Intestinal microbiota - microorganisms that live in the gastrointestinal tract in symbiosis with the carrier.
The human intestine contains on average about 50 trillion microorganisms, which is about 1.3 times more than the total number of cells in the body. Bacteria make up the vast majority of the fauna in the rectum and up to 60% of the dry mass of faeces. Somewhere between 300 and 1000 different species live in the intestines, according to most estimates of the order of 500. However, it is likely that 99% of bacteria belong to 30–40 species. Yeast also forms part of the intestinal flora, but little is known about their activity.
Studies show that the relationship between the intestines and the flora is not just commensalism (that is, harmless coexistence), but rather a form of mutualism, that is, mutually beneficial relations. Although humans can survive without a gut microbiome, microorganisms perform a host of useful functions for the host, such as anaerobic digestion of unused material to provide themselves with energy, training the immune system, and preventing the growth of harmful species. However, the intestinal flora is not always exceptionally useful: it is believed that some microorganisms in certain cases can cause illness.
Normally, excessive bacterial growth in the small intestine is hindered by:
- normal secretion of hydrochloric acid (prevents the growth of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract),
- ileocecal valve (prevents the entry of bacteria from the colon to the small),
- normal pusher motility of the small intestine (prevents stagnation of intestinal contents).
Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have a pronounced antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria and regulate the quantitative and qualitative composition of the intestinal microflora in the norm, retard the growth and reproduction in it of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microbes.
Intestinal saprophytes, in comparison with pathogenic bacteria, contain a large number of enzymes, multiply more actively, therefore it is easier to utilize nutrients and oxygen. They produce a variety of bactericidal and bacteriostatic substances, including antibiotic-like.
|Bacteria that can be found in human intestines|
Types of microorganisms in the intestines:
In the stomach, due to the acidic environment, the number of microbes is insignificant (lactobacilli, streptococci, sarcins). The duodenum and proximal small intestine in healthy people are sterile due to the presence of aggressive digestive enzymes. In the distal part of the small intestine, there are 10 7–10 8 microbes in 1 ml of the contents, in an equal amount of aerobic and anaerobic. There are 10 9 −10 12 microbes of about 400 species in 1 ml of the contents of the distal colon. The highest density of contamination is observed in the rectum. Microfauna feces is actually the fauna of the distal colon.
Normally, more than 95% of the microflora of feces are anaerobic: lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and bacteroids. Aerobic fauna is represented (by frequency of excretion and quantity) by Escherichia coli, enterococcus. Less often, staphylococci, streptococci, Klebsiella, Proteus, Clostridia, and yeast-like fungi are found in small quantities.
All microorganisms that normally colonize the colon are divided into three groups:
- the main (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and bacteroids),
- concomitant (Escherichia coli strains, enterococci)
- final (staphylococcus, fungi, proteus).
What is meant by intestinal microflora?
Our intestines are inhabited by many living microorganisms. In the process of their active interaction with each other, they ensure the full and smooth operation of the entire digestive tract. Together, they all form the intestinal microflora. It is difficult to imagine, but normally their number is almost 50 trillion, and the total weight sometimes reaches 3 kg.
Diagnosis - dysbacteriosis
When a person is healthy, as a percentage of only 1% of the bacteria out of 100 in the intestine is conditionally pathogenic. This is a yeast-like fungus, clostridia, all kinds of staphylococcus, etc. The remaining 99% consist of lacto-and bifidobacteria, enterococci, aerobes and E. coli.
As for the latter, its benefits are sharply detrimental as soon as this type of bacteria penetrates into other organs. In this case, E. coli causes a number of serious infectious diseases of the digestive tract and urinary system.
If such a quantitative ratio changes and pathogenic bacteria begin to multiply, significantly exceeding the allowable 1%, and the beneficial microorganisms are sharply reduced in their numbers, this imbalance is called dysbacteriosis in medicine.
12 most common causes of dysbiosis
- Postponed surgery on the digestive organs.
- Long-term use of laxatives and hormonal drugs, in the process of treating oncological diseases - cytostatic drugs.
- Acclimatization and failure of the usual jet lag.
- Abuse of sweet and fatty foods.
- Monotonous diets and fasting.
- Weakened immunity and diseases of the endocrine system.
- Unstable mental state with prolonged depression and frequent stress.
- Unfavorable environmental conditions.
- Systematic physical fatigue.
- Smoking and drinking alcohol.
- Independent carrying out various cleaning methods.
- Congenital intestinal abnormality, the presence of worms.
Therefore, having found a match in a number of the presented points, do not rush to make a diagnosis yourself.
