on it the rashes reminding a contagious mollusk, consultation of the dermatologist is necessary. If the diagnosis is confirmed, separate dishes, towels, toys are provided for the child. Close physical contact between him and other family members should not be allowed. Children with molluscum contagiosum are not recommended to visit the pool, public baths. Compliance with these rules greatly reduces the transmission of infection from a sick child to other people.
Molluscum Contagious: Specific Features in Adult Men and Women
The mollusk on the skin in women shows some specific symptoms. It is worth remembering that in the case of pregnancy, this problem does not pose a serious threat to health. On the development of the child does not affect.
As for the male, the only feature is the localization of the formations in the penis area (see photo below).
This complicates the process of sexual intercourse. But in women the defeat of the mucous membranes of the vagina does not occur. But it happens on the skin around the genitals. It also brings discomfort, but it is much easier to tolerate than men.
What are the features depending on localization
Contagious mollusk on the eyelid should be removed without waiting for the natural extinction. This is necessary in order to avoid damage to the mucous membrane of the eye. Conjunctivitis or more serious eye diseases may begin.
But on the face is better to wait for the complete disappearance. Certain cosmetic interventions can leave marks on the skin. But after the natural disappearance of any skin defects will not.
On the genitals, these formations must be disposed of immediately. This will not only facilitate sexual intercourse, but also minimizes the infection of the partner.
Contagious mollusk in children
Mollusks on the body of a child are more often than in other age groups. Symptomatology is not much different than how the disease in adults.
Cases of group infection.
This happens because children contact daily with a lot of people. They love to play games with tactile contact.
Children often lead in all sorts of sections. As a result, infection is a contact-household way.
The difficulty is that children cannot control all their actions. Due to scratching the number of bubbles increases. In addition, there is a repeated self-infection.
A secondary infection may occur. In this case, long-term antibiotics are required.
Mollusks on the body of a child are located in various places. But often it is the belly, face and neck. On the genitals in babies can occur if the bacteria were already on the fingers, and then the child touched the genitals.
Diagnosis is not very different from that carried out for adults. Signs are pronounced. A dermatologist makes a diagnosis based on a simple examination. Sometimes take scrapings from the nodules.
If the area of the eyelid is not affected and the genitals are advised not to resort to therapy. Literally in a few months, the signs disappear by themselves. The human body produces immunity to the virus that causes the disease. But it takes time. But after removing the nodules may remain traces.
However, in some cases, doctors still advised to remove the nodules. Children tend to comb them, which leads to a protracted form of the disease. In addition, concomitant diseases are possible.
Removal is carried out using liquid nitrogen or agents designed to remove various warts.
Often one of the active ingredients is salicylic acid. But still, experts are not in a hurry to remove such formations in order not to leave traces, and it is better to ensure immunity to this disease. The body itself must resist viruses of this kind. Complications are rare.
There are 4 ways to remove clam on the skin.:
- immune therapy.
With the mechanical method using a scalpel or a special device. This method has a significant drawback: anesthesia is absent, so this is quite a painful process.
After the rash is burned with iodine. This removal option is not recommended for children.
Laser removal is a modern and popular method. Despite the high cost, it is recommended by most experts.
The skin is injured minimally and it does not take much time. No discomfort. Relapse is minimized. But we must not forget that you need to disinfect clothes and household items.
Immune therapy is preferable in case of formations on the skin in children. It is based on antiviral ointments. After the course of treatment, the formations disappear and the immunity is strengthened.
Antibiotic treatment is undesirable. It is necessary in advanced stages with a large amount of rash and severe reddening of the skin.
The most gentle treatment option is immunotherapy. There is no serious load on the body and pain.
Cause and mechanism of infection
The cause of the contagious mollusk is a virus from the smallpox group, from the poxvirus family. In the international taxonomy of viruses, it is called Molluscum contagiosum virus: link.
- Only the person is ill. Animals do not get sick!
- Scientists have discovered several types of molluscum contagiosum virus.
- The source of the virus is the skin of the patient.
- The virus is stable in the environment.
- The virus is transmitted by contact from a sick person (which is often in children's groups). Infection can also occur when using hygiene items or clothing of a sick person, in a swimming pool, in a bath, on a beach, etc.
- The incubation period (the period from infection to the appearance of symptoms on the skin) is from 2 weeks to 6 months.
- Predisposing factor to the disease: a decrease in general and / or local immunity in the skin.In HIV patients, molluscum contagiosum occurs very frequently (up to 15% of patients with HIV infection).
- Through microtrauma of the skin, scratching, the virus penetrates into the superficial epithelium of the skin (into the cells of the epidermis), integrates into them and begins to multiply. At the same time, the activity of immune cells in human skin is suppressed for a certain time, which also leads to the rapid development of the virus.
