Seborrheic dermatitis on the face and scalp

Currently, it is known that these yeast-like lipophilic fungi are a constant component of the normal microflora of the skin in more than 78% of the population. Mushrooms are concentrated around the sebaceous glands and use their secret as a source of fatty acids necessary for the growth and development of fungi. When used as a nutrient medium triglycerides of sebum, Malassezia globosa secretes unsaturated fatty acids, whose components cause irritation, inflammation and flaking of the skin, and also weakens the barrier function of the skin. After that, oleic acid, which is part of the sebum, begins to irritate the skin.

Under certain conditions, the body loses its ability to control the growth of fungi. Malassezia and keep them in a saprophytic state. At the same time, if in normal the microflora of the scalp contains 46% Malassezia, then with dandruff (a weak form of diabetes) it consists of 74% of them, while with diabetes the number of fungi reaches 83%. Thus, it has been established that with clinically severe diabetes, Malassezia is booming. It was also noted that Malassezia has lipase activity due to the action of lipolytic enzymes that break down sebum into free fatty acids, which, on the one hand, are necessary for its growth, and on the other hand, provoke skin inflammation in its colonization areas. There is a point of view that diabetes is an inflammatory reaction to this microorganism, but it is believed that this assumption still requires evidence.

Factors

At present, a large number of factors contributing to the hyperactivation of fungal microflora and, as a consequence of this, the occurrence of diabetes have been identified. It should be noted that, by their nature, these factors are mainly neurogenic, hormonal, and immune.

General information

Ceboreal dermatitis - It is a disease of human skin, which develops as a consequence of disorders in the functioning of the sebaceous glands. In the process of developing seborrhea, there is very intense sebum production. As a rule, manifestations of the disease are noted during puberty in adolescents, seborrheic dermatitis in children is also diagnosed.

This discharge of sebum can be observed both on the scalp and on the face, as well as on other parts of the body where the greatest number of sebaceous glands is located.

Types of seborrheic dermatitis

In addition to the described forms of the disease, several varieties are also defined, which are distinguished by signs and characteristics of the course. The easiest form of seborrheic dermatitis is considered seborrheic eczematid. In this case, a person has a slight peeling and moderate redness of the affected areas. With the defeat of the eyebrows, scalp, folds behind the ears, the middle part of the patient's chest can be disturbed by severe itching. With perinasal erythema, which is considered a type of seborrheic eczematid, lesions occur mainly in women.

The classic form of the disease is considered to be spotted seborrheic dermatitis, in which there is a chronic course with periodic exacerbations. In this case, there is not only damage to the scalp under the hair, but also the skin on the face. Initially, small scattered dots are formed on the face, which gradually grow. As a result, limited oval-shaped plaques that have a yellowish tint are formed. At the same time, the inflammation is relatively weak, and the lesions are covered with fat scales.

Causes of seborrheic dermatitis

Until today, there is no clear information about the causes and mechanisms of seborrhea in humans. However, it is possible to talk about the direct influence on the development of the disease of certain genetic factors. In addition, the disease often manifests itself in carriers staphylococcus. The yeast Pityrosporum ovale can act as the causative agent of the disease. Seborrhea is diagnosed in individuals with hormonal imbalance, resulting in increased excretion in the body. androgen and decreases the level of secreted estrogen. The disease has a certain connection with the violation of the human gastrointestinal tract. It should be noted that seborrhea very quickly becomes chronic, with subsequent relapses of the disease.

In adolescents, the disease develops due to increased secretion of the sebaceous glands. In addition, the manifestations of the disease can cause the following conditions: obesity, epilepsy, ailments of the nervous system, alcoholism, stress, external influences. As a rule, exacerbations of seborrheic dermatitis occur in winter and autumn, that is, during the cold period.

Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis

In a sick person, the skin looks greasy, shiny, while it has a grayish tint and a relatively uneven surface.
There are three different forms of the disease - fat, dry and mixed. If we are talking about the fat form of the disease, then it, in turn, is divided into a thick and fatty form, depending on the quality of fat.

Most often, signs of fluid seborrhea are observed in girls aged 10 to 14 years. Sebum, which is released from the glands, has a liquid consistency. If you press on the skin on the nose, cheeks, nasolabial folds, there is a noticeable oily liquid that is released from the glands. Recently washed hair is also very quickly becoming greasy. When fatty form often develops. pyoderma. In women during pregnancy or feeding the child, as well as in the period of intense mental labor, manifestations of seborrhea often increase.

Signs of thick seborrhea are more often seen in males between the ages of 16 and 20 years. In the course of the development of the disease, the elasticity of the skin decreases, it becomes more dense, the mouths of the sebaceous glands expand. At the same time, the contents of the glands are hardly squeezed out, as it has a rather dense consistency. In this form of the disease often occur atheroma, pyoderma, abscesses.

Children most often have dry seborrhea, which requires special treatment. Such children usually have seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, but sometimes the skin is also affected. At the same time, whitish flakes appear on the child’s skin. If they are removed, then there is reddened skin under them. Thinning hair is observed on the scalp on the affected areas.

Mixed form of seborrhea is more typical for men. In this case, the skin of the face may be affected by oily seborrhea, and areas of dry seborrhea form under the hair.

The disease can occur in different ways: sometimes only small pockets of the disease develop, in other cases extensive erythroderma. Sometimes there is also a complication of dermatitis with acne and secondary infection.

Diagnostics

Special difficulties in the process of diagnosis of doctors, as a rule, are not observed. However, a specialist dermatologist must not only differentiate the disease from alopecia, psoriasis, as well as other skin ailments, but also to determine which reason became the main predisposing factor in this case. Only after conducting all the necessary research, the doctor prescribes appropriate therapy.

In order for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis to have the desired effect, it is imperative that you follow all the recommendations of the doctor. Most specialists, when deciding how to treat a patient, must take a comprehensive approach to this issue. In any form of the disease, vitamin therapy is mandatory; it is especially important to take E-retinol, group A vitamins. These vitamins normalize the process of exfoliation and keratinization. In some cases it is advisable to carry out treatment with multivitamin means. In determining how to treat seborrhea, the doctor may also prescribe riboflavin, left carnitine. For topical treatment, corticosteroids are used on the face and scalp.

In some cases, treatment with folk remedies can also have a positive effect. But if a bacterial infection joins the disease during its development, then, as a rule, the attending physician prescribes a course. antibiotics. Mostly used antibiotics with a wide spectrum of action. But if there are results of microscopic examination or bacterial seeding, then it is possible to assign an agent that directly affects the specific causative agent of the disease.
If the patient has developed only a mild degree of seborrhea, then in some cases the most common cosmetic methods will help to get rid of this problem. In particular, it is enough to wash your hair regularly, picking up a suitable shampoo. It is also worth applying medicinal lotions, masks and balms.

