- Sanitary prophylaxis in case of revealing a tuberculosis patient in the family
- Prevention of tuberculosis with prolonged and close contact with a bacterium scavenger
- General rules for the prevention of tuberculosis
Prevention of tuberculosis in contact with the patient is extremely important in order to protect his family from infection and subsequent illness. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that enters the human body with a tubercle bacillus. It is usually transmitted by airborne droplets, when communicating, coughing, sneezing and kissing. After that, the bacteria remain viable for a long time, getting into the air or settling on various objects - books, toys, clothes.
That is why it is very important to comply with the rules of tuberculosis prevention, not only in the family, a member of which is diagnosed, but also in the daily life of each person.
Sanitary prophylaxis in case of revealing a tuberculosis patient in the family
When a patient is diagnosed with a tuberculosis family, the closest ones are the first to be infected - the so-called contact persons. They need to limit communication with the patient, and it is better to stop contact with him altogether, and after that to undergo an examination with a phthisiologist. The full range of precautions and prevention of tuberculosis includes the following items:
- It is necessary to provide isolation - hospitalization and treatment of a patient with tuberculosis.
- After that, in the room where the patient was, it is important to conduct a final disinfection with the participation of the appropriate disinfection station.
- At the end of the period of hospitalization and the return of the patient in these rooms is often carried out the current disinfection.
- Contact persons should be regularly examined by a phthisiologist, as well as chemical prophylaxis, which consists of vaccination and long-term use of anti-tuberculosis drugs.
- It is necessary to study the sanitary and hygienic rules of patient care and to improve the living conditions for him.
Prevention of tuberculosis with prolonged and close contact with a bacterium scavenger
In the case when close and prolonged contact with a patient with tuberculosis is unavoidable (if the patient is not hospitalized or after the end of the hospitalization mycobacteria continue to stand out), it is necessary to strictly adhere to the rules of prevention of this disease:
- Contact persons for a long period need to take anti-TB drugs and undergo regular examinations with a phthisiologist.
- Contact persons and the patient must follow the rules of personal hygiene - wash hands regularly, monitor body cleanliness and timely change of clothes, including underwear, cut nails.
- Contact persons when dealing with patients should use masks that, while not providing 100 percent protection against tuberculosis infection, will help reduce the number of bacteria threatening the body.
- Both contact persons and the person who is sick must ensure regular, regular disinfection of the room in which he is located in order to destroy the source of infection.
- The patient must follow the rules of conduct when coughing - to cover his nose and mouth with his hand.
- A tuberculosis patient is obliged to know and follow the rules for collecting sputum. To do this, it must have 2 spittoon bowls, one of which, two-thirds filled with disinfectant solution, should be on hand at the patient, and the second - at disinfection. It is also important to properly conduct activities for the disinfection of sputum, urine and feces.
- In the premises where the bacteria exchanger is located, daily wet cleaning and regular sanitation is carried out, which consists in removing the infected particles from the air by airing and ultraviolet radiation.
- The rooms are cleaned according to certain rules: the floor is washed with a warm alkaline or soda solution, those things and walls that have sputum on it are wiped with a cloth moistened in a disinfectant solution, they get rid of flies.
- It is necessary to equip the bed of a patient with tuberculosis on a separate bed and preferably in a separate room.
- The patient is allocated items for personal use, which are subject to regular disinfection. Such items include clothing, towels, blankets and pillows (non-wiping clothes, bed linen should be decontaminated in deskamera), tableware, etc.
General rules for the prevention of tuberculosis
Not only relatives and people living in the same room with a bacterium emitter, but also every person needs to know the basic principles of tuberculosis prevention.
Since the possibility of getting this disease directly depends on the general state of health and the hygiene that is maintained, there are a number of rules that everyone should follow in everyday life:
- observe the rules of personal hygiene at home and in public places,
- regularly carry out wet cleaning and airing of premises at home, at work and in other public places,
- eat full, enrich your food with vitamins, avoid fast food and other unhealthy foods,
- protect yourself from stress,
- to engage in sports and physical education,
- more often stay in the open air,
- to limit communication with coughing and even just cold people
- give up such bad habits as alcohol and smoking,
- undergo specific prophylaxis procedures regularly - fluorographic examinations for adults and anti-tuberculosis vaccinations for children.