- Children and teenagers are ill mainly.
- In adults, when a mollusk appears on the body, a reason should be sought for a decrease in local or general immunity. This may be diabetes or atopic dermatitis. This may be chemotherapy for blood cancer (leukemia) or HIV infection. This may be aggressive antibiotic therapy or the use of ointments with corticosteroids.
- After recovery, the virus is not found in the human body. Immunity is unstable. Therefore, after a few years, a person can become infected again.
Symptoms and clinic
1) The main symptom of molluscum contagiosum: the appearance of many rounded formations on the skin.
These formations (papules) are from 1 to 5 mm in size, of a spherical shape with a depressed center. Also called - navel-like (from the word navel) or crater-shaped impression. Small formations in the initial stage do not have a depressed center and are similar to ordinary ulcers (see the photo).
2) Itching almost never happens. There is no pain either.
3) Localization - the whole body: the skin of the face, neck, torso, limbs. With the sexual way of infection - around the genitals, pubic, thighs. Never on the skin of the palms and soles of the feet.
4) The number of papules - from several pieces to several hundred.
5) When pressing on papule, a thick liquid and a curd in the center is released.
Attention: There should be no general reaction - no temperature, no headache, no weakness.
6) Often, atypical species of mollusks appear, that is, unlike the classical form of education:
- sore and ulcerated papules
Contagious mollusk in adults - features
1) Equally often both women and men are sick.
2) Be sure to find out the predisposing factor for its appearance in adults. Why did he appear?
3) In adults, the frequent location of the contagious mollusk is the genitals and inguinal region.
In women: pubic and genital lips. In men - on the penis and pubic. In this case, it has similarities with both the initial stage of genital warts and pustular diseases in the genital area. Such an arrangement is due to sexual transmission.
4) In treatment, it is necessary to correct the general disease, which has led to a decrease in immunity and activation of the virus:
- treatment of diabetes,
- correction of dysbiosis,
- correction of drugs that suppress the immune system (cytostatics, corticosteroids, including topically in the form of ointments)
treatment of HIV infection.
5) The variant is quite possible: the child picked up the clam in the kindergarten - the adults followed. It is necessary to examine all family members at once.
6) Treatment of pregnant women with molluscum contagiosum differs from other women: it is necessary to abandon the use of antiviral and immune drugs, not to use cauterizing agents such as super cleanliness. The only treatment for pregnant women is the removal of molluscum papules.
Treatment in children and adults
In children and most adults without treatment, the symptoms of molluscum contagiosum pass away as soon as antiviral immunity is formed. Term - in 4-6 months, sometimes 1-2 years.
Treat mollusks on the body can only be medically indicated: trauma, inflammation. Cosmetic indications - only at the request of the patient.
Directions of treatment of molluscum contagiosum:
1) Removal of formations
2) Local treatment
3) General treatment
4) Treatment of complications (inflammation, allergies, ulceration of the skin)
Removal of skin mollusk
In the opinion of most dermatologists, removal of skin lesions is still the most effective method for treating skin clam.
1) Removal with tweezers or a surgical spoon (curette)
- Previously, the doctor produces local anesthesia of the skin with Emla cream or other surface anesthetic.
- The doctor squeezes the branches of the tweezers and squeezes the contents of the papule (as in the video below). If necessary, the small cavity is scraped out with a pair of tweezers or with a curette (Volkmann’s sharp spoon).
If the papules are small, then no scraping is needed.
We remind: it is not recommended to do it yourself. Rubbing the skin with a napkin, thereby spreading and rubbing viruses into the adjacent areas of the skin, you thereby spread the infection even further.
The doctor cauterizes with the electrocoagulator (electric knife) papule. Subsequently, after such treatment can remain scars.
The doctor burns papula with liquid nitrogen. Cells with the virus are frozen and die. With proper conduct of cryodestruction, there is no scar on the skin. But the procedure can be painful.
The doctor evaporates the mollusks papula with a laser beam. Also, no scars remain.
Folk methods at home
Folk remedies against molluscum contagiosum are ineffective. Therefore, they can not be recommended by a dermatologist for the treatment of this disease in either children or adults.
Remember: The cause of the mollusk is a virus, a predisposing factor - a decrease in immunity.
Therefore, from popular methods should be used fortifying immunity techniques and antiviral agents.
2) Antiviral plants.
Crush a clove of garlic in a garlic dish and put on papules for a few minutes. There will be a slight burning sensation.
Apply 3-4 times a day also during the entire period of rashes.
You can not apply, but simply lubricate the skin.
- Lubrication of papules with a solution of potassium permanganate, fucorcin, an alcoholic solution of iodine or brilliant green.