If there are no signs of inflammation on the skin, you can practice some cosmetic procedures, such as facial cleansing, masks with anti-inflammatory and resorbing effects, therapeutic massage sessions.

Patients with seborrhea must always adhere to the rules of the day regimen and healthy eating, rest normally, as well as promptly treat all infectious diseases to avoid the appearance of foci of chronic infection in the body. An effective method to prevent the progression of the disease is to follow a diet that excludes fatty, fried foods, too fatty foods, sweets, and white bread. These products are considered such that exacerbate the manifestations of seborrhea, so the diet can significantly improve the patient's condition.

Seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis - skin disease associated with an increase in secretion and change in the quality of sebum, and accompanied by inflammation of the skin. Manifested by the appearance of areas of greasy, shiny, shiny skin on the face, head, back, chest, thickening of the skin, greasy hair and dandruff, inflammatory areas of erythema on the skin, slight itching. Seborrheic dermatitis contributes to the development of pustular diseases, acne vulgaris, mental and physical discomfort of the patient. Therapy for seborrheic dermatitis includes a hypoallergenic diet, anti-mycotic treatment, and physiotherapy (cryo-massage, darsonvalization).

Manifestations of seborrheic dermatitis in adults

Seborrheic dermatitis occurs in the type of dermatitis with pronounced inflammation in the form of papulo-squamous eruptions. The foci of inflammation are clearly delineated, red in color and covered with a layer of fat scales, which consist of desquamated epidermis. In seborrheic dermatitis, the spots tend to grow peripherally and merge. Usually, seborrheic dermatitis affects the scalp, face and upper body, that is, the skin is rich in sebaceous glands. When immunodeficiency seborrheic dermatitis affects the armpits and inguinal folds.

Approximately 3-5% of the adult population from 20 to 40 years suffer from seborrheic dermatitis, although dandruff and seborrhea preceding it are much more common. Very rarely, the disease develops until puberty, which is associated with the characteristics of sebaceous excretion in different age groups.

When seborrheic dermatitis first appears dandruff, and therefore dandruff, which is not amenable to treatment, is one of the signs of hyperactivity in pythyrophoric fungi. In the future, peri-follicular redness and the formation of seborrheic plaques, which due to peripheral growth over time occupy most of the scalp, are noted. Seborrheic dermatitis is accompanied by hair loss, the normal number of which is restored only during remission.

Peelings are often localized behind the ears, which leads to the appearance of crusted cracks prone to bleeding. The occurrence of persistent external otitis may be the only manifestation of seborrheic dermatitis or may be combined with other seborrheic skin lesions. Due to excessive flaking, the scalp is densely covered with scales glued together with sebum. When they are removed, a bright pink, inflamed surface is exposed, which is often painful. Severe pruritus, which is accompanied by seborrheic dermatitis, contributes to maceration and the accession of a secondary infection. The flakes exfoliate both individually and in large layers, and therefore the exfoliated epidermis can be observed in the mass of hair and on clothing. In people with dark hair they are more noticeable.

Seborrheic dermatitis of the skin is accompanied by rashes in the area of ​​the eyebrows, in the area of ​​the nasolabial folds, and is usually combined with manifestations of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. If the eyelid skin is involved in the process, then seborrheic dermatitis proceeds as a blepharitis with layering of numerous white scales and yellowish crusts.

Unlike dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis is not only an aesthetic problem, since it often turns into seborrheic eczema, is generalized with the subsequent development of erythroderma and is complicated by pyoderma.

Manifestations of seborrheic dermatitis in children

Seborrheic dermatitis in children is diagnosed up to 6 months and by the time of complete or partial cessation of breastfeeding, its symptoms gradually fade away. In adulthood, the occurrence of seborrheic dermatitis is neither related to its appearance in infancy. The main cause of seborrheic dermatitis in babies is the increased hormone levels in their mother's milk. It is clinically manifested by red rashes with clear outlines, a diffuse lesion of natural folds and cortical scales on the scalp. Erythematous-vesicular rash scaly, but their appearance is not accompanied by itching, so the child’s sleep does not suffer. And, despite the fact that breastfed babies are prone to the risk of seborrheic dermatitis, when the mother has hormonal disorders, and babies who are fed artificially, the prognosis for treatment is favorable. With nutrition correction, recovery occurs in a few months. In the case when the rash does not pass, you need to differentiate seborrheic dermatitis with atopic. Important differences between which is that atopic dermatitis is accompanied by itching and is prone to frequent relapses, which is not observed with seborrheic dermatitis.

Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis

Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis should be comprehensive, aimed at both the elimination of clinical manifestations and the correction of the diseases that caused it. First of all, it is necessary to normalize the diet; a hypoallergenic diet is recommended. The diet should include foods rich in vitamins B, A, C, selenium and zinc. However, it should be noted that hypervitaminosis and an excess of trace elements in the body can cause other complications.

Locally resorted to etiotropic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis, using antifungal drugs containing ketoconazole and miconazole. However, due to the thick layer of flakes, the active substance does not fully affect the fungi, therefore, in the presence of flakes, applications with vegetable oils and keratolytic ointments are used, after which antifungal therapy is started.The entire period of treatment of seborrheic dermatitis is necessary to use shampoos for the treatment of hair, which include zinc, keratolytic components and components that eliminate excess sebum, but not over-drying the skin.

In the initial stages of seborrheic dermatitis, experts try to avoid using external agents containing ketoconazole, since long-term use of these drugs causes impotence in boys, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction in adult men.

From physiotherapy shows cryomassage and the impact of high-frequency currents according to Darsonwal. With cryomassage, the scalp area is cooled, which, first of all, relieves the symptoms of pruritus and soothes inflamed skin, the effectiveness of cryomassage is also to improve microcirculation and strengthen the scalp vessels. It enhances local immunity and improves skin condition in patients with seborrheic dermatitis. When darsonvalization occurs, the skin dries out, due to which the scales separate off faster, and the fresh epidermis becomes more resistant to mechanical damage. As a result of darsonvalization, the life cycle of cells is normalized and their premature detachment is eliminated. In addition, high-frequency currents have a calming effect on the nervous system, which helps to normalize the level of adrenaline and testosterone in the blood, as with their high concentration, the activity of the sebaceous glands is activated.

With the ineffectiveness of antifungal drugs, hormone-containing ointments are prescribed, and in case of complication with pyoderma, antibacterial agents. It should be borne in mind that the use of these drugs without indications is not permissible, since antibiotics, affecting the entire microflora, can cause increased colonization of pythyrophoric fungi, and hormonal preparations with long-term use lead to atrophy of the epidermis.

