Low-calorie diet: rules and diet

In an effort to lose weight, many women are ready to go on any test, including sticking to a strict diet. Quite often, slimming people choose short-term diets that can reduce a small amount of weight in three, five or ten days. One of these diets is a low-calorie diet, but its rules are very different from other known methods. Thanks to a drastic reduction in caloric intake and following certain recommendations for a three-day diet, you can lose up to 5 kg of excess weight. What is the secret of a low-calorie diet and how does it work? We will talk about this in more detail in our today's publication.

Features diet

From the name of the diet it is clear that we will have to limit calorie intake and “cut back” the calorie content of dishes almost twice. However, in order for the body to cope with such a sharp limitation, it should be prepared for the diet in advance. To do this, two weeks before the start of the diet is recommended to hold fasting days (any, of your choice). It is better to reduce the number of calories gradually, starting at 500 kcal per day. At the time of the diet daily calories should be equal to 1200-1300 kcal per day.

Now let's understand how the "low-calorie diet" works? Reducing caloric intake is achieved by reducing fat intake (about two times) and carbohydrates (about three times). Thus, the main source of energy consumed is protein. Moreover, a low-calorie diet implies an increase in the intake of foods rich in vitamins and fiber. This allows the body to actively burn adipose tissue, while receiving a sufficient amount of necessary vitamins. Eating on a low-calorie diet should be fractional and often. If for three days of a diet you feel normal, then it can be extended to two weeks, depending on what results you want to achieve.

It is important to note that the low-calorie diet is often called therapeutic, because it allows you to stabilize the metabolism, cleanse the body of toxins and toxins, improve lipid metabolism and reduce elevated blood sugar levels. Therefore, a low-calorie diet is often prescribed to patients with diabetes, hypertension and obesity.

With regard to the choice of products for compliance with a low-calorie diet, experts recommend replacing all dairy and fermented milk products with similar low-fat, eggs are in the amount of two pieces per week, give up pork in favor of beef, eliminate sugar. From vegetables and fruits, everything is possible except grapes. Bread is allowed, but only from coarse flour. Cooking is better boiled or steamed, which reduces its caloric content.

Menu low-calorie diet

Well, now we suggest you to get acquainted with the approximate menu of a low-calorie diet for three days.

  • breakfast: two cheesecakes, tea without sugar, 100 g of squash caviar,
  • lunch: lean borsch, 120 g of beef, dried fruit compote,
  • dinner: liver pancakes, 100 g oatmeal on water, tea,
  • at bedtime: an apple, a glass of kefir.

  • breakfast: scrambled eggs from one egg, a glass of kefir,
  • dinner: vegetable soup, 150 grams of stewed meat, fresh vegetable salad, compote,

  • breakfast: 150 grams of boiled chicken, carrot, cabbage and apple salad, a glass of kefir,
  • lunch: a portion of pickle, 50 g of boiled fish, tea,
  • dinner: millet porridge with pumpkin on the water, a glass of apple juice,
  • before bedtime: a glass of kefir.

Pros and cons of a low-calorie diet

The effectiveness of the diet lies in the fact that due to a sharp decrease in calories, our body is forced to extract energy from fat reserves. Therefore, a few days of such nutrition will allow you to really get rid of a certain amount of excess weight. However, the biggest advantage of the diet is the normalization and stabilization of metabolic processes, as well as its healing properties.

Despite all the advantages, the disadvantages of the diet is still there. Eating food on the principle of a low-calorie diet, the body will work in exceptional mode. Therefore, even a little stress or too much load can lead to health problems. Therefore, before you decide to follow a low-calorie diet, it is necessary to consult with your doctor.

General rules

The hypocaloric diet, as is already clear from its name, is a nutritional system with reduced caloric content. The popularity of this type of diet is caused by the problem of overweight, which affects almost 40% of the total population of people. In addition, diets of this type are often used for health and aesthetic purposes and are prescribed for a number of diseases (diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, liver diseases, ischemic heart disease).

There are many varieties of low-calorie diets (mediterranean, Dr. Montignac's dietvegetarian diets South Beach Diet, Hairullin diet and others.) Most low-calorie diets are based on the restriction in the diet of predominantly carbohydrate component with a slight restriction of animal fats, however, there are also low-calorie diets for weight loss (sports diets) with a significant restriction of fat in the diet (up to 10-15%).