What is microflora
Intestinal microflora is a complex of many types of microorganisms that exist in symbiosis with a person and are beneficial to him. When a child is born, the intestines only begin to be colonized by these bacteria due to its interaction with the environment. The formation of normal microflora in children occurs within a few years. Usually, only by the age of 12–13 years does a child develop the composition of microflora as in an adult.
The human digestive tract is not completely populated with bacteria. In the stomach and small intestine they are not, because there is very high acidity, and they just do not survive. But closer to the colon, the number of microorganisms increases.
In the presence of normal intestinal microflora digestive problems rarely occur. But often it happens that the balance is disturbed: the beneficial bacteria die, and the pathogens begin to multiply rapidly. At the same time there are unpleasant symptoms, which are called dysbacteriosis. Many doctors do not consider it a separate disease, although this pathology can bring a lot of problems to a person. And it can occur against the background of the absolute health of the entire digestive system.
In the intestine of a healthy person, there are about 100 billion different bacteria, which belong to several hundred species - according to various data from 300 to 1000. But research scientists have determined that only 30-40 species of bacteria actually have a beneficial effect on the body. Each person has his own microflora composition. It affects the type of food, habits, the presence of diseases of the digestive tract.
Bifidobacteria are the main type of beneficial microorganisms that live in the colon. They provide the maintenance of strong immunity and protect the intestines from reproduction of pathogenic flora. In addition, bifidobacteria are an important participant in the digestive process. They help break down and digest proteins, amino acids.
Another group of beneficial microorganisms is lactobacilli. They are also called natural antibiotics, since their main function is to protect the intestines from colonization by pathogenic bacteria, as well as to strengthen and maintain immunity. In addition, enterococci, Escherichia coli, and bacteroids are also useful bacteria. These are the main microorganisms that are necessary for the normal functioning of the intestine.
Recently, scientists are increasingly talking about the beneficial functions of the intestinal flora. They found that it is so important for the normal functioning of the whole organism that its slightest disturbance immediately affects the state of health. Therefore, now often in the complex treatment of many diseases include drugs to restore the balance of microorganisms.
After all, the normal microflora of the large intestine performs several important tasks in the human body. The most important work of beneficial intestinal bacteria is participation in the process of digestion. They accelerate the absorption of amino acids and vitamins, help break down proteins, synthesize some digestive enzymes. Another function of the microflora is that bacteria produce many vitamins, essential amino acids and other beneficial substances. They are involved in the synthesis of vitamins of group B, nicotinic acid, improve the absorption of iron.
The protective function is that the beneficial bacteria prevent the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms, protecting the body from infectious diseases. In addition, the microflora performs an immunomodulatory function - it helps maintain the body's defenses and strengthens the immune system. Beneficial bacteria are involved in the formation of immunoglobulin, which is necessary for good health. The cleansing function of the microflora is that the beneficial microorganisms accelerate the excretion of various toxins and metabolic products from the intestine and are involved in the neutralization of poisons.
Causes of violation
The intestinal flora is disturbed in most cases through the fault of the person himself. His abnormal behavior and nutrition, bad habits, untreated chronic diseases - all this can lead to a change in the balance of microorganisms.
Improper diet is one of the main causes of dysbiosis. Violation of the intestinal microflora occurs when there is a small amount of dietary fiber, which serves as a nutrient medium for beneficial bacteria. In addition, this happens with a monotonous diet, adherence to strict diets, the prevalence of harmful foods in the diet.
Consumption of fast food, alcoholic beverages, fatty and fried foods, a large number of preservatives, sweets, baking and chemical additives can upset the balance of microorganisms. Because of this, the beneficial bacteria die, and the processes of decay and fermentation, which develop with such nutrition, contribute to the growth of pathogenic microflora.
A common cause of dysbacteriosis is long-term use of certain drugs. First of all, these are antibiotics and antiseptics that destroy not only pathogenic bacteria, but also useful ones. It is especially harmful to take such drugs without a doctor's prescription, since specialists usually include complex means to restore microflora in the complex treatment. Immunosuppressants and hormonal drugs, such as contraceptives, can also cause dysbacteriosis. Infringement of microflora can enthusiasm for enemas and other cleansing procedures, as they simply wash out beneficial bacteria.
In addition, dysbiosis can also develop for other reasons:
- hormonal disruptions
- abrupt climate change, for example, when moving,
- bad habits - smoking and drinking alcohol,
- diseases of the digestive tract organs - gastritis, duodenitis, pancreatitis,
- reduced immunity
- transferred infectious or inflammatory diseases, for example, often the microflora is disturbed after diarrhea,
- idiosyncrasy of some products, such as milk or cereal,
- severe stress and mental stress,
- overwork and lack of sleep
- fascination with antibacterial hygiene products, excessive cleanliness,
- poisoning with poor-quality food or drinking dirty water.