Since the incidence of seborrheic dermatitis is constantly increasing and in the absence of adequate treatment leads to baldness, special attention should be paid to a healthy lifestyle and timely correction of dandruff, which leads to seborrhea, which is the beginning of seborrheic dermatitis.

What is seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis

Translated from the Greek "sebum" means "fat", "Ray" - "flow." Thus, seborrhea is the secretion of sebum. It can be both higher and lower than the physiological norm. In any case, this phenomenon does not bring anything good to the skin.

Dermatitis is also called an inflammatory process on the skin. Thus, seborrheic dermatitis refers to a condition when the skin becomes inflamed due to an excess or lack of sebum. And since the skin performs an important protective function in the body, this cannot but affect overall health.

How does seborrhea differ from seborrheic dermatitis? Seborrhea is a symptom, and dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that is usually associated with seborrhea. However, skin inflammation is often called seborrhea.

In the international classification of diseases of seborrheic dermatitis assigned code L21.

Sebaceous glands and their function

As you know, our skin contains a huge number of small glands that secrete various substances. Probably everyone knows about the sweat glands, because there is no such person who would never sweat. However, most people know much less about the sebaceous glands and their functions. Usually, the sebaceous glands are grouped near the follicles - places on the skin where hair grows. It is the follicles that leave the ducts of the sebaceous glands. This situation is observed everywhere on the human body. Only in very few parts of the body are the sebaceous glands unrelated to the follicles (for example, on the skin of the auricles). There are also very few parts of the body where there are no sebaceous glands at all - for example, palms and soles.

The substance that sebaceous glands secrete is sebum (sebum). It makes the skin more elastic, protects hair and skin from adverse effects. Creating a lipid film on the skin surface, the sebum prevents the epidermis from drying out, since it retains moisture on its surface. Also, the sebaceous glands perform a certain immune function, because the protective film created by them prevents many pathogenic microorganisms from penetrating the skin.

Malassezia fungi and their role in the onset of seborrheic dermatitis

The secret of the sebaceous glands consists mainly of residues of dead cells of these glands - sebocytes. From a chemical point of view, it contains various fatty acids. As you know, fats are an excellent nutrient for various microorganisms. In particular, the secret of the sebaceous glands with a benefit for itself uses a number of opportunistic fungi that inhabit our skin. These are mainly fungi from the genus Malassezia (Pityrosporum). The name of this microorganism was given by the name of the French scientist, microbiologist L. Malasse, who discovered it in the late 19th century.

Fungi inhabit the skin of the majority (and more precisely, 80%) of people and, as a rule, behave quietly and peacefully. But as it turns out, only up to a certain point. This is due to the fact that they are not the predominant component in the skin microflora, because other microorganisms live on the skin, mainly lactobacilli.

Malassezia fungi are able to process the organic matter contained in the secretion of the sebaceous glands. As a result, they release fatty acids that irritate the skin. Because of this, the barrier function of the skin may be impaired. And this, in turn, leads to the fact that certain components of the secretion of the sebaceous glands, in particular, oleic acid, become toxic. A change in the composition of sebum under the influence of endocrine and neurogenic factors also plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, the secretion of linoleic acid, which plays an important role in creating a protective barrier on the skin's surface, is reduced.

Exposure to fungi causes the skin to peel off faster. Normally, the cycle of complete cell regeneration of the upper layer of the skin (epidermis) is about a month. And seborrhea can significantly speed up this process.

The threshold proportion of Malassezia fungi, among other microflora, at which fungi do not show their pathological properties is 50%. If the fungus becomes larger, then the person begins to have a precursor of seborrheic dermatitis - dandruff. This symptom is observed in about every third person.

And if fungi almost completely suppress the skin microflora, and their concentration exceeds 80%, then the occurrence of seborrheic dermatitis is inevitable. As a rule, this disease is caused by two types of fungi - Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta.

Fungi live almost everywhere around the sebaceous glands. Consequently, almost any part of the body and any part of the skin can be affected by seborrheic dermatitis. But the greatest number of glands is located on the skin of the crown, temples and occiput. That is why seborrhea is most often associated with the head, although this is not always the case.

Can you get dermatitis?

Seborrheic dermatitis is not contagious, unlike, for example, from lichen of the skin. Although it is manifested not least due to the fungus, it must be remembered that such a fungus is characteristic of almost all people. Therefore, to transfer the disease by direct contact is impossible, even if the affected part of the patient's skin comes into contact with the skin of a healthy person. After all, the disease occurs not only because of the fungus, but also because of a number of other factors - neurogenic and hormonal, which another person may be missing.

Seborrhea scalp, as the cause of baldness

Seborrheic dermatitis often becomes the cause of alopecia (alopecia). In this case, a person falls part of the hair on his head. The mechanism of alopecia is the deterioration of the blood supply to the follicles. Typically, the loss begins with the fronto-parietal zone, then goes to the skin in other places. If the disease is accompanied by the death of follicles, then baldness will become irreversible.

Who is ill with seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp

Anyone can become ill with seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp - a man, a woman, an adult, and a child (including infants). However, most often dermatitis is fixed in men. Sometimes there is a statement that women suffer from seborrhea of ​​the scalp more often. However, this is most likely due to the fact that women simply pay more attention to the dangerous symptoms and more often turn to the skin doctor. The most vulnerable category is young men and teenagers. However, young people under 40 may suffer from it. In older age, seborrheic inflammation is rare.

Among all groups of people, the incidence of seborrheic skin inflammation is 3-5%. A mild form of oily seborrhea in adolescence can be considered the physiological norm. Typically, such seborrhea ends with the end of puberty.

Hormonal changes

The main contributing factor is hormonal. After all, various hormones control the secretion of skin glands, including the sebaceous. Male hormones - androgens - are especially active in this area. This is testosterone and, to an even greater degree, dihydrotestosterone resulting from the transformations. As you know, a strong release of male sex hormones occurs during puberty in adolescence. And at this very time the probability of getting sick is maximum. This is due to the fact that male hormones usually increase the secretion of sebum. In adult males, increased sebum secretion is also often associated with hereditary factors.

However, women can also develop skin seborrheic inflammation. Doctors believe that this is due to a change in the balance between different hormones - estrogen, testosterone and progesterone. An increase in testosterone concentration in women can also lead to an increase in secretion of the skin sebaceous glands. Most often, teenage girls and women in menopause are sick.

Also, seborrheic dermatitis can be observed with hormonal diseases such as Cushing's disease.

Neurogenic factor

The second factor is neurogenic. It is well known that nerves can control sweat secretion. Indeed, it is not for nothing that the skin becomes covered with sweat when a person is frightened or worried. However, not everyone knows that the nervous system has a similar effect on the sebaceous glands.

Therefore, exacerbation or the first appearance of seborrheic dermatitis can cause stress or nervous diseases. This is most likely due to the influence that the central nervous system has on the vegetative system. Namely, the latter regulates the secretion of sebum.