It is these simple and well-known rules that will help ensure reliable protection of both an adult and a child’s body against such a serious disease as tuberculosis. Preventing illness is much better than treating it.
The risk of developing tuberculosis directly depends on the nature of the contact and determines the preventive measures needed in each particular case.
Theoretically, the lowest is the probability of developing the disease during short-term contacts with a patient with tuberculosis in public transport, public places, on staircases, etc. In such a situation, the simplest preventive measures, such as a healthy lifestyle, a balanced diet and regular annual examinations (Mantoux test for children and adolescents under 15 years old, x-ray of the lungs for adolescents over 15 years old and adults), as well as compulsory washing hands after the street, regular cleaning and airing the premises.
The risk of developing active tuberculosis increases significantly with prolonged and regular contact with a tuberculous patient (cohabitation, regular communication at work or during free time), as well as contact involving the exchange of bodily fluids (kisses, sexual relations). Healthy people who find themselves in such a situation fall into the category of “contact for tuberculosis” and should be examined as soon as possible by a tuberculosis specialist. The purpose of TB examinations is to exclude the active form of tuberculosis in the contact person and to identify indications for chemoprophylaxis with anti-tuberculosis drugs. Examination of contact persons includes, as a rule, a tuberculin test (Mantoux test), an x-ray examination of the chest organs, a sputum test for the presence of tuberculosis bacilli, and general clinical examinations of blood and urine. Contact children and adolescents are examined 4 times, adults - 2 times a year. Chemoprophylaxis is carried out in individuals with the highest risk of developing tuberculosis (primarily in people with immunodeficiency states, those exposed to massive exposure to aggressive strains of tuberculosis) with 1-2 anti-tuberculosis drugs prescribed in minimal dosages.
An important preventive measure aimed at reducing the risk of developing the disease is the cessation of contact with the bacteriovascular system. To do this, the patient is hospitalized with an open form of tuberculosis in the hospital, contact persons are advised to temporarily interrupt personal contact with the patient (until mycobacterium disappears from the discharge), sometimes patients with active tuberculosis (especially in the chronic course of the disease with permanent bacterial outbreak) are provided with a separate living space. The patient with tuberculosis and his relatives should not consider temporary isolation as a life tragedy - in most cases, if the doctor's recommendations are followed in good faith, after 2 months of treatment, the bacteria are released and the patient ceases to be dangerous to the people around him. In those situations when it is impossible to break contact with a patient with an open form of tuberculosis, all contact persons are subject to long-term preventive therapy with anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Children. Children, due to the nature of the immune system, are at increased risk for developing active tuberculosis. Therefore, when a patient with tuberculosis appears in the family (regardless of the form of the disease), the child’s contact with this relative must be discontinued, and the child must be registered with a TB specialist. Contact for tuberculosis and / or primary infected children and adolescents, after being examined by a phthisiatrist and excluding the active form of tuberculosis, are not contagious, not dangerous to others, and can attend children's institutions (kindergartens, schools) even if they receive prophylactic treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs .
Pregnant. Contact with a tuberculous patient during pregnancy leads to the development of the disease with almost the same probability as contact in a non-pregnant state. First of all, the contact must be interrupted and ensured that it no longer repeated. A pregnant woman who has been in contact with a patient with tuberculosis should carefully monitor their health status and, if the first signs of pulmonary pathology appear, consult a doctor (general practitioner, tuberculosis specialist) for an examination. With prolonged contact with a patient with an open form of tuberculosis, an examination of a pregnant woman is performed according to the generally accepted scheme (with the exception of x-ray examination, which is carried out using special techniques with strict indications). In most cases, an x-ray of the chest organs and anti-tuberculosis drugs are delayed for the postpartum period. Contact with a patient with tuberculosis is by no means an indication for abortion. If high-risk contact occurs at the planning stage of pregnancy, it is necessary to postpone conception until the danger has completely disappeared.