Symptoms of dysbiosis
When the balance of beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is disturbed, serious changes occur in the body. First of all, they are reflected in the digestive process. In addition, a violation of the absorption of nutrients leads to a general deterioration. Each person develops an individual reaction to such changes.
But usually dysbacteriosis is characterized by such symptoms:
- violation of the chair,
- abdominal distention, gas production,
- constipation or diarrhea, often alternating them,
- stomach ache,
- nausea, vomiting,
- loss of appetite
- weakness, decreased performance,
- depression, irritability,
- skin allergic reactions.
To effectively cure dysbacteriosis, you need to consider its stage. At the initial stage, the balance of microorganisms is only slightly disturbed, which happens, for example, after eating antibiotics or junk food. At the same time, it is possible to restore the microflora without drugs, only by adjusting the diet, for example, by including more sour-milk products in it. Indeed, at this stage they often speak of the development of transient or transient dysbacteriosis. Often the body can cope with it independently. Serious treatment is needed at stages 3 and 4 of the development of pathology. At the same time, serious symptoms of dysbacteriosis appear: abnormal stool, abdominal pain, vitamin deficiency, apathy and chronic fatigue.
Features of treatment
To restore the intestinal microflora, it is necessary, first of all, to be examined and determine the cause of the pathology. In addition, you need to find out what changes have occurred in the composition of the microflora. For the choice of treatment, it is important not only the ratio of beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, but also their number. To do this, seeding feces for dysbacteriosis. It is prescribed when the patient complains of a violation of the chair, fatigue and flatulence. Examination of feces in combination with such symptoms helps to make a correct diagnosis. This is important in order not to miss the development of more serious diseases: ulcerative colitis, intestinal obstruction, Crohn's disease.
But even if the analysis showed the usual dysbacteriosis, the therapy should be started immediately. After all, useful microorganisms perform many important functions, and without them the work of all organs deteriorates.
Dysbacteriosis treatment begins with a change in diet. You must follow a diet that would provide the body with all the necessary nutrients, but did not obstruct the digestion. It is necessary to exclude all products that destroy beneficial microorganisms or cause flatulence: fatty meats, legumes, mushrooms, cabbage, onions, pastries, sweets. Need to stop drinking alcohol, coffee, carbonated drinks.
It is recommended to use more products with dietary fiber and sour milk beverages. Useful kefir, natural yogurt, sauerkraut, cereal bread, cereal.
At the initial stage of the disease, microflora normalization is possible only with the help of these measures.But in more serious cases, it is necessary to use special drugs. They should be prescribed by a doctor depending on the composition of the microflora, the degree of its violation and the general condition of the patient.
Usually, to improve the intestinal microflora, it is recommended to take probiotics - products containing live, beneficial bacteria. Usually they contain bifidobacteria or lactobacilli. The most effective are complex drugs that contain several different microorganisms.
The best drugs that restore the intestinal microflora are Bifidumbacterin, Lactobacterin, Bifistim, Bifiform, Acipol, Acilact, Hermital. Recently, often prescribed complex means: Linex, Hilak Forte, Maxilak, Florin, Bifikol. It is also recommended to take prebiotics - agents that create a nutrient medium for beneficial bacteria. This is Normaze, Duphalac, Portalak.
In addition, sometimes used drugs to help eliminate the causes of violations of the microflora. It can be enzymes, hepatoprotectors and other means that improve digestion. And to restore immunity and body defenses need vitamins.
The treatment of complex cases
Severe dysbiosis requires special treatment. Conventional preparations for the restoration of microflora in this case will not help, so the doctor prescribes other means according to a special scheme. Typically, this pathology is associated with the rapid reproduction of pathogenic flora in the intestine, so it is important to destroy it. But antibiotics are not suitable for this, as they violate the microflora even more.
Therefore, special intestinal antibiotics are prescribed, which act only on pathogenic bacteria, without destroying the beneficial ones. This may be the drug Enterol containing yeast-like substances saccharomycetes. They are a favorable medium for reproduction of beneficial microflora, but are destructive for pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Ersefuril, Furazolidone, Enterofunil, Piobacteriophage are effective in these cases. And if there are contraindications, you can take Hilak Forte, which has a detrimental effect on some harmful bacteria.
After the destruction of pathogenic microflora, it is necessary to drink a course of enterosobenten to cleanse the intestines from the remnants of these bacteria and their metabolic products. It is best to use Enterosgel, Laktofiltrum, Polysorb or Filtrum Ste. And only after that they take preparations for colonization of the intestines with beneficial microorganisms, as well as prebiotics - products containing dietary fibers, which are a nutrient medium for them.