The classic low-calorie diet can be considered therapeutic. Table number 8 with its varieties of Pevzner (8A / 8o). Its main feature is the correlation of the energy value of the diet with the body mass level exceeding the physiological norm. So, in the presence of excess weight (but not obesity) caloric intake is reduced to 1,800 kcal / day, with obesity of 1 degree - to 1500 kcal / day, 2 degrees - 1200 and 3-4 degrees - 800 kcal / day (hospital, bed rest).

The key requirement is to maintain the protein quota at the level of the physiological norm (at least 90-100 g / day). The reduction of calories is due to the exclusion from the diet of foods containing simple carbohydrates (confectionery, honey, sugar, sweets) and saturated fats (meat of fatty varieties / fatty dairy products). Protein products (lean meat, white fish, egg white, cottage cheese) should be present even when dieting with maximum reduction.

It is believed that to achieve the effect a moderate low-calorie diet should provide a reduction in caloric intake at the level of 20% (on average 500 kcal / day) with a constant level of physical activity. A diet with a deficit of 500-600 kcal / day allows you to achieve a weight reduction of approximately 0.5 kg / week (5-10 kg / 3-5 months). A faster rate of weight loss is not physiologically justified, since it does not allow for stabilization of weight (save the result for a long time).

The best option is an individually selected moderately low-fat, low-fat diet with a given energy deficit and the ratio of food nutrients at the level of 15-20%, proteins, 20-25% fats in the proportion of 1/3 of the animal and 2/3 of vegetable fat and 55-60% of the daily calorie, carbohydrates. This not very strict diet provides weight loss of 10% body weight (MT) for several months. It is important that such a diet contains all the necessary nutrients and can be observed for a long time.

Many make the mistake of trying to drastically reduce the caloric intake of their diet during a short period of time on a diet. As a rule, such an approach causes stress for the body and, after a small weight loss, it begins to reduce energy consumption by slowing down metabolic processes, thereby adapting to a new diet, respectively, the weight ceases to decrease - the so-called diet plateau occurs.

Then there is another mistaken strategy - an attempt to overcome the plateau by further reducing the caloric intake. In no case do not do this, the effect will not be, and if you lose weight, then only slightly and temporarily. This is the path to a dead end. After 7-10 days, weight loss will stop again and you will have to tighten your diet again. This process can not last forever, and after the cessation of effort, the weight will necessarily grow and is more likely to exceed the original one.

The paradox, however, weight loss with diets with moderate calorie restriction can go faster than with diets with severe restrictions! Moreover, with moderate dietary restrictions, energy consumption can be stimulated, and with strict diets, energy consumption is suppressed, approaching the level of energy consumption.

Thus, moderate caloric restriction is preferred. Another danger of low-calorie diets is the lack of a number of irreplaceable factors of food - of vitamins/ minerals, irreplaceable amino acids, omega 3 PUFA. Their deficiency reduces the speed metabolism. According to nutritionists, a lack of vitamins and minerals is a frequent / constant companion to low-calorie diets. And the harder the diet, the more uniform the food, the more likely their content in the diet is below the critical level.

In addition, a moderate restriction provides a more comfortable psychological state, while diets with severe calorie restriction are accompanied by a strong feeling of hunger, decreased performance, general weakness, headache, pronounced mental discomfort (unstable mood /depression).

The best option for a low-calorie diet is the daily caloric intake for men at 1800 kcal and 1200 kcal for women. Do not forget that with a further reduction in calories in conditions of energy deficiency, muscle proteins can be included in the metabolism process due to activation gluconeogenesis, which is extremely dangerous and undesirable.

One of the factors to increase the effectiveness of a low-calorie diet is its combination with regular physical activity, which allows to increase energy consumption. At the same time, loads of medium intensity or toning loads of low intensity (such as recreational walking) are recommended. Loads of this kind are mainly served by fats, and hormone activity increases against their background. adrenaline rush/norepinephrine and activates the system of extracting fats from stocks. Muscle tone after exercise for a long time remains elevated, thereby increasing energy consumption.