Prisoners. There is a very high risk of developing tuberculosis in contact with patients serving a sentence in prison or former prisoners, since these people in the overwhelming majority of cases are carriers of aggressive strains of tuberculosis that are resistant to most anti-tuberculosis drugs. Relatives visiting sick prisoners (in the event that refusal of visits for some reason is impossible) are recommended to come on dates in clothes made from materials resistant to disinfectants, a scarf covering the hair, and a 4-layer gauze mask covering the mouth and nose. Clothes after visiting must be soaked in a disinfectant (chlorantoin, domestos) for 2 hours. During the entire period of increased risk, the contact person must be screened twice a year at a tuberculosis dispensary. We must be prepared for the fact that the TB doctor will prescribe prophylactic anti-tuberculosis treatment. Contact with tuberculosis patients is extremely undesirable.
«Contact without contact". Despite the absence of direct contact with the source of the infection, people who have settled in the apartment (house) where the tuberculosis patient used to live are at serious risk. Koch’s rods retain their vitality for a long time (they live for about a month in room dust, 3 months in books, up to 4-5 months in dark and basements) and are quite capable of causing illness in new residents. To avoid health problems, before settling it is necessary to find out whether the final disinfection was performed in the apartment - the room was treated by the sanitary-epidemiological station. If the disinfection was carried out, it is necessary to make cosmetic repairs and then feel free to move into a new home. If disinfection was not carried out - to live in the apartment before it is extremely not recommended.
How not to get sick? Useful tips
Concluding the topic, we list the situations associated with tuberculosis contact, in which urgent consultation with a phthisiologist (or therapist) is necessary, and also give recommendations for elementary prevention of tuberculosis.
Examination of a TB doctor for contact with a patient with tuberculosis is shown in the following cases:
- In case of close, prolonged contact with the bacterium emitter.
- In the presence of those who have been ill with tuberculosis among the closest relatives (indicating a possible genetic predisposition to the disease).
- In the presence of diseases or conditions that cause a decrease in the activity of the immune system, including during the passage of therapy with hormonal or cytostatic drugs.
- In the presence of bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse, drug addiction), chronic stress.
- If children and adolescents came into contact with the patient.
Within a year after the cessation of contact with a patient with active tuberculosis, attention should be paid to the following symptoms, the appearance of which should be the reason for a premature lung X-ray and consultation with a TB doctor:
- Prolonged, unreasonable loss of body weight.
- A dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks.
- Low-grade body temperature.
- Increased peripheral lymph nodes.
- Growing weakness, drowsiness.
- Chest pain, hemoptysis.
To reduce the likelihood of developing tuberculosis after reliable or suspected contact, it is recommended:
- Do not smoke and do not drink spirits, beer, low alcohol mixture.
- Drink a day at least 150 - 200 g of foods rich in fats of animal origin (meat, fish, eggs, milk, etc.).
- Use enough vitamins of all groups.
- Do not eat synthetic products (chips, fast food).
- More often be in the fresh air and lead an active lifestyle.
- Avoid repeated close contacts with patients with active tuberculosis.
- Undergo regular preventive examinations (pulmonary fluorography).
Tuberculosis is dangerous, one cannot but agree, but the situation is not hopeless. Modern medicine makes it possible to fight this disease, and timely prevention helps to prevent its development. Be attentive to yourself and your loved ones, lead a healthy lifestyle, do not hesitate to seek advice and help from doctors - this will increase your chances of a healthy long life. Take care of your health!
Ways of infection
The possibility of infection with tuberculosis is large enough, but still the risk is low compared with such highly contagious diseases as HIV, viral hepatitis, measles, etc. The main source of infection in tuberculosis is the patient who has a bacterium excreta.
Depending on the form of the tuberculous process, patients may not release bacteria:
|Form of tuberculous process||Bacteria Material|
|Skin||Contents of tuberculous granulomas|
|Genitourinary system||Urine, discharge from the genitals|
In pulmonary forms for bacterial excretion, the presence of destructive lesions in the lungs is necessary. Otherwise, the destructive forms of tuberculosis were previously called “open”.
So how can you get infected?
Tuberculosis transmission mechanisms:
|Transmission mechanism||Brief description: which way is dangerous|
|Aerogenic (about 90% of all cases)||Infection occurs when the pathogen enters the mucous membrane of the human respiratory tract by inhalation of air, which contains mycobacterium. The most common infection occurs when inhalation suspension of mycobacteria, which are located on the surface of dust particles (air-dust transmission mechanism), less often - when it enters the lungs of the office secreted with sputum by coughing or sneezing (airborne transmission).|
Can I catch a kiss?