In addition to the treatment prescribed by the doctor, and in mild cases - independently - you can use folk remedies. There are several popular recipes that will help restore the intestinal microflora:
- more often eat sour fresh apples,
- drink half a glass of pre-heated brine from sauerkraut before meals,
- Every day there are fresh or dried berries of lingonberries,
- instead of tea, drink decoctions of herbs: currant leaves, mint, plantain, chamomile flowers, St. John's wort,
- it is useful to drink the infusion of beet, which has added apple cider vinegar and clove buds.
The normal state of the intestinal microflora is very important for human health. Therefore, when the first symptoms of dysbacteriosis appear, it is necessary to begin a special treatment. But it is better to prevent its occurrence, while avoiding that which contributes to the destruction of good bacteria.
Normal intestinal microflora: lactobacillus + bifidobacteria
Beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract produce a number of enzymes for the breakdown of nutrients. The absorption of vitamins A, E and D, the production of vitamins of group B, biotin, ascorbic, nicotinic, folic acids are also provided by representatives of the normal intestinal microflora. They are involved in the formation of immunity and the fight against pathogenic microbes.
The ratio between beneficial and harmful microbes is broken after taking antibiotics, food poisoning and helminthic diseases. Children and old people are at risk, as well as people who are often under stress, are malnourished. Also adversely to the intestinal microflora acts rotavirus infection. Read more about the drugs that are used for treatment, read here.
Dysbacteriosis and its manifestations
An imbalance of beneficial microflora in the intestine is called dysbiosis. It manifests itself as follows, depending on the severity of the problem:
- Regular bloating, discomfort and rumbling in the stomach in the morning and after meals. If these symptoms are not caused by a single intake of mixed or low-quality food, then it is necessary to reconsider the diet, add more vegetables and fruits to the diet, do not mix foods that have different digestion times.
- Decreased appetite, alternating constipation and diarrhea, nausea, unpleasant taste in the mouth, bad breath, bloating accompanied by pain in the intestines.
- The intestines are inflamed, it ceases to work fully, the feces lose their uniform shape, the food goes undigested. In addition to problems with the digestive tract, a person suffers from chronic fatigue, as he develops anemia.
The consequences of an imbalance of the intestinal microflora:
- disorders of all types of metabolism in the body,
- drop in enzyme activity
- vitamin deficiency
- weakening of immunity
- endocrine disruption,
- the deterioration of the appearance and properties of the skin,
- infectious and inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
- disorders of the respiratory system, heart, blood vessels.
Important! Folk and home remedies are most effective to apply only in the early stages of the development of dysbiosis. In more serious cases, be sure to consult a doctor.
Doctors receive information about the ratio of beneficial and pathogenic intestinal microflora from the coprogram, bacteriological examination of feces. Only after studying the results of the tests, the patient is prescribed treatment. When dysbacteriosis in older people often used colonoscopy - the introduction of an endoscope to inspect the surface of the colon from the inside and identify polyps.
Causes of dysbiosis
A person, and therefore his body is constantly influenced by many factors. Some contribute to the imbalance and disorder in the work of its internal systems. Intestinal microflora is no exception.
Dysbacteriosis can cause:
- medication - antibiotics, hormonal and others,
- chronic diseases of the digestive tract,
- infectious bowel disease,
- endocrine diseases
- worm infestation,
- poor nutrition,
- change of climate and water due to moving, traveling,
- stress and lifestyle choices.
Not all problems are to blame for the person himself - sometimes circumstances lead to the fact that the digestive system cannot function normally. However, both voluntary and involuntary adverse factors can be minimized without bringing the problem to the extreme.
Restore the balance between "good" and "bad" bacteria
In infectious diseases, long-term diarrhea, pathogenic microbes are activated in the intestine. At the same time, the useful species are oppressed, their number is reduced.
What to take to restore the intestinal microflora:
- Prebiotics that create conditions for the growth of beneficial microflora.
- Enterosorbents for binding and excretion of harmful metabolic products.
- Probiotics with cultures of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and Escherichia coli.
- Enzymes to facilitate the work of the digestive glands and the stomach, small intestine.
- Vitamins to improve metabolism and restore bowel function.
- Folk remedies for diarrhea or constipation.
Combined therapy includes the treatment of the primary disease, so doctors prescribe antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics. Preparations should be chosen by the doctor taking into account the causative agent of the disease. The doctor also prescribes medicines for helminthic and parasitic diseases.