Often the impetus for the development of seborrheic dermatitis may be encephalitis, manic-depressive psychosis, schizophrenia.

Also, seborrheic dermatitis is often found in Parkinson's disease, paralysis. However, in this case, the mechanism of the onset of the disease is associated not only with a neurogenic factor, but also with a lack of patient motor activity.

Immunodeficiency states

Also an important role in the development of the disease is played by immunity, more precisely, its weakening. Various immunodeficiency states are found in a significant number of patients with skin seborrheic inflammation. This is particularly pronounced for carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A significant proportion of them are ill with seborrheic dermatitis. And if HIV caused AIDS in a patient, then in this case the incidence rate approaches one hundred percent. So far, it is not entirely clear what mechanisms cause such rapid development of seborrheic dermatitis in the presence of HIV in the body.

However, insufficient immunity can be observed not only with HIV. The cause of this condition can be severe infectious and systemic diseases, limited physical activity, lack of vitamins and microelements. These circumstances can also lead to intense inflammation on the skin.

Other factors

Of course, you should not overlook other factors that lead to inflammation of the skin, although they have a slightly smaller effect. Factors that trigger the disease include:

  • poor skin hygiene, rare hair washing,
  • improper, inadequate or unbalanced nutrition,
  • lack of vitamins and trace elements in the body (especially zinc, PP, H vitamins),
  • severe endocrine and metabolic diseases, such as thyroid dysfunction, diabetes,
  • genetic predisposition
  • the use of skin-irritating agents for washing or aggressive alkaline cosmetics,
  • excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis),
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • diseases of the nervous system
  • lack of exercise
  • food allergies
  • sudden changes in temperature
  • walking without a hat,
  • the use of certain drugs (hormones, anabolic steroids, some antidepressants and psychotropic drugs),
  • dysbacteriosis.

Some of these factors a person is able to control and thereby prevent the occurrence of the disease.

Types of seborrheic dermatitis

Depending on the level of sebum secretion, they secrete fat and dry type of seborrheic dermatitis. In the oily form of seborrheic dermatitis, the level of secretion is increased. Formed large dandruff in the form of large flakes. Hair and skin look greasy and unwashed. The main contingent of patients is men and young men. For this type of seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by an abundance on the skin of various parts of the body acne.

With the dry type, sebostasis is observed - stagnation of the secret. Therefore, the skin becomes dry, sometimes it cracks. Does not help from dryness and frequent washing. However, the symptoms of acute inflammation of the skin are absent. Dandruff is fine, looks like whitish dust. This type of dermatitis is often found on the scalp. The primary cause of dry seborrheic dermatitis is often immunodeficiency as a result of excessive physical or emotional stress, improper diet.

There is also a mixed type of the disease with alternating dry and oily skin. This option is more typical for adult men.

Congenital and acquired disease types

Seborrhea can be congenital or acquired. With congenital seborrhea, the high activity of the sebaceous glands on the skin is due to genetic factors. Congenital dermatitis is practically not treated. However, fortunately, it is rarely observed. Most often, doctors are faced with acquired skin disease. Acquired skin disease can be successfully cured if you determine its cause.

Type of seborrheic dermatitiswho are sick more oftencharacteristic signs
Dry form of seborrheic dermatitischildren and adolescents before pubertydry skin, cracking skin
Oily form of seborrheic dermatitisadolescents in pubertyincreased sebum secretion, the formation of acne and acne on the skin
Mixed form of seborrheic dermatitisadult menthe presence of symptoms of dry and oily forms in different areas of the skin

One of the first symptoms of incipient seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp is dandruff. Very often the disease stops at this stage. But this is not always the case. Therefore, the appearance of dandruff is the first alarm bell, indicating that not everything is in order with the scalp. Dandruff is a small white-gray flake. These are dead cells of the epidermis. Outwardly, they look like whitish motes.Falling from the head, they often settle on the shoulders of a person. Dandruff is most often localized on the skin of the vertex and occiput.

Many consider dandruff only as a cosmetic nuisance, but in fact dandruff is a precursor to a serious skin disease. Usually try to get rid of dandruff with the help of rapid washing of the head. But not always successful. After all, ordinary shampoos produce only a symptomatic effect, removing dandruff from the surface of the head, but do not affect the underlying causes of the disease. You can use shampoos for treating dermatitis and dandruff, but these should be special medicated shampoos with medicinal ingredients that help the patient to get rid of inflammation on the skin. Unfortunately, most shampoos advertised on television do not belong to this.

However, dandruff is not the most dangerous symptom of scalp dermatitis. In addition, not always dandruff is associated with dermatitis. Sometimes dandruff is a reaction to some cosmetic or detergent.

As the disease develops, itching and burning are associated with dandruff. They result from inflammation of the upper layer of the skin. The person begins to comb the itchy areas, but this does not help, and the symptoms of the disease only increase. Red spots appear on the skin, it begins to actively peel off.

Scales are usually of two types - dry and gray, or yellow and fat. However, if you scrape the scales, then under them is usually found red skin.

On the skin may appear papules, plaques, small bubbles. Unfortunately, the disease affects the follicles. Therefore, the hair can become brittle, and some of them can fall out.

Its development of seborrhea of ​​the scalp usually begins with the occipital-parietal part. And then spread to other areas. Often the skin of the face, forehead, nose, ears, is affected. Often, the patient has such a thing as a "seborrheic crown." It represents areas of skin inflammation along the hairline. Also for seborrheic dermatitis is often characterized by a symmetrical arrangement of the laid areas. This means that if there is an area of ​​skin on one part of the head where inflammation is observed, then there may be the same area on the other side.

Severe dermatitis is characterized by erythematous spots, as well as plaques covered with fatty or mousy scales. Hemorrhagic crusts may also occur as a result of permanent scratching of the skin.

Often the disease is accompanied by a bacterial infection. In this case, the skin is under the attack of pathogenic bacteria - staphylococci and streptococci. Very often this happens if the ducts of the sebaceous glands are blocked by fat and suppuration occurs. Then on various parts of the body can occur eels, boils, comedones, purulent crusts. The skin can get an unpleasant smell. If you remove purulent crusts, then a wet surface forms under them. Also, a bacterial infection may appear as a result of damage to the skin due to scratching.

Symptoms may be exacerbated by the use of spicy foods, alcohol. The disease is often characterized by a seasonal course. In winter and autumn, the skin disease is usually exacerbated. Perhaps the exacerbation of the disease affects the humid microclimate, which increases the multiplication of fungi.