A mandatory requirement for the preparation of a low-calorie diet is to take into account the qualitative characteristics of the main food nutrients.

  • The protein component should be represented in diets of this type to a greater extent with complete proteins of animal origin (60-70%) - meat, fish, egg white, seafood, dairy products, and to a lesser extent - vegetable origin (30-40%) - cereals, soybeans, beans, mushrooms, peas. The daily need for proteins can vary in the range of 1.0-1.5 g / kg of weight. Also, it is necessary to take into account that animal protein products often also contain fat, therefore, in general, their caloric content is higher than that of protein products of plant origin.
  • Fat - the most high-calorie component of nutrition. There are animal fats (fatty meat, butter / ghee, lard, waterfowl, fish, meat products, dairy products) and vegetable origin (corn, sunflower, olive, linseed vegetable oil, nuts, olives, sunflower seeds). Animal fats contain predominantly saturated fatty acids, are rich in cholesterol. Vegetable fats mainly contain unsaturated fatty acids, do not increase cholesterol level in blood /low density lipoprotein. Fats cause a weak feeling of saturation and contribute to overeating, as they give food a pleasant taste. There is a direct correlation between body weight and the amount of fat consumed. Therefore, a diet with the restriction of animal fats significantly reduces the caloric intake and thereby contributes to weight loss. The optimal proportion of the ratio of animal and vegetable fats is the ratio of 70 to 30. In drawing up the diet of a low-calorie diet, you should take into account the “hidden” fats contained in sausages, cheeses, smoked meats, confectionery, by-products, ice cream and other products and avoid their consumption.
  • Carbohydrates. There are indigestible (fiber) and slow / fast digestible carbohydrates. The main sources of indigestible carbohydrates are cereals, vegetables, greens, wholemeal flour, fruits, berries. Unabsorbed carbohydrates in the intestines are not split / not absorbed (with the exception of fiber, legumes), do not affect body weight, slow down the absorption of fat and quickly create a feeling of satiety.

The group of digestible carbohydrates include:

  • Fast-absorbed (simple sugars: sucrose, lactose, glucose, maltose), which are easily / quickly absorbed into the blood. Sources are: sugar, jam, juice, honey, confectionery, chocolate, sweets, sweet drinks, fruits / berries (but fiber of fruits and berries prevents rapid absorption), liquid dairy products.
  • Slow-digesting (complex carbohydrates) - starch, pectin. It is absorbed into the blood more slowly, because it requires prior splitting. Sources: potatoes, cereals (flour, cereals, bread, pasta, corn).

In the diet of low-calorie diets, preference is given to indigestible / slow-absorbing carbohydrates. Refined carbohydrates require special attention, as well as "hidden" carbohydrates in various foods. The restriction of carbohydrates in moderate low-calorie diets below 150 g / day is not recommended.

Do not confuse the standard low-calorie diet with a low-carb diet, in which the carbohydrate component is limited to 40-50 g / day, but the fat content increases. Diets of this type (keto diet, Lchf diet) are based on other principles, since they are based on the transition of the body from the traditional mechanism of obtaining energy from carbohydrates (glycolysis) on ketogenesis (obtaining energy from adipose tissue).

Thus, the following are excluded from the diet:

  • High-calorie foods that contain a lot of fat (fatty meat and sausage, mayonnaise, vegetable / butter, fatty fish, margarine, fatty cheeses, nuts, seeds, waterfowl meat, sour cream, smoked meats, canned food, cream).
  • Easily digestible carbohydrates (dried fruit, sugar and sugar-containing sweets, ice cream, chocolate, confectionery).
  • Alcohol-containing drinks.

The consumption of products with an average calorie content (pasta, potatoes, all types of bread made from high-grade flour / bakery products) is limited.

Increased consumption of low-calorie foods (vegetables, except potatoes / legumes), all types of greens (salad herbs), vegetable oils, mushrooms, dairy / dairy products with low fat content, chicken eggs, seafood (squid, mussels, crabs, oysters, shrimps), lean meats / fish, seaweed, whole grain cereals, diet breads / bread with the addition of crushed grains, bran, legumes.

To improve efficiency, it is recommended to practice low-energy fasting days (500-750 kcal / day) periodically (1-2 times / 10 days), since they contribute to metabolic reorganization / accelerate the mobilization of fat from the depot. There are many variants of fasting days: kefir, fish, meat, cottage cheese, vegetable / fruit, and their combinations.