Preparations for the normalization of the intestine are used different. They can be divided into several groups:
- Probiotics. They are also called zubiotics. Such tools are natural, as they are based on bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Zubiotics are of two types:
- one-component - represented by Lactobacterin, Baktusubtil, Normoflorin-L (B), Bifidumbacterin,
- multicomponent - represented by Linex, Acilact, Normorflorin-D, Acipol, Narine.
- Prebiotics. They include a nutrient medium - it is necessary for the distribution of the desired microorganisms. Among these drugs Hilak-forte, Duphalac.
- Synbiotics. This group is a complex of previous drugs. It includes Bifidobak, Laminolact, Bifidumbacterin-multi.
- Antibacterial agents. They inhibit the multiplication of the pathogenic environment. Often resort to tetracycline, metronidazole, penicillin.
The course of treatment depends on the factors that caused dysbiosis. For example, antibiotics are first used to recover from antibiotics, and then medicines from among probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics.
Solutions, tablets or capsules with probiotics take at least two weeks to prevent an imbalance of intestinal microflora during treatment with antibiotics. Therapy for dysbacteriosis on the background of helminthic invasion, chronic diseases of the digestive system is longer - from 4 to 6 weeks.
Treatment after poisoning is different. In this case, it is necessary to restore not only the intestines, but also the stomach. In addition to probiotics and prebiotics, digestive enzymes will be needed. This is usually the CREON or PANZINORM tablet.
And here you can learn about the most effective drugs for the treatment of dysbiosis.
Chelators - "sponges" for toxins
Sorbents reduce the growth of pathogenic microflora and promote the removal of toxic substances from the intestine. They take drugs of this group after poisoning, with infectious and allergic diseases. A side effect of enterosorbents is constipation. Therefore, during treatment, increase water intake.
Entrosorbents are not absorbed by the intestinal walls, they only bind toxins released during digestion of food and the activity of harmful microbes. They are then excreted with metabolic products. Sorbents usually do not absorb large molecules of nutrients and vitamins, but with a long reception reduce their amount.
Important! If in the process of treatment there are still frequent constipation, the protective functions of the body are reduced, weakness and apathy appear, it is necessary to visit a therapist - perhaps the reason is not dysbacteriosis, but in another disease of the gastrointestinal tract.
In the normalization of microflora should not be neglected folk remedies. They will cope with minor problems or supplement drug treatment. Traditional medicine usually means inexpensive, but effective means. The active components of medicinal plants protect the intestinal mucosa from damage and irritation by pathogenic microbes. Water infusions of herbs weaken the acute inflammatory reaction and reduce pain. Drinks from leaves, flowers and fruits are drunk in small sips between meals.
Herbal remedies that help restore intestinal microflora:
- Calendula, St. John's wort, ginger, thyme inhibit the reproduction of harmful microbes.
- Chamomile, yarrow, sage have anti-inflammatory effect.
- The fruits of fennel, anise, dill reduce gas formation and spasms.
- Elecampane, flaxseed, marshmallow have an enveloping effect.
- Oak bark, cherry fruit helps with diarrhea.
To restore the intestinal microflora, you can choose one of the following recipes:
- Infusion of dill seeds. It is necessary to pour 4 tsp. means a glass of boiling water and soak for 2 hours. Take the infusion every 2 hours.
- Cabbage pickle. Half a cup is enough before each meal. Brine activates the reproduction of beneficial bacteria.
- Herbal tea. You can choose any basis with an antiseptic effect - plantain, chamomile, St. John's wort, black currant.
- Infusion elecampane. It is necessary to fill the tea boat of the crushed roots with a glass of cold water for the night. In the morning, the composition must be filtered and drunk before each meal at 50 ml.
- Tasty treatment. It is necessary to grind dried apricots and prunes, add honey - all the ingredients in equal volumes. Take a tablespoon in the morning on an empty stomach. This recipe is great for kids.
Important! Despite the prevailing view that herbs are only beneficial, you should consult a doctor before using them.
To normalize the intestinal microflora need to change their eating habits. A sparing diet includes foods that are not irritating to the digestive system, help to clean the intestines, to compensate for the deficiency of vitamins. You should also exclude from the menu fatty, fried, spicy and spicy dishes, soda, reduce the amount of consumed coffee and tea.
The diet is based on several principles:
- Choose easily digestible products. Heavy food enhances the processes of decay and fermentation in the digestive tract.
- Eat more fresh vegetables, herbs and fruits. Preference should be given to seasonal products. However, for some diseases, this recommendation should be carried out with caution.
- Meat and fish choose low-fat varieties. As a treatment, choose boiling, baking or steaming. Frying and smoking do not bring benefits.
- Be sure to include in the diet of cereals. For breakfast you should choose buckwheat or rolled oats.