Yes you can. On condition of contact with a patient who is a bacteriovascular system and large amounts of the pathogen hit the damaged (cracks, cuts) mucous membrane. At the same time the tubercular chancre is formed.
It is also possible the ingestion of mycobacteria and the development of intestinal tuberculosis.
Where can I get tuberculosis?
Robert Koch said: “As long as there are slums on earth, where no ray of sunshine penetrates, consumption will continue to exist.” Mycobacterium tuberculosis multiplies well in a humid, warm environment, poor home conditions.
In conditions of large concentrations of people, in enclosed spaces without adequate ventilation, the mycobacterium feels great. Sinking on the surface of objects and mixing with dust, it can be in a viable state for many weeks and months.
Can I get infected on the street?
The probability of TBC infection on the street is quite small. Once in the environment, mycobacterium disperses in the air and dies very quickly under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Thus, the concentration of bacteria necessary for infection is reduced in the open air.
By acting on mycobacterium, ultraviolet rays "dry" it, reducing virulence. Those bacteria that do not die under the action of ultraviolet rays are not pathogenic for infection. To become infected with tuberculosis, you need a direct hit of a sufficient number of virulent bacteria in the inhaled air.
If you walk on the street, you should avoid sputum of people who may be sick with tuberculosis, directly into the inhaled air, and this will be enough.
But in public transport there are all conditions for infection:
- A large crowd of people.
- Poor ventilation.
- Moist warm air.
Therefore, you should be wary of coughing in public transport and remember that small aerosol particles (up to 5 microns in diameter) containing mycobacteria spread over several meters and remain suspended for up to 1 hour.
What do you get TBC from?
In everyday life, the likelihood of TBC infection from a sick person is very high, since the mycobacteria secreted by it are in the air, they can settle on food and household items, increasing the risk.
To avoid infection, you must follow these rules:
- A tuberculosis patient should have his own personal hygiene items, his own dishes.
- For the patient it is necessary to allocate a separate room.
- The room should be organized wet cleaning (at least twice a day) and airing. The windows should face the sunny side.
Patients who are bacteria excreta should receive special treatment at a tuberculosis dispensary. This will protect from infection of others and speed up the recovery of the patient.
There are several groups of people who have a higher chance of infection:
- Persons in contact with patients.
- Persons with residual changes after suffering tuberculosis.
- Patients with diabetes, pneumoconiosis, gastric ulcer and duodenum.
- Patients with immunodeficiency.
- Persons in prison.
- Asocial population.
In the video you can find answers to questions about tuberculosis:
Doctor: high risk.
It is also worth highlighting a special risk group: these are doctors and medical staff who regularly come in contact with patients with tuberculosis. To avoid disease, it is necessary to use personal protective equipment, such as special respirators, glasses when performing manipulations associated with the risk of sputum on unprotected mucous membranes and inhaled air.
An important component of the work is ... food. If the mycobacterium falls into an empty stomach, it can be introduced into the mucous membrane, thus increasing the risk of developing the disease. When MBT enters the stomach, in which there is content, the bacteria are simply digested in the gastrointestinal tract.
It is necessary to remember about the hygienic treatment of hands and tools after contact with patients with the help of disinfecting solutions (see Disinfection in case of tuberculosis: what you need to know). The uniform in which the doctor works with patients should be processed and not used when in contact with healthy people.
How to avoid infection?
First of all, persons with reduced immunity are at risk of acquiring tuberculosis, so much attention should be paid to lifestyle and health issues. Particular importance should be paid to proper nutrition, timely treatment of diseases, as well as immunoprophylaxis issues.
Vaccination contributes to the development of immunity and reduce the risk of morbidity after primary infection.
- Tuberculin diagnosis: conducting a test with tuberculin makes it possible to detect the absence of immunity in children or the already occurring infection with mycobacteria.
- Diaskintest: allows you to clearly determine the presence of an active tuberculous process in the body, based on the reaction of specific proteins of the office.