Additionally, it is recommended to include vitamin-mineral complexes in the diet, and, if necessary, pre and probiotics. It is extremely important to combine foods, in particular protein, to eat with vegetables / greens, to observe a rational food intake mode - to take the carbohydrate component mainly in the first half of the day, and to distribute the protein component evenly over meals, to use cooking methods with a minimum amount of fat (bake, steam, simmer, frying products not allowed). Use 2-2,5 l / day of free liquid.

Permitted Products

The basis of the diet of low-calorie diets are:

  • Low-fat varieties of red meat (veal, beef), poultry meat (chicken, turkey) and rabbit.
  • Chicken eggs cooked in any way.
  • River / sea fish (herring, hake, tuna, pike, salmon) in any culinary processing, seafood (squid, mussels, crabs, oysters, shrimp).
  • Legumes (beans, lentils, peas, chickpeas), mushrooms, seaweed.
  • Cold-pressed vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, linseed, corn).
  • Whole grain cereals (oatmeal, buckwheat, wheat).
  • Dairy / dairy products of low fat content.
  • Dietary breads / breads with the addition of crushed grains, bran.
  • Vegetables rich in fiber (onions, carrots, cabbage, zucchini, eggplants, celery stalks, tomatoes, melons, zucchini, cucumbers, green beans), green lettuce leaves, garden greens.
  • Walnuts, olives, flax seed.

Basic principles of a low-calorie diet

The basis of this technique is the principle of weight loss due to very strict restrictions on the calories consumed per day. Wherein:

  1. The maximum allowable threshold ranges from 2500 to 1800 kilocalories per day,
  2. The ideal value is from 1300 to 1200.

The rules stipulate that this method was used by an adult with a formed organism. The duration of the diet can vary from 2 to 3 weeks, but not more than this period. During this time, you can lose from 5 to 10 kg of excess weight. But, the final result depends on the characteristics of your body. It is possible to reuse the method without damage to health no earlier than after a month break.

At all times the diet should adhere to the following points:

  1. For one day you can consume about 1.5 liters of fluids. At the same time, the water contained in the food is also included in this volume,
  2. The use of salt is reduced to 1 hl per day. The most optimal solution is to add it to ready meals,
  3. All food is divided into portions, providing for 5 to 6 meals per day. Between them the interval of 3 to 4 hours is surely observed,
  4. A large number of high-fiber foods will help fight hunger,
  5. Combining a diet with active loads (swimming, aerobics, moderate jogging) will significantly improve the result.

Power Features

The following products are completely removed from the diet:

  • Canned and smoked products,
  • Foods that contain a lot of starch (bananas, potatoes),
  • Pasta and other dishes from dough (pizza, dumplings),
  • All kinds of bread and pastries,
  • All animal fats (including margarine and sl butter). Instead, you can more actively use vegetable oils,
  • Sugar and its analogues (for example, glucose),
  • Alcohol of any strength
  • Fast food and concentrates in any form (from chips to quick brewed lunches).

Who can use a low-calorie diet

This diet clearly requires prior consultation with a doctor. Remember, the method is designed for an adult and healthy person. At the same time, even in cases of the absence of serious diseases or their occurrence at the initial stages in mild forms, nutritionists prefer to monitor the condition of patients during the entire diet.

This type of weight loss is not suitable for adolescents, because it provides for the exit from the diet of a sufficiently large number of products. This can adversely affect the growing body, and even in the period of hormonal disruptions with an unstable emotional background.

Menu for the week

1 day:

  • Morning. Omelette (2 eggs), sliced ​​(cabbage, apples and celery), weak tea (milk can be added),
  • Extra breakfast. 100 - 200 g low-fat cheese, juice,
  • Day. Soup without meat, chicken breast (150 g), salad, compotes (fruits can be used both fresh and dried),
  • Afternoon tea. 1 c infusion of wild rose,
  • Evening. Squash caviar, lean fish (about 100 g, for example, cod steam), tea.