Ineffective method, since such antiseptics practically do not exert their effect on the virus of the contagious mollusk. The only use of such solutions is the lubrication of wounds at home after the removal of mollusks with tweezers or a curette.
- Celandine. Celandine juice is poisonous, has antiviral and antitumor effects.
Mollusks smear celandine juice 3-4 times a day throughout the entire period of skin rash.
- Lubrication of papules with the juice of the leaves of the bird cherry, the infusion of a string, calendula - these folk remedies have a very weak effect.
Super Cleaner, Molluscum and Moltrex.
In Russia for sale lotion called Molus. The drug is not a drug. This is a mixture of plant extracts + potassium alkali. Causes a chemical burn of the skin, resulting in mollusk papules die. Efficiency with molluscum contagiosum is low.
MOLUTREX is the French analogue of molluscine. In fact, MOLUTREX is pure potassium hydroxide, without additives, that is, caustic alkali, the French equivalent of Super Cleaner. Causes a chemical burn of the skin. It does not affect viruses.
Super Cleaner is a completely different drug than the herb celandine. This is a set of alkalis. It leads to a chemical burn of the skin, as a result of which the papules of the mollusk die off. Read more about Super Cleaner.
When treating at home with super cleaners, molutrex and molustin, one should be extremely careful not to cause a deep burn of the skin and the formation of scars afterwards. You can not use cauterizing drugs to remove shellfish on the face, on the labia in women and the penis in men.
Where does clam come from in children?
Infection with molluscum contagiosum in children occurs through contact with sick children or adults, or through the things of these patients, common objects. So, you can get sick:
- upon contact with a child who has mollusks on the skin (group d / kindergarten, less often in a camp, school)
- during sleep on bedding infected
- when playing with toys infected
- when using a shared towel, washcloth
- when swimming in pools or open ponds where sick children bathed
- when playing in the sandbox where sick children played
In the presence of viral eruptions, children comb or scratch them, spreading the mollusk through their bodies and infecting the surrounding objects, for which they touch hands. Viruses are relatively resistant and can be stored on objects for some time.
For adult women and men, these paths are less relevant, they have sexual intercourse as the main way to “pick up” a mollusk. And the localization of lesions will be their respective, intimate zones.
How does externally contagious mollusc manifest?
The only and obvious sign of an infection is the appearance of skin tumors:
- The rash develops gradually, with small and barely noticeable spots on the skin the size of a pinhead.
- This spot usually does not rise much above the skin and has a flesh color.
- Slowly, completely asymptomatic and painlessly, this formation on the skin grows, turning into a more or less large growth, “wart” or “pimple” in the size from a couple of millimeters to the size of a pea.
- The skin over this formation is as if stretched, in the upper part of this mollusk there are often “navels”, a depression in the form of a dimple.
- Rashes, fully ripened and grown, have the appearance of small, round lumps or balls of pink, beige or white, milky flowers can sometimes gleam, like pearls under the skin, shine or shine.
- Inside these formations is a special substance, similar to pus or curd, which contains dying epithelial cells interspersed with viruses and lymphocytes.
- Mollusks can grow alone, or they can form groups, rows, or even extensive fields.
They can be localized anywhere, with the exception of the feet and palms, in these parts of the body formations never happens, and this is their key difference from the human papillomavirus.
In adolescents in the sexually active period and adults localization is typical.
- on the genitals (external)
- on the inner thighs
- in the crotch
- near the eyes and mouth.
On average, it grows from one or two to twenty formations that do not cause any discomfort and discomfort. In children, the localization of mollusks can sometimes be accompanied by itchy skin, and children can comb and tear them, spreading viruses. In rare cases, when injuring or scratching, the areas of the mollusks can redden and swell up and become inflamed with the addition of a secondary infection and suppuration. Then requires special active treatment of complications.
How to make a diagnosis?
There are two methods of diagnosis - correct, but requiring effort, and incorrect, but often applicable.
- Incorrect, but, unfortunately, now popular and applicable, is the use of the Internet and photographs with independent diagnosis and the same treatment. This is the wrong approach, because under the mask of a mollusk other diseases can be hidden (smallpox, syphilis, skin tuberculosis, etc.). Therefore, this method, especially in children, should not be used.
- Correct, but requiring a visit to a dermatologist, is a diagnostic method in the clinic. Usually, experienced doctors determine the diagnosis by visual imagery, but often skin scrapings or nodular biopsy are performed to clarify. Microscopy of this fragment is done, and typical mollusk shells are found, leaving no doubt as to the diagnosis. Particularly relevant medical research in the differential diagnosis or the presence of several types of rash at once.