- Fluorography: An annual preventive fluorography study allows to detect changes in the lungs that are characteristic of the tuberculous process and prevent the development of destructive forms of pathology with a bacteriological secretion.
There is always a risk of infection with tuberculosis. To avoid infection, it is necessary to maintain a healthy lifestyle, eat right, seek medical help in a timely manner and follow the instructions of specialists. Be healthy!
Tuberculosis and immunity
It is believed that during the life of a person repeatedly meets with the causative agent of tuberculosis, that is, he enters the body, but the disease does not develop - the pathogen is either destroyed by the immune system, or surrounded by fibrous tissue, losing the ability to influence the body. Therefore, it is the strength of immunity that plays a key role in neutralizing tuberculosis infection.
The disease can develop with a strong decrease in immunity, which occurs, for example, when HIV is infected. According to the WHO, tuberculosis is one of the main causes of death of HIV-infected: 20% of them die from tuberculosis.
However, not only HIV causes a pronounced decrease in immunity, but also:
All of the above conditions cause a persistent and strong decrease in immunity, which facilitates the effect of the causative agent of tuberculosis on the body and the development of the disease.
In addition, due to the physiological characteristics of the immune system is reduced in children, the elderly, pregnant women - they are at greater risk when meeting with a tubercle bacillus.
Thus, the prevention of these conditions and a decrease in immunity in general will also be considered as prevention of tuberculosis, too. To strengthen the immunity, doctors advise to adhere to good nutrition, an orderly lifestyle and daily regimen, include more vegetables and fruits, dairy products, exercise and hardening the body in the diet, avoid exposure to harmful factors on the body.
The main methods of tuberculosis prevention
In 1921, a vaccine against tuberculosis was developed. Vaccination subject to all newborns aged 3-7 days in the absence of contraindications. The result of vaccination is the preparedness of the immune system to meet with the tubercle bacillus and the ability to quickly neutralize it.
Vaccination It is the main way to prevent tuberculosis, since meetings with a tubercle bacillus during life cannot be avoided.
And of course, as with any disease, the earlier treatment is started, the more favorable the prognosis. Therefore, once every 1-2 years, adults are recommended to undergo fluorography for early diagnosis of tuberculosis; the Mantoux test is performed every year for children.
Even if you do not belong to socially disadvantaged groups of society, you should not ignore such symptoms as persistent cough, prolonged fever, night sweats. Anyone can get sick with tuberculosis, regardless of social status and bad habits.
People all over the world are often worried about the question: in what case is there a risk of contracting tuberculosis and how good are the chances in this or that case? First of all, it is necessary to understand what active tuberculosis means and what infection is.
When the tubercle bacillus enters the body, it leads to infection. The inflammatory process begins in the airways. Usually, the person himself does not notice the infection, it will pass by itself, if the immunity is strong enough, and recovery will come. You can find out what the infection was if you only did a Mantoux test.
Fully tuberculosis bacteria will not leave the body, but will settle in the lymph nodes, a person will become a carrier. If the immune system fails, then there is a chance that the mycobacterium will enter the stage of activity. There is no reason for much excitement, since mycobacterium is activated only in 5% of carriers, and the infection is not equal to the disease. The carrier cannot become a transmitter of the disease, at least until the disease has a closed form. Saliva and sputum of such people contain the bacterium of tuberculosis in the active phase and can penetrate into the body of a healthy person.
How big is the risk of infection - this can be judged by the nature of contact with the carrier. The shorter the contact time, the lower the risk of infection. There is always a chance of infection when in crowded places: travel by public transport, walking in the park, shopping in stores, and so on. To reduce the chances of infection, to protect yourself to some extent, you can, leading a healthy lifestyle, giving up bad habits and unhealthy foods. It is worth visiting clinics annually to make Mantoux and fluorography.
With constant and close contact with the patient, the risk of infection of a healthy person increases many times. This may be living on the same living space, frequent communication at work and leisure. As soon as it became known about the illness of a person with whom you often have to communicate, you need to immediately visit a phthisiatrician, undergo tests prescribed by him. A doctor should be visited and tested by adults who have contact with the patient every six months, and children are much more likely. Most likely, the doctor will be prescribed drugs for prevention.