2 day:

  • Morning. From 100 to 150 grams of veal, vegetable salad, weak tea,
  • Extra breakfast. Fat-free cottage cheese or 1 apple baked with honey,
  • Happy. A portion of vegetarian soup, up to 200 g of fish, a portion of vinaigrette (remove onions and vinegar), chamomile extract,
  • Afternoon tea. 1 c. Flax seed infusion,
  • Evening. 200 g of cheese (low fat), weak black tea.

3 day:

  • Breakfast. Baked cauliflower (about 200 g), weak black (green) tea,
  • Extra breakfast. Grapefruit or ½ pomelo,
  • Day. The pickle on the secondary broth, turkey fillet (200 g), garnish with green peas, unsweetened apple mousse,
  • Afternoon tea. Carrot Salad with Lemon Juice
  • Evening. Stewed pumpkin, mashed any fruit.

4 day:

  • Breakfast. Wheat porridge (Poltavka), sliced ​​cucumber with tomato, weak tea,
  • Extra breakfast. 1 large apple,
  • Day. Fish soup (pike or pike perch), an additional 150 g of fish fillet, green tea,
  • Afternoon tea. Rosehip infusion (chamomile),
  • Evening. Stewed zucchini and 3 steamed meatballs.

5 day:

  • Breakfast. Vegetable omelet (1 egg), 50 g chicken fillet, weak tea,
  • Extra breakfast. Fruit salad
  • Dinner. Cold beetroot soup, any dietary meat (up to 150 g), compote,
  • Afternoon tea. 3 mandarins (or orange),
  • Evening. Lazy cabbage rolls, beetroot salad (kefir or low fat sour cream dressing), rosehip decoction.

6 day:

  • Breakfast. Salad (chicken breast with green apple), compote,
  • Extra breakfast. Low-fat cottage cheese, a glass of vegetable juice,
  • Day. Vegetable stew, steamed veal cutlet with rice, juice or green tea,
  • Afternoon tea. Vegetable mix,
  • Dinner. Millet porridge with pumpkin, cabbage salad, weak tea.

7 day:

  • Morning. Omelet with zucchini (1 egg), a glass of yogurt,
  • Extra breakfast. Yogurt without additives (natural)
  • Dinner. Soup with vegetables and oatmeal, steam fish or cutlet from it, fruit juice,
  • Afternoon tea. Some plums or red currant
  • Dinner. Stewed vegetables with rice, seaweed, dogrose infusion.

Diet recipes

All dishes used in high-calorie diet, combines a few simple rules:

  1. Meat and fish are used only those varieties that are dietary (chicken, veal, all white and dry fish varieties),
  2. Of the methods of heat treatment are used only boiling, steaming or baking without fat,
  3. For dressing salads and side dishes do not use hot sauces, vinegar and spices,
  4. All used dairy products must be with a minimum percentage of fat,
  5. Soups are cooked in secondary broths (first, the fattest is not used).

Steam Croquettes
500 g of veal or the most lean beef chop a blender. Add 1 onion, greens (parsley or dill), chop again. Mix in a mass of 200 - 250 g of grated zucchini flesh and 1 - 2 eggs (raw). From this mass mold small balls (it is desirable that all were the same size). Lay them on the steamer and cook for 20-30 minutes. Greens, onions and bay leaves can be added to the water over which the meatballs are prepared, to add flavor to the dish. In the middle of the process, meatballs can be flipped.

Baked Cauliflower
1 large cauliflower forks disassemble into smaller pieces, removing coarse stems. In the cauldron pour 1 tablespoon of olive oil, heat and put the cabbage there. Hold on very low heat under the lid for a couple of minutes. Then add slices of garlic (2 cloves) and pieces of bell pepper (1 large pod without seeds). Together we simmer under the lid for about 3 minutes. Next, pour in ½ c liquid (water or very weak broth). Keep a few more minutes under the hood (small fire).

Then everything is laid out in a form that provides roasting. The top is sprinkled with grated cheese (sheep or goat is used and not more than 50 g). We put everything in a heated oven and keep there until the moment when the cheese melts and flows.

Reviews
Diseases of the kidneys or of the stomach require special adjustments to the menu by your nutritionist. Otherwise, most women who use this method return to it again. The minimum weight lost on the reviews is 3 kg.

Watch the video: The Best Low-Calorie Snacks (January 2020).