No treatment required
One group of doctors believes that the presence of a contagious mollusk does not require any treatment. The process is painless and does not bring problems other than cosmetic ones, and self-healing will certainly occur over several months, at least up to a period of four years. Often in individuals with strong immunity - adolescents and adults, the mollusk either does not occur at all, or passes relatively quickly - in two or three months.
But it is also known for sure that new ones can form at the place of disappearing formations, and the development cycle of molluscum contagiosum can last up to 18 months or more; a period of four years is called a deadline. After that, the immunity to the virus is formed, and he finally leaves the body of his host.
Methods of treatment, removal of molluscum contagiosum
Today there are no absolutely effective and radical methods of curing the virus. All methods only remove skin growths of a contagious mollusk, as a result of virus reproduction, with virtually no effect on the virus itself. Removal procedures are unpleasant and even painful, especially for toddlers of young age and should be carried out very carefully and delicately. Treat methods of treatment:
- Curettage (scraping, squeezing) with Volkmann's spoon, crushing with tweezers or removing “pearls” with a scalpel
- Freezing - cryotherapy (see wart removal with liquid nitrogen)
- Laser - see laser wart removal
- Chemical removal with ointments or liquids (salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, cantharidin, tretinoin)
- Iodine - long-term treatment of elements with tincture of iodine 5%
- Cimetidine is a blocker of specific histamine receptors, there is evidence of an improvement in the rash situation when using this drug.
These methods are difficult to use in children, they are painful and can burn the skin, leave scars or pigmentation. Therefore, they are used strictly according to indications and very carefully.
Often, the method of treatment and its duration depends on where the growths are located, and how much they are. They are usually removed only if there is discomfort or itching or soreness. Treatment will be especially effective in the initial stage of mollusk occurrence, if only a few rash elements are formed on the skin.
What can not be done with its presence on the skin?
- self-extrusion of mollusks with hands, nails or tweezers - this can only spread the infection throughout the body
- cauterization of mollusks with celandine or garlic - this can lead to the elimination of mollusks and injury to the skin
- combing, raskoryabyvanie mollusks
Any manipulation of the rash should be carried out exclusively by a doctor, he will select the most effective therapy and methods for its implementation.
What precautions to follow?
Based on the knowledge that the contagious mollusk is a contagious disease, and it can exist for a long time in the water of pools, room dust and is transmitted from one person to another, and spreads from the primary focus to other parts of the body, in case of infection, special measures must be taken precautions.
Teach children and do not do it yourself:
- once again do not touch the neoplasm, do not rub or comb the growths
- wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water
- disinfect the affected areas with ordinary antiseptic solutions
- when participating in events using common equipment, contact with people, it is possible to hide rashes under heavy clothing or to close out with waterproof dressings or patches. These dressings need to be changed daily.
- adults can not shave places of growths
- It is important to moisturize dry skin, preventing its injury.
With the observance of these simple rules and precautions for children with molluscum contagiosus, it is quite possible to attend children's institutions (kindergarten or school). Recommendations on the complete isolation of children until the moment of complete recovery from the mollusk are unrealistic and inexpedient, long-term treatment and it is impossible to isolate the child for a long time from others. With hygiene and prevention measures, children can play with other children and participate in activities.
Could there be complications?
The development of molluscum contagiosum in a normal course does not lead to the formation of any problems over time, and often the elements can gradually get off the skin without leaving any traces on it. This can occur even if untreated for about three to four years.
- With the use of some therapies, skin scarring may occur.
- Sometimes an infection can be reactivated, then a large area of skin is affected.
- In the presence of a strongly pronounced weakening of the immunity, the development of a contagious mollusk may take a generalized and pronounced form.
When the elements appear abundantly on the face and body, or become larger, they can be modified externally - the treatment becomes difficult. In such cases, active therapy with drugs is shown, both local effects and for stimulating systemic immunity.
Is it possible to avoid infection?
Of course, you can close at home and plant a child next to you, thus avoiding contact with the outside world and the danger of contracting all kinds of infections, but this is unrealistic and wrong. Children must lead an active life, while respecting the basic rules of hygiene.
It is important to remember that it is quite possible both primary and repeated infection with molluscum contagiosum during contact with infected people. Repeated infections are extremely rare, since it is believed that the immune system is gradually formed to the mollusk. But in order to actively prevent infection, it is worth keeping to the simple rules:
- thoroughly wash hands with soap and water after visiting public places and playing outside in the sand
- after visiting the pool, take a thorough shower with soap
- use only your towel, clothes and personal items, do not share them with other people
- do not touch any skin elements in other people, do not touch the things of such people
- take care of the skin regularly cleansing it, moisturizing and immediately treat all skin wounds with disinfectants.