Characteristics of individual symptoms of seborrheic inflammation of the skin

Titleappearance mechanism
Rednesseffects on the skin of pathogenic fungi
Peelingrejection of the upper dermal layer
Scalesimpregnation of skin cells with lard
Rashskin pathogenic bacteria
Eelscomplication of disease due to follicle blockage of sebum
Dandruffexfoliation of small skin particles

Signs of seborrheic dermatitis of the head in infants

The disease in infants has similar symptoms with adult dermatitis - dandruff, yellowish scales, and rash on the skin. The disease can manifest as early as 2-3 weeks of life. However, in children, skin inflammation is usually less pronounced. However, it can sometimes lead to a general deterioration in the child’s well-being - diarrhea, sleep and appetite.

Differences between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis

If you consider other skin diseases, then dermatitis can sometimes be similar to psoriasis. However, in psoriasis, the scalp is affected much less frequently, and the hair is usually not affected. In addition, psoriasis is characterized by hard-to-remove skin plaques, under which bleeding wounds are found. For seborrheic dermatitis, this symptom is not peculiar.

Dermatitis is the primary treatment for dermatitis. However, the disease often requires an integrated approach and treatment of other organs. Therefore, consultations with a neuropathologist, endocrinologist and gastroenterologist will not be superfluous.

There are several methods of treatment. However, the specific method should be prescribed by a dermatologist, depending on the severity and stage of the disease. It is also important to take into account the hidden mechanisms of seborrheic dermatitis - neurogenic, hormonal, immune. Often, the simple elimination of provoking factors that led to dermatitis, allows you to save the patient from skin inflammation.

In general, the treatment strategy should be aimed at degreasing the upper skin layer - the epidermis and reducing the excessive secretion of the sebaceous glands. If the patient uses cosmetics for hair, for example, dyes, then they should be discarded. Even seemingly harmless chemicals can cause skin inflammation.

The main methods of treatment of seborrhea head:

  • lubricating the scalp with moisturizing and keratolytic external agents,
  • scalp treatment with anti-inflammatory ointments,
  • lubrication of the scalp with anti-fungal and anti-bacterial ointments,
  • skin hygiene, hair washing with anti-seboric shampoos,
  • taking systemic drugs inside,
  • diet therapy,
  • disposal of provoking factors (stress, unhealthy diet, application of harmful cosmetic products to the skin, allergy).

All treatments must act in a comprehensive manner. You can not choose only one of the methods of treatment of skin inflammation and use only them. In most cases, this will not have the desired effect.

Types of drugs and their purpose

drug classpurposedosage formshow to use
vitamin and mineral complexeselimination of beriberi, lack of mineral elements in the bodytablets, ointmentinwardly
antifungal drugsdestruction of the main pathogen of the disease - Malassezia fungusointments, creams, gels, shampoos, tabletsapplied to the skin, inside
antihistamineselimination of prurituspillsinside
hormonal drugsfight against seborrheic inflammationcreams, ointments, tabletsapplied to the skin, inside
antibacterial drugsfight against secondary bacterial infection on the skinointments, shampoosapplied to the skin

Traditional methods and herbal treatments

Skin diseases did not appear today, and therefore traditional medicine has developed many methods to combat them. Some of them are taken into service and official medicine. However, the rest of the traditional methods of treating skin diseases patients can use at their own risk. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that many herbal preparations help to cope with skin inflammation, strengthen local immunity.

Many patients believe that folk remedies for skin diseases safer than traditional drugs. Indeed, they usually cannot harm, but their effectiveness is far from always at a sufficiently high level, especially in the treatment of advanced forms of the disease. In addition, some herbal preparations can cause skin allergic reactions, which will only complicate the course of the disease.

Popular folk remedies:

  • Ichthyol ointment
  • Burr oil,
  • sea ​​buckthorn oil,
  • olive oil,
  • decoction of tansy
  • decoction of Hypericum,
  • burdock root extract,
  • Labaznika root extract
  • onion solution
  • infusion of nettle,
  • infusion of calendula,
  • decoction of oak bark,
  • decoction of walnut leaves.

For women, hair masks from herbal ingredients, such as coconut oil, garlic and onions, can be useful.

Also, when seborrhea, due to stress, take decoctions of calming herbs - valerian, hawthorn, rosehip, mint. Before applying to the skin of any drug based on herbs, you must ensure that there is no allergic reaction to its components.

Traditional recipes for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis

For oily seborrhea, it will be helpful to rub the tincture of onions into the skin. To prepare the tincture you need 1 tbsp. juice of onion mix with 2 tbsp. vodka. The course of treatment lasts 4 months.

Oak bark is known in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties. This tool can also be used in inflammatory processes in the skin. In order to make a decoction of oak bark, you need to take a tablespoon of bark, pour 500 ml of boiling water over it and cook in a water bath for 15 minutes, then strain and add a tablespoon of honey. An hour before washing the composition must be rubbed into the skin.

Used in oily form of seborrheic dermatitis and vinegar. The beneficial property of this substance is its acidic reaction. The fact that the skin with seborrhea has an alkaline reaction. Therefore, if you regularly rinse the skin with a solution of vinegar 9% (1 tbsp per 1 liter of water), then this has a positive effect.

Not less popular in folk medicine is St. John's wort. It contains many active biological ingredients that help treat skin diseases. With oily seborrhea, lotions from spirit infusion of Hypericum have become popular. For its preparation you need 100 g of Hypericum to insist in 500 ml of alcohol during the week. Before use, the tincture is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 1. For treatment, it is necessary to apply lotions to the skin of the affected areas with this composition. Just remember that this method is not suitable for dry seborrhea, since alcohol dries the skin.

Vegetable oils

Sea buckthorn oil has become very popular in the treatment of dry varieties of the disease. It softens the skin and strengthens the hair. It is better to use home-made oil (from fresh berries), but you can also buy it at the pharmacy. Sea buckthorn oil should be regularly rubbed into the scalp. You can also use linseed, olive, castor oil for rubbing in. Especially useful oils for dry-type seborrheic dermatitis.

External drugs

There are several dosage forms of external drugs. However, they all share one thing - they need to be applied to the skin, to those areas where inflammation is observed. When seborrhea can be used creams, ointments, lotions, shampoos. The advantage of ointments is that they remain on the skin for a long time and are absorbed into it. However, ointments are not always convenient to use, therefore, when seborrhea is often used as shampoos, which should be rubbed into the skin.

Ointments and creams

The main method, especially for mild seborrhea, is the use of ointments, lotions and creams. They need to be rubbed into the scalp regularly, at least once a day. The duration of seborrhea treatment is determined based on the composition and principle of the ointment, as well as how well the skin responds to treatment.

Tar, zinc, sulfuric and salicylic ointment

The most widely used ointment on the basis of tar, salicylic acid, zinc and sulfuric ointment. These drugs have a keratolytic effect and contribute to the rapid removal of damaged areas of the epidermis (upper horny layer of the skin). Also, these drugs have weak anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties.