- Avoid simple carbohydrates, especially sugar and confectionery.
- Follow the drinking regime, but do not drink food. It enhances fermentation.
- Eat dairy products with probiotics. It is important to distinguish between healthy food and advertising - the shelf life of the right products can not be long.
- Eat fractional and little by little. It is important to chew food - food culture must be observed not only because of the rules of decency, but also for their own health.
- Replace black tea with green tea without sugar and at least once or twice a day with a compote of dried fruit or rosehip broth. They will help to quickly clean the intestines, protecting its walls.
This style of food should be a daily menu for 3-4 weeks. Dieting with drugs will allow the intestinal microflora to fully update in this time.
Common clinical signs of intestinal dysbiosis
It is possible to confirm or deny dysbacteriosis exclusively with the help of laboratory diagnostics. But even in this case, there are no uniform strict indicators. Absolutely every person under the norm means purely individual quantitative and qualitative parameters in the ratio of bacteria.
The main features are:
- fatigue and poor appetite
- excessive gas formation
- nausea and persistent bad taste in the mouth,
- diarrhea, constipation or alternation,
- abdominal pain
- excessive sweating,
- bad breath,
- belching and heartburn,
- itching and burning in the anus,
- all signs of beriberi: fragility of nails and hair, chapped lips and dry skin,
- food allergies and corresponding skin rashes,
- headaches and fever.
Before you make any categorical conclusions, do not forget to take into account that about 90% of the total number of patients in whom dysbacteriosis has long been progressing, except for constipation or diarrhea, do not feel any discomfort at all.This fact is another good reason to conduct a laboratory analysis of feces for dysbiosis and not to engage in useless self-treatment.
Modern and effective methods of treatment
The effectiveness of treating an imbalance in the microflora always depends, first of all, on the true causes of its occurrence, as well as on the severity and stage of the disease. This will be determined by a professional gastroenterologist, and the results of the examination will significantly affect the choice of treatment and the correct selection of drugs. The process itself is quite long and in advanced cases can take several months.
Medical treatment aims to restore the intestinal microflora, correct the immune system and completely eliminate the symptoms of the disorder. Each product contains different groups of bacteria and, accordingly, has a different effect. Therefore, in most cases, the treatment is complex, and the most successful combination will be such drug groups.
- Bacteriophages. A virus that enters the cell and dissolves it.
- Antibiotics. They are selected taking into account the degree of sensitivity of specific microorganisms to this drug.
- Intestinal antiseptics (Nifuroksazid, Ciprofloxacin, Furazolidone, etc.).
- Immunomodulators (Echinacea, Dibazol).
- Multivitamins (Multitabs, Dekamevit, etc.).
- Probiotics and prebiotics.
- Vegetable antiseptics (Chlorophyllipt).
Treatment with probiotics and prebiotics
Probiotics and prebiotics are two fundamentally different categories of drugs that differ substantially in nature, but at the same time perform the same task: restoring intestinal functions and creating all favorable conditions for the normalization of microflora.
Probiotic contains live lacto-and bifidobacteria, various combinations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria. In the treatment of dysbacteriosis, the main benefits of this category are as follows:
- strengthens the intestinal mucous layer, which is a major barrier to pathogenic bacteria,
- stops the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and resists their attachment to the intestinal walls,
- stimulates immunity, provides resistance of antibodies against viruses,
- produces vitamin B for full metabolism,
- destroys toxins secreted by pathogenic microorganisms.
Prebiotics are organic carbohydrates that directly affect the accelerated growth and development of beneficial intestinal bacteria. The category includes dietary fiber, lactose, inulin, lactulose, and fructosaccharides.
The therapeutic effect is as follows:
- increase the acidity in the intestinal environment, thereby counteracting the development of harmful bacteria,
- neutralize the harmful effects of antibiotics,
- increase the amount of feces, stimulating the bowels,
- significantly reduce the concentration of cortisol in the blood,
- eliminate bloating and gas formation,
- reduce appetite
- in the initial stages they block the development of malignant tumors in the large intestine,
- remove toxins, heavy metal salts and other toxic substances,
- promote the accelerated exit of mucus from the stomach walls,
- Acid-base balance is maintained within the normal range.
The most popular prebiotics include Lakusan, Dufalak, Lizalak, Pikovit, DiRezen, Proslabin, Khilak Forte, Laktofiltrum and Goodluck syrup.
In the process of treatment, symbiotics are prescribed when it is necessary to obtain maximum effectiveness in the shortest possible time. These are drugs that, in a certain combination, combine probiotics with prebiotics at the same time and have a powerful beneficial effect on the microflora.