First and foremost, safety measures include an absolute cessation of personal communication between a healthy person and a patient. With an open form of tuberculosis, it is necessary to immediately be hospitalized with the correct treatment, which will continue until the results are satisfactory, that is, the dangerous mycobacterium is absent in the discharge. Do not be very upset and the patient and his relatives. Such categorical measures are needed for about a couple of months. If the patient begins to strictly follow the doctor's instructions, then very soon he will be safe again for those around him, he will be able to return to his relatives and his usual business.
The highest risk of infection is in children, due to the rather weak immunity. They need to be isolated from communication with the patient in the first place, show the TB doctor. If the doctor does not find an infection, or it is present in the closed phase, then there will be no reason for excitement and the child will be able to continue to attend school, garden, etc.
Pregnancy is also not a cause for excessive excitement. Women are assigned to approximately the same examinations that are not pregnant. Contact with the patient is interrupted for a while, but is not the cause of abortion.
If you pay due attention to your own health, the risk of infection is minimized. At the first sign of ailments should consult a doctor.
In the nineteenth century, girls from noble families stunted and died of tuberculosis, later the disease was associated with a low standard of living and well-being of people at risk. Nowadays, mainly beggars, vagrants, drug addicts, prisoners, migrants and HIV-infected people are sick with tuberculosis, but literally every one of us can be infected. It is difficult to exaggerate the relevance of information about the dangers of this deadly disease.
Tuberculosis is a rather ancient disease - it is found during archaeological excavations and in the spinal tissues of Egyptian mummies, which are more than four thousand years old. The antique healer Hippocrates described in detail the clinical picture of consumption - and the philosopher Aristotle was very worried about the increased infectiousness of the disease.
In the Middle Ages, the tuberculosis epidemic more than once mowed down the population of Europe, so the evidence was preserved that it was tuberculosis that caused 20% of deaths in Wales in one year. The helplessness of the then medicine before the disease was total, and only by the end of the nineteenth century, the scientist Robert Koch discovered an infectious bacterium, the causative agent of the disease, named after its discoverer Koch’s wand.
By the middle of the twentieth century, the American bacteriologist Salman Waxman was awarded the Nobel Prize for the invention of streptomycin, which would seem to have successfully won the battle with tuberculosis. But by the end of the last century, the incidence rate has increased dramatically and now tuberculosis is considered the twenty-first century plague, because every second one person in the world gets sick, and one person dies from tuberculosis every ten seconds.
Translated from the Latin word tuberculosis means "tubercle", which conveys a feature of the infection, entering the human body, the bacterium surrounds itself with a capsule, in which it develops slowly and confidently. This special membrane makes the bacterium invulnerable, protects it from the effects of antimicrobials. As long as the infection remains encapsulated, the course of tuberculosis is latent, and the sick person is not so dangerous to others, because it does not disperse the infection around them.
Preferring lung tissue and lymph nodes, Koch's wand then spreads lymph and blood throughout the body, and in the place where the tubercle was formed, tissue is decomposed to form open wounds - a cavity. From this point on, the sick person is very dangerous and any contact with him, being in the same room or even living in the room where the patient was previously located is really dangerous.
Contact with a patient with tuberculosis in our countries is quite likely. Do I need to fear this and what kind of prevention is better to carry out?
Tuberculosis is an infection that enters the body with a tubercle bacillus, which infects the body and in very rare cases leads to the development of the active stage of the disease.
Infection with a stick occurs once in a lifetime, more often at an early age, when the body of a little man first encounters a pathogenic microorganism. Getting into the body of the child, the wand causes, but due to a sufficiently high immunity and its good work, the body is able to cope with the disease itself.
The disease passes unnoticed and does not lead to the emergence of active tuberculosis. The fact that the infection took place, will tell only, so it is so important to do it. There is a positive point in this, as the body learns to recognize the infection and develops anti-tuberculosis immunity.
But at the same time, "dormant" bacteria can cause the development of the active stage of tuberculosis with weakening, but this rarely happens.
Therefore, it can be said that infection with tuberculosis does not always lead to the development of an active disease. Infected people are not dangerous because they are not sick with tuberculosis; they do not spread the tubercle bacillus.