Zinc ointment

Zinc ointment is widely used in the treatment, especially in the oily form of seborrheic dermatitis. The composition of the ointment usually includes zinc oxide at a concentration of 10%. This substance significantly reduces the intensity of peeling of the skin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. Zinc ointment also has a drying effect, therefore, with a dry type of seborrheic dermatitis, its use is undesirable. Method of use - apply to the skin and hold for about an hour. Then the ointment is washed off with warm water. The procedure must be repeated up to 3 times a day. A standard course of treatment for seborrheic dermatitis is a month. The only contraindication is individual intolerance to zinc oxide, which is rare.

Ointments based on zinc oxide should not be confused with ointments based on pyrithione zinc, a substance with antifungal effect.

Salicylic Ointment

Salicylic acid is the basis of salicylic ointment. There are ointments with different salicylic acid concentrations on sale - from 1% to 10%. When seborrhea is most often used ointment 2% or 5%.

Salicylic acid when applied topically has the following types of actions:

  • Anti-inflammatory,
  • Antiseptic,
  • Keratolytic.

Also, salicylic acid regulates the activity of the sweat and sebaceous glands on the skin.

Salicylic ointment is effective only for oily seborrheic dermatitis. It is usually used in combination with other drugs, primarily antifungal. Contraindications - individual intolerance, age up to a year. During pregnancy, the ointment should be used with caution, consultation with a doctor is required.

Salicylic ointment is applied to the skin in a circular motion in those places where inflammation is observed. Keep her on the head must be at least half an hour. Then the ointment is washed off with shampoo. Under the standard treatment regimen, ointment must be applied 2 times a day.

Sulfuric ointment

In addition to sulfur itself, sulfuric ointment contains paraffins, water and emulsifiers. There are several options for ointment, depending on the concentration - 5%, 10%, 29%, 33%. When seborrhea is most often used ointment 5% and 10%. Sulfur Ointment has several effects. First, it destroys pathogenic fungi that inhabit the skin and prevents bacteria from penetrating into the upper skin layers. In addition, it helps to restore the upper layer of the skin.

Sulfuric ointment is preferred for the dry form of the disease. It is kept on the head for 5 minutes. The ointment is washed off with warm water. The procedure must be repeated daily during the week.

Ointments with sulfur should not be confused with ointments based on other sulfur compounds used in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis - selenium disulfide.

Sulfur tar ointment

For the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis most often used ointments, which in addition to birch or coal tar, also contain sulfur. The ointment is rubbed in light movements into the skin of the head, primarily in the areas affected by dermatitis. It is recommended to apply ointment twice a day - in the morning and before bedtime.

Ointment with vitamins

These external agents are also often used to treat seborrheic dermatitis. They are designed to supply the skin with essential vitamins and are used as one of the components of complex treatment. For example, Radevit ointment contains vitamins A, E, D. It reduces inflammation and itching, promotes the regeneration of the epidermis and increases the barrier functions of the skin. Ointment can not be used simultaneously with hormonal drugs.

Antifungal ointment

Antifungal drugs are also widely used for seborrhea. They contain components that kill Malassezia fungi or interfere with their reproduction, for example:

  • zinc pyrithione,
  • ciclopirox
  • selenium disulfide,
  • ketoconazole
  • clotrimazole,
  • fluconazole
  • terbinafine.

In most cases of seborrheic dermatitis without such drugs can not do. They are also rubbed into the skin regularly, at least 1-2 times a day.

Not all antifungal drugs are allowed for the treatment of children. Therefore, information on this issue need to look at the instructions to the drug.

Ketoconazole

Effective synthetic antifungal drug, imidazole derivative. Also has an antiseptic effect. The principle of the drug is to destroy the cell walls of microorganisms. It can be administered orally in the form of tablets, but external preparations (lotions, creams and shampoos), which are applied to the patient's skin, are most often used. Contraindicated in women during breastfeeding.

Cyclopirox

One of the newest antifungal agents. Used in external preparations - creams, ointments, shampoos. In terms of effectiveness, it is comparable with ketoconazole, but it has a more pronounced anti-inflammatory effect. The mechanism of action of the drug has not yet been studied. The effect of the drug on the developing fetus and the child’s body has also not been studied, so ciclopirox cannot be used during pregnancy and for the treatment of children under 10 years of age.

Selenium disulfide

Antifungal external agent, a compound of sulfur and selenium. Included in many ointments, lotions, shampoos (at a concentration of 1% or 2%). The positive quality of selenium disulfide, in addition to its fungicidal action, is that it reduces sebum secretion and prevents its decomposition into components harmful to the skin. Selenium disulfide is not recommended for the treatment of children under 5 years of age, during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Terbinafin

Included in the composition of ointments with a pronounced antifungal effect, for example, in the composition of the ointment Lamisil. May exhibit fungicidal and fungistatic activity against fungi. It does not affect the metabolism of hormones and drugs. You can apply in adults and children over 12 years. Depending on the symptoms, ointment is applied to the affected skin 1 or 2 times a day.

Antibacterial outdoor products

When attaching a bacterial infection on the skin, the doctor may prescribe an external agent with antibacterial components. An example of such a tool is Baneotsin. It contains two active components at once - neomycin and bacitracin. Such a composition provides a multilateral therapeutic effect of the drug.

Non-hormonal anti-inflammatory ointment

When seborrhea is often used ointment on the basis of pimecrolimus. This substance inhibits the release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators from tissues. The strength of pimecrolimus is comparable to the corticosteroids. Allowed for the treatment of children from 3 months. The drug is not recommended in cases where a bacterial infection is observed on the skin, due to the local immunosuppressive effect.

Hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs

Another type of external drugs - anti-inflammatory. They usually contain hormones, artificial analogues of the anti-inflammatory hormones of the adrenal glands. When applied topically and applied to the skin, hormones do not enter the systemic circulation. However, when using hormonal drugs should be careful, because they can lead to withdrawal syndrome with a sharp cessation of their use. With withdrawal syndrome, all signs of inflammation on the skin may increase.

The composition of hormonal ointments often include:

Popular skin ointment containing betamethasone. When seborrhea drug must be applied to the skin with a thin layer, slightly rubbing. On the day of the ointment can be used from 1 to 3 times. The course of skin treatment is 3 weeks. Caution is prescribed ointment to children up to 12 years.

Combined external preparations for seborrhea

There are also combined tools that have several components at once, for example, keratolytic and anti-inflammatory.

For example, the drug Pimafukort has three active substances in its composition: hydrocortisone, natamycin and neomycin. The drug has antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic effect.