The therapeutic effect is as follows:
- produce folic acid, vitamin K, pyridoxine and niacin,
- normalize cholesterol levels
- maximize immunity,
- provide lasting protection against carcinogens, toxins, radiation and antibiotics,
- normalizes intestinal peristalsis,
- destroy pathogenic bacteria,
- normalize intestinal microflora balance.
Despite the similar effects with probiotics, the positive result from the treatment lasts much longer.
The most popular symbiotics in pharmacology are Bacteriobalance, Symbiolact, Bifidin, Linex, Polybacterin, Trilact, Bifiform, etc.
The role of enzymes in dysbacteriosis
The help of enzymes in the process of treatment becomes necessary when complications in digestion arise. Vivid symptoms are flatulence, belching, severe heartburn. Enzymes of both animal and plant origin are used. The first ones are much more effective due to the fact that their composition is identical to the enzymes that the human body produces.
But when treating with enzymes it is especially important to focus on the original cause of dysbiosis. The selected drug should be the best option for the effects on the affected organ that provoked an imbalance in the intestinal microflora. A positive result is expressed in the normalization of the stomach, pancreas and the restoration of the intestine.
Most often appointed by Pancreatin, Festal, Creon, Mezim.
Symbiotics and prebiotics cause the death of harmful microorganisms, as a result of which the intestines are filled with toxic decomposition products of these bacteria. Their accumulation is unacceptable and cleaning procedures for the intestines are not only useful, but also necessary.
Most often used for this enema or different herbal infusions, but with the withdrawal of toxic toxins also do an excellent job:
- Activated carbon,
- magnesium sulfate,
- fiber-rich foods
- baking soda,
- yogurt or kefir
- Castor oil,
- still mineral water.
Prevention of intestinal microflora disorders
As a preventive measure to prevent dysbiosis, a whole complex is implied, which requires both compliance with a balanced diet and certain medications, and even a fundamental change in the usual way of life.
The most affordable and easy-to-do ones are as follows:
- mandatory breaks during sedentary work,
- walking for at least 30 minutes a day,
- systematic hardening procedures,
- if bowel aggravation is not observed - daily consumption of berries, fruits and fresh vegetables is desirable,
- vegetable fats, dairy products, meat and fish should be in the usual menu only in boiled form,
- drug prophylaxis with the use of probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics,
- avoid psychological stress and surges in every way.
Possible adverse effects
Prolonged neglect of the problem and lack of proper treatment can lead to a number of detrimental consequences for the whole body. There comes a time when the damaged microflora completely blocks the absorption of vitamins and nutrients from the incoming food.
As a rule, in the majority of such neglected cases, this leads to such violations.
- Persistent severe allergic reactions.
- Bronchial asthma.
- Systematic agonizing constipation.
- Progresses the development of sclerosis.
- Signs of arthritis appear.
- In adult patients, there are prerequisites for benign and malignant tumors.
- Seborrhea, alopecia and acne almost always occur.
- Anemia and dyspepsia.
- Development of a rickets-like state due to the extremely low absorbability of vitamin D, iron and calcium.
- Intestinal obstruction and ulcerative colitis.
Accurate diagnosis and early action can only predict a successful outcome in treatment. Adequate therapy, a conscious attitude and a healthy lifestyle of the patient to the existing problem almost always guarantee a 100% cure in the next 2 months.
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The composition and importance of intestinal microflora
The optimal functioning of the digestive tract is provided by the millions of microorganisms that are found in the small and large intestine. There are both beneficial and pathogenic microbes. Their lifelong qualitative and quantitative balance changes throughout the life, continues to change as the child grows through contact with other people and factors such as food digestion.
Under the influence of adverse conditions, beneficial microorganisms are sharply reduced, which leads to the rapid growth of pathogens. Which, in turn, begin to influence the formation of the disease in the body.
The composition of the intestinal microflora
Pathogens are not harmful to health, as long as their concentration does not exceed the norm.
Good microflora performs a number of important functions for our health and well-being. It helps to synthesize vitamins B and K, metabolizes sterols and bile acids. Helps to get energy from the fermentation of carbohydrates. Intestinal microflora stimulates cell growth, inhibits the growth of harmful bacteria and other microorganisms.
Intestinal microflora helps strengthen the immune system. There are well-known immune reactions, such as stimulation of antibacterial compounds in response to bacterial invasion that caused inflammation, subsequent damage, interaction with the receptor for protection against pathogens.
Intestinal microflora helps to synthesize vitamins, such as folate and biotin, and also promotes the absorption of minerals: calcium, iron and magnesium. It allows a person to get nutrients from a wider variety of foods.