Contact with diseased tuberculosis, in which its open form and potentially dangerous contact with a person with a closed form of tuberculosis, is dangerous.
The open form of the disease is characterized by the fact that bacteria are excreted into the surrounding space; the bacillus is easily detected in the analysis of the discharge of the patient. With a closed form of tuberculosis, the selection of the bacillus does not occur, it is not detected when analyzing the patient's secretions.
Contact with a patient with tuberculosis, suffering from its open form, in thirty cases out of a hundred leads to infection.
The most minimal risk of infection in short-term contacts that occur in public transport and places. For prophylaxis it is necessary to observe personal hygiene of the body, regularly do wet cleaning of the premises, fluorography.
The risk of catching an infection is greatly increased if contact with the patient is regular and long-term, when living together, when working together, communicating and having sex. In identifying contact with a sick person, it is better to undergo a TB examination to determine the need for chemical disease prevention and other procedures.
The problem is compounded by the fact that Koch's wand is able to adapt and be resistant to the effects of drugs, and the deterioration of living conditions and a high density of urban population increase the risk of tuberculosis. Take care and be careful.
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How is the prevention of tuberculosis in contact with the patient? A phthisiologist will tell about this. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease. Moreover, it is very specific. When the causative agent of the disease, the tubercle bacillus (Koch bacteria), is hit, a person becomes almost 100% infected, but this fact does not necessarily lead to the further development of the disease.
Human infection with this pathogen occurs once in a lifetime, in childhood or infancy. The entry of the tubercle bacillus into the body always causes inflammation, but a strong children's immunity successfully fights against this ailment, and it passes unnoticed. Find out whether the child was infected with Koch’s wand or not, can only be known by the reaction of the Mantoux test. The fact of infecting a child with this infection is very favorable, since the body learns to recognize the disease and then actively fights with it.
How is the prevention of tuberculosis in contact with the patient?
If the infection has already happened, is it worth to fear such people? People who are once infected with Koch’s wand are not sick, they cannot in any way spread the disease and are absolutely not dangerous for people who are close to them. But the Mantoux test in such a person will always be positive, although there will be no deviations on the X-ray. After repeated contact of such people with the causative agent of the disease there may be two outcomes:
- This contact will pass unnoticed by humans, and after it the disease does not develop.
- It may happen that the infection will overpower the immune system, and then after contact in the human body will develop active tuberculosis. It has two forms of development:
- open form. In order to determine whether a person suffers from an open form of tuberculosis, bacteriological sputum culture and saliva are performed, if Koch’s bacillus is found in these tests, this indicates that this form is open.
- closed form. If during repeated analyzes the pathogen was not found, then this form of the disease is considered to be closed.
Is contact with patients with tuberculosis dangerous for children and adults? The danger of contacting a tuberculosis patient depends on how close it was. If a person had a short communication with the patient, then he should not be afraid of infection. Contacts in public transport, on landings, etc. are not dangerous. The risk of infection is significantly reduced if you follow the rules of personal hygiene and undergo an annual survey.
With prolonged contact, the risk of infection increases significantly. Infection can occur when living in the same room, working together, spending leisure time, having sex.
What should be preventive measures if there is a contact for tuberculosis? The main preventive measure is the absolute cessation of any contact with a sick person. If a patient with tuberculosis is found, he is hospitalized in the hospital for a full course of treatment. But neither a sick person nor his relatives should perceive this fact tragically.
As a rule, with the faithful implementation of all the recommendations of the doctor within two months, the patient can join the community, because he is no longer dangerous to others. Can I live at home with the sick?
If the relatives of the patient, due to circumstances, cannot stop communicating with him, then they must undergo a full course of preventive therapy with special medical preparations.
Prevention of tuberculosis in children
The immune system of children is very specific, and therefore they are at increased risk. Therefore, if there is a patient with tuberculosis in the house (and, of any form), the children should be completely isolated from the patient and registered with a phthisiologist.
The risk of infection with this disease in pregnant women is the same as the rest. Therefore, prevention is no different from ordinary precautionary measures.
If there is a suspicion that contact with the sick person took place, it is necessary:
- do not smoke or drink alcoholic beverages,
- eat at least 200 g per day of products with a high content of animal fat,
- take the necessary rate of vitamins,
- do not eat chips and other synthetic products,
- lead an active lifestyle and walk more in the fresh air.