The dependence of the choice of ointment on the type of disease

In the dry type of the disease, it is impossible to use agents with a drying effect, for example, on the basis of zinc oxide, as well as agents based on alcohol. In this form of the disease it is best to use sulfur ointment. But when oily seborrhea ointment based on zinc is quite suitable, as salicylic acid ointment. For mixed seborrhea, it is best to use a tar ointment.

Popular ointments, creams and lotions for the treatment of skin inflammation

Titleactive substanceoperating principleinstructions for use
HydrocortisoneHydrocortisonefight against skin inflammation, elimination of itching, redness and swellingApply a thin layer to the skin 2 times a day
DexamethasoneDexamethasonefight skin inflammation, relieve itching, redness and swellingapplied on the skin of the inflamed areas 2 times a day
AflodermAlclomethasoneelimination of pruritus, vasoconstrictor effectapplied to the skin 2-3 times a day
Tridermbetamethasone, clotrimazole, gentamicinfight against skin inflammation, destruction of fungi and pathogenic bacteria living on the skinapplied to the skin of the affected area and the adjacent healthy skin
Skin capzinc pyrithionedestruction of skin-dwelling fungiapplied to the skin 2 times a day, the course of therapy - a month
Silkarenmometasonefight against skin itching and swelling, inflammation of the skinapplied to the skin once a day, the standard duration of treatment is 3 weeks
Belosalikbetamethasone, salicylic acidacceleration of skin tissue exfoliation, fight against skin inflammation, swelling and itchingapplied to the skin 2 times a day
Advantanmethylprednisolonefight against skin inflammation, redness and swellingapplied to the skin once a day
Salicylic ointmentsalicylic acidacceleration of exfoliation of skin tissues, regulation of secretion of sebum secretionapplied to the skin, the treated area is closed with a bandage
Akridermbetamethasoneelimination of pruritus, edema, vasoconstrictor effectapplied on the inflamed skin with a thin layer 1-3 times a day
Radevitvitamins A, D3, Eprotection of the skin, fight against itching and inflammationapplied to the skin with a thin layer 2 times a day
Lamisilterbinafinedestruction of fungus on the skinskin affected by inflammation is treated 1-2 times a day
Losterindexpanthenol, vegetable oils and extracts, naphthalan, urea, salicylic acidcomplex protective effect on the skin, removal of inflammation and pruritus, improvement of metabolic processes in the skinapplied to the skin 2-3 times a day

Usually shampoos are more convenient than creams and ointments. But not all shampoos are suitable for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Many shampoos struggle only with external symptoms, such as dandruff, and can only be used for prophylactic purposes.

Sometimes it is recommended to use two shampoos at once, for example, a shampoo with an antifungal component and a shampoo with zinc. Some shampoos contain several components at once, for example, salicylic acid and tar or zinc and an antifungal drug. Also, medicated shampoos may contain herbs and vitamins.

Popular shampoos used in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis:

  • Ketoconazole
  • Nizoral,
  • Skin cap,
  • Squafan S,
  • Sulsen,
  • Zinovit
  • Losterin,
  • Qeluela DS,
  • Frieder zinc,
  • Friderm tar,
  • Dandex

Nizoral is a popular anti-seboric shampoo containing ketoconazole, a powerful anti-fungal drug. It is especially effective when you need to reduce skin inflammation and reduce the number of fungi on the skin. The concentration of the active substance in the shampoo is 2%. Shampoo can be used as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent. In the first case, it should be applied at least 2 times a week for 2-4 weeks. For prophylaxis, shampoo is used once a week or once in a fortnight.

The method of using shampoo is simple. After rubbing into the skin should be about 5-10 minutes not to wash it. Otherwise, the active ingredients may not have time to be absorbed into the skin. To wash it is necessary to use warm water, but in no case is hot.

Tsinovit - therapeutic shampoo with a complex effect. It contains the following active ingredients:

  • Zinc pyrithione (2%) - antifungal drug, reduces the number of Malassezia fungi,
  • Climbazol (1%) - antifungal drug, reduces the concentration on the skin of Malassezia fungi,
  • Dikoliy glycyrrhizinate - a substance with anti-inflammatory effect,
  • Vegetable oils (olive, jojoba, shi) - designed to nourish the tissues of the epidermis and soften the skin,
  • Urea - a component with keratolytic action,
  • Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) - a substance that accelerates the regeneration of damaged skin tissue.

Shampoo is easy to use. It is enough to apply a small amount of it on the skin and massage it for a minute. Then the shampoo is washed off with water and again rubbed into the skin, but for three minutes. You can use shampoo 2-3 times a week.

Another shampoo that contains ingredients that are good for the skin. The action of the components complements each other. The composition of the shampoo includes:

  • Naftalan,
  • Salicylic acid,
  • Dexpanthenol,
  • Vegetable oils,
  • Urea,
  • Sophora extract.

The shampoo has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. It must be applied to the skin every day. In addition to shampoo, there are cream and lotion under the same brand name.

Tar shampoo

Tar is part of many well-known seborrheic dermatitis shampoos. As an example of such a shampoo, you can bring "Fried-tar". It has keratolytic properties, that is, with seborrheic inflammation it helps the cells of the upper layer of the epidermis to peel off faster. Shampoo is a hypoallergenic remedy. It does not contain allergens that adversely affect the skin. Therefore, they can wash even infants suffering from seborrhea. The composition of the shampoo is coal tar. And if the shampoo is not at hand, then you can use the usual tar soap, it also has a positive effect on the skin.

Popular shampoos and their main components

shampoo brandactive ingredientsoperating principlemethod of use
Nizoral, Sebozol, Mycozoral, Ketoconazoleketoconazoledestruction of fungus on the skinskin is treated with a small amount of shampoo, which is then washed off with water
Sebiproxciclopiroxreducing the number of microorganisms on the skina small amount of shampoo is applied, then it is rubbed into the skin to form a foam, washed off after 5 minutes
Zinovitklimbazol, zinc pyrithionedestruction of fungus on the skinapplied to damp skin and rubbed for a minute, washed off and again applied to the skin for 3 minutes
Sulsenaselenium disulfidefight against fungus on the skin, stabilization of the work of the skin sebaceous glandsshampoo is applied in a volume of 75 ml on the skin and rubbed with massage movements
Friderm Zinc, Skin Cap, Dandexzinc pyrithionedestruction of fungi and bacteria on the skinThe skin is treated with a small amount of product and massaged, then the shampoo is washed off and reapplied to the skin for 5 minutes.
Friderme tarcoal tarsuppression of the proliferation of skin cells, vasoconstrictor and antifungal effectsshampoo with light massaging movements is rubbed into the skin to form a foam, then washed off, applied to the skin a second time and washed off after 5 minutes
Keto plusketoconazole, zinc pyrithionefungus on the skinapplied to the skin, washed off in 3-5 minutes
Squafan Ssalicylic acid, resorcinol, climbazole, miconazole, red juniper oilthe destruction of the fungus on the skin, the removal of flaking areas on the skin, the elimination of itching and inflammationshampoo is applied to wet hair and massaged into the skin, then rinsed with warm water
Losterinnaphthalan, salicylic acid, dexpanthenol, almond and castor oil, urea, Sophora extractimprovement of metabolic processes in the skin, the fight against skin inflammationwet skin is treated with a small amount of the product, the shampoo is spread over the surface with massaging movements, then washed off, applied again to the skin and washed off after 3 minutes
Qeluela DSciclopirox, zinc pyrithionedestruction of fungus on the skinshampoo is applied to wet skin with massaging movements; after 3 minutes it is washed off