Bacteria are associated with the prevention of allergies, because it basically represents an over-reaction of the immune system to harmless antigens.
In people with allergies, indicators of harmful bacteria are exceeded.
The frequency of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome is another indicator of the response of the immune system to the microflora.
Normal intestinal microflora actually prevents inflammatory processes in the intestines, can inhibit them.
With increasing pathogenesis, a process called dysbacteriosis begins to form.
Nutritional norms for dysbacteriosis
Useful lacto-and bifidobacteria in the intestines contribute to the proper breakdown of food and the absorption of nutrients from it. When the percentage of pathogens increases, this process is disrupted.
The presence of dysbiosis can lead to inflammatory and catarrhal diseases.
There are certain rules of nutrition for dysbacteriosis. Such a diet to restore the intestinal microflora effectively helps to normalize the balance of harmful and beneficial bacteria.
Diet involves the elimination of foods that are rapidly absorbed by the intestines, can lead to adverse effects. Vegetables and fruits, especially during the exacerbation of the disease, must undergo heat treatment.
Avoid high-fiber vegetables.
- vegetable, fruit puree,
- steamed vegetables,
- stewed fruit,
- neutral acid juices
- light soups,
- milk products,
- oat flour,
- almonds, pine nuts,
- leafy green vegetables,
- whole grain food.
- lean meat, fish,
- stale white bread
- galetny cookies.
In dysbacteriosis, complete exclusion of certain types of products is necessary, the consumption of which favorably influences the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.
- smoked meats, spices,
- pickles, pickles,
- fried, sour food,
- fatty meats, fish,
- tropical fruits (figs, dates, quince),
- White rice,
- Rye flour,
How to restore the microflora in the intestines - proven methods
To establish a balance of microorganisms in the intestinal tract, complex treatment is required. If you follow the dietary standards on nutrition, but abuse antibiotics, the treatment may be delayed or lead to health complications. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the whole way of life.
The best probiotics and prebiotics
Probiotics are vital microorganisms that contribute to the restoration and normalization of microflora in the intestinal tract. The main function of probiotics is to assist in the assimilation of micronutrients from food in the digestion process.
Probiotics are divided into:
Probiotics create a protective film on the intestinal walls and prevent pathogens from multiplying.
Prebiotics should be prescribed in conjunction with the use of probiotics. They are special ingredients that are consumed with food. Prebiotics create a favorable environment for the reproduction and assimilation of probiotics.
The most effective prebiotic contains inulin, not starch.
At the moment there are a wide range of both domestic and foreign drugs. All of them differ in composition and quantity of bifidus and lactobacilli.
The best probiotics:
The best prebiotics:
- Khilak Forte,
- pantothenic acid.
With the help of enzymes
With complex treatment of dysbiosis prescribe fermented drugs. They relieve the work of the intestinal system when using drugs and help improve digestion.
With insufficient pancreatic function.
In case of violation of the liver.
Digestive disorders caused by gastritis.
For the treatment of flatulence with dysbacteriosis in addition to the enzymes prescribed Pankreoflet and Zymopleks.
Conservative treatment based on the use of home methods can also affect the positive dynamics of beneficial microflora in the intestine.
Folk Tips for the restoration of intestinal microflora:
- Eating garlic on an empty stomach, washed down with a small amount of water.
- Kefir with garlic.
Peel the middle head of garlic and pour a liter of kefir. Keep in the refrigerator for 3 days. Drink 1 tablespoon 3 times a day.
- Decoction of chamomile and eucalyptus.
Mix herbs in equal proportions and pour boiling water over it. Insist for a day. Take ¼ cup 1 time per day.
At bedtime, the enema procedure is performed. Fresh kefir is heated to a warm state and injected into the rectum. After the enema should go to bed, excluding locomotor activity.
10 grams of propolis is poured over 1 liter of cold water. After precipitation, the water is drained and 100 ml of alcohol are added. Remove tincture for a week in a dark place. To accept 3 times a day on 30 drops, diluting in liquid.
How to establish flora with fermented milk products
Fermented milk products are able to restore the intestinal microflora and improve the function of the digestive tract. Their composition contains a large amount of lacto-, bifidobacteria, vitamins and trace elements. They prevent the reproduction of pathogenic organisms, activate the formation of B vitamins and help absorb carbohydrates.
You should stop the choice on fermented milk products without additives and artificial sweeteners. It is also necessary to consider the shelf life of the product, it should not be more than 5 days.In products with a long shelf life of live microorganisms are absent. When adding natural bacterial starters, you can also prepare fermented milk products at home.
Also in order to maintain the health of the body and youth, it is recommended to regularly clean the intestines.