Do not forget that tuberculosis is a very dangerous disease, but this is not a reason for despair. Currently, medicine is actively struggling with this disease, and with sufficient preventive measures and periodic examinations, you can absolutely not be afraid of infection.
About carrier and infectiousness
Despite the fact that the immune system was able to cope with the inflammatory process, the remains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are not completely removed from the body, but are deposited in the lymph nodes. When the immune system fails, mycobacterium activity can be activated, although the active form of tuberculosis develops in only 5% of carriers. Therefore, it is important to understand that infection is not equal to the disease. No less significant is the fact that the people who carry Koch’s sticks are not its distributors. They become dangerous to others only when the disease takes on an open form. In the saliva, sputum and other secretions of such people is detected active Mycobacterium tuberculosis, able to penetrate the body of a healthy person.
It is necessary to take into account the fact that not always people are able to independently determine whether their illness has passed into the active phase, because often the onset of the development of tuberculosis can be confused with ordinary SARS. Being uninsulated from society, sick people spread the disease, infecting an increasing number of others.
About contacts with people with tuberculosis
It is possible to judge how high the probability of infection is based on the nature of contact with the bacterium carrier. It is logical to assume that the shorter the contact lasts and the less close it is, the lower the risk of infection. However, one cannot be sure that while using public transport, while walking on the street or visiting a crowded institution, one cannot become infected with tuberculosis. In order to reduce the risk of infection, it is necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle, eat right and avoid bad habits. Annual surveys such as the Mantoux test and fluorography are mandatory measures that should not be ignored.
The risk that an active form of the disease will develop in a person increases significantly if he constantly and closely contacts a patient with tuberculosis. This may be co-habitation, regular communication at work or during off-hours. If it turned out that a friend or relative has this disease, it is important to consult with a TB specialist as soon as possible and to undergo the necessary examinations. Most often, they include the Mantoux test, chest X-ray, sputum, blood and urine tests. Adults from the risk group need to undergo similar studies at least once every six months, and children are twice as likely. If a person lives together with a bacterium carrier, then special anti-tuberculosis drugs may be prescribed, taken in minimal doses.
It is necessary to completely eliminate any contact with a person who has an open form of tuberculosis. The patient should be immediately hospitalized, where he will be prescribed the appropriate treatment. Such a person will stay in the hospital until the research shows that there is no dangerous mycobacterium in his discharge. Relatives and the very patient should not panic, because even an open form of tuberculosis with the development of modern medicine and timely treatment is not a sentence. Most often, it is enough 2 months of therapy, and the person will be able to return to society, since it will become harmless to others.
About risk groups
Children are a risk group for the incidence of tuberculosis, since their immune systems are not yet fully formed. If a person appears in the family with tuberculosis that occurs in any form, it is important to completely limit the child’s communication with him. In addition, it is necessary to put the child on the account to the phthisiatrician. If the infection is not detected, or it is primary, but proceeds in an inactive form, then such children do not pose a threat to others and can continue their normal life, attend preschool and school. Sometimes they are shown prophylaxis with special preparations.
Pregnancy is not an additional risk factor for infection and disease. If there is a suspicion that the mycobacterium could have entered the body of a woman who is bearing the fetus, then she will be shown all the same research as an ordinary person, with the exception of a chest X-ray. Contact with a patient with tuberculosis is not a reason for abortion.
Contact with people who are in prison or who have previously served time in prison is the risk of contracting an active strain of tuberculosis. Therefore, if it turned out that a person is sick and that his visit cannot be canceled, it is important to observe serious precautions: wearing a special mask, a scarf for hair, clothes made from materials resistant to disinfectant treatment.
It is dangerous not only to have direct contact with the patient, but also to settle in the apartment where the person with tuberculosis used to live. The fact is that Koch's wand is very resistant to environmental factors. She can live in the dust or on the pages of books for up to 3 months, “waiting for” the next owner. Therefore, before settling in a new apartment, it is important to ask who lived in it before. If there are data on patients with tuberculosis, it is dangerous to be in the house until full disinfection by the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance service.
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