Physiotherapy

Also for therapy of seborrheic dermatitis, physiotherapeutic methods can be used. They consist in exposing the skin to various radiations and fields. The main methods used in the treatment of skin diseases:

  • darsonvalization,
  • UV therapy
  • cryomassage,
  • ozone therapy
  • magnetic laser therapy.

Cryomassage

The essence of the method is a local effect on the affected areas of the scalp. The massage is performed with an applicator dipped in liquid nitrogen. The cold helps to accelerate the exfoliation of the epidermis, improves skin microcirculation, stimulates the regeneration of follicles, relieves itching and inflammation, and improves immunity.

Darsonvalization

The darsonvalization method is named after the French scholar d’Arsonval. Darsonvalization is the effect on the skin of pulsed high-frequency currents. The technique improves the work of nerve endings and capillaries near the follicles. The ducts of the sebaceous glands are cleaned, nutrition of the follicles improves, and the skin restores its barrier function, the concentration of pathogenic fungi Malassezia decreases. All this minimizes the occurrence of seborrheic dermatitis.

Washing hair

It must be regularly done to all, including healthy people. But for those who suffer from seborrheic skin lesions, this is a necessary element of therapy. Washing should be carried out as often as possible (at least 3 times a week). Otherwise, pathogenic bacteria and fungi can accumulate on the skin.

It is not enough to simply apply the shampoo on the skin and then rinse it off. It is necessary that the beneficial compounds containing in the shampoo would fall into the skin. To do this, rub the shampoo into the skin with massaging movements, and then leave it for a while without washing it off. Some shampoos are best applied to the skin several times during one washing procedure.

Shampoos containing the following components are necessary for washing:

  • antifungal,
  • keratolytic,
  • anti-inflammatory,
  • moisturizing,
  • antibacterial.

  • Limit the secretion of sebum,
  • Prevent dandruff,
  • Prevent the development of fungus on the skin,
  • Promote regeneration of the upper dermal layer.

Systemic therapy

If ointments and shampoos are not enough, then for seborrheic skin lesions, the doctor may prescribe drugs taken orally. Medications in pills will be effective only in severe seborrheic dermatitis.

The main categories of systemic drugs:

  • anti-inflammatory (hydrocortisone, prednisone, beclomethasone),
  • antibiotics (metronidazole, tetracyclines, levofloxacin),
  • anti-fungal (clotrimazole, fluconazole),
  • antihistamines (loratadine, chloropyramine, clemensin),
  • vitamin complexes containing vitamins of group B, vitamins A, D and C, zinc and selenium.

Fluconazole

Fluconazole is an antifungal drug often prescribed as part of a complex treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Unlike other similar drugs (clotrimazole, ketoconazole), fluconazole does not affect the cell membranes of human cells. Consequently, the drug has some side effects, it has low toxicity. However, during pregnancy, the drug is prescribed with caution, and when breastfeeding it is prohibited. The recommended daily dose for seborrhea is 150 mg.

Diet therapy

It may seem that a person's diet does not affect the condition of his skin, but it is not. After all, the level of sebum secretion and its chemical composition depends, among other things, on those vitamins and microelements that a person receives from food, on the ratio of the main food components - proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Normal nutrition also helps to strengthen the immune system, improves the work of the organs of internal secretion.

The main goals of the diet for seborrhea:

  • detoxification of the body
  • normalization of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • skin tissue supply with essential minerals and vitamins
  • exclusion of products that can cause allergic reactions and skin inflammation.

With seborrheic manifestations it is not necessary to sit down on an exhausting diet, to restrict yourself to something. Just follow the principle of a rational, balanced and healthy diet. This does not apply to the case when seborrhea was caused by some metabolic disorder, such as diabetes. In this case, the diet should be more rigid.

However, some foods should be excluded from the diet or their consumption should be reduced. It:

  • coffee,
  • spicy
  • spicy
  • smoked
  • salty
  • pickles,
  • semi-finished products
  • sweet,
  • flour,
  • alcohol,
  • carbonated drinks,
  • caviar.

It is recommended to remove potentially dangerous products from the menu, which are responsible for the majority of allergic reactions, including skin reactions:

It should also limit the products that contribute to the release of histamines - chocolate, citrus, strawberries.

With dermal inflammation, fresh vegetables and fruits containing vegetable fiber, sea kale, boiled dietary meat (veal, turkey meat), fermented milk products to normalize digestion, and vegetable oils are most useful.

Products containing high concentrations of zinc, selenium, vitamins A, C, D and PP, and vitamins of group B are also recommended. All these trace elements strengthen the skin and promote its regeneration.

It should also comply with the optimal drinking regime. You must drink at least 1.5 liters of pure water a day. Fresh juices and fruit drinks are also welcome.

Prevention of seborrheic dermatitis

To prevent the disease is usually easy. After all, seborrheic manifestations are often caused by inattention to their health, an unbalanced diet, poor hygiene, excessive stress, the use of poor-quality detergents that irritate the skin. All these factors need to be considered and try to minimize their impact.

For prophylaxis, you can use shampoos containing zinc, tar, salicylic acid to wash the skin. Women should abandon cosmetics, paints, styling products, varnishes, or to minimize their use. It should be remembered about the optimal microclimate for the head. In bright sunshine and frost, you must wear a hat. But at the entrance to the hot and stuffy room head is better to remove.

For the prevention of acute exacerbations of seborrheic dermatitis, proper diet is also important. You should avoid spicy, fatty and salty, seasonings and spices, alcohol, limit sweet. Also, for prophylactic purposes, you can take vitamin complexes containing zinc, selenium, vitamins A, C, E, D, vitamins of group B. It is necessary to monitor your psycho-emotional state, monitor the quality and duration of sleep.

At the first precursors of the disease (and in most cases it is dandruff), it is necessary to consult a doctor so that he would prescribe the necessary treatment.

Consequences of seborrheic dermatitis

Not everyone treats this dermatitis with due attention. And they go to the doctor only when the unbearable itching of the skin begins to torment. However, seborrheic inflammation has a negative effect not only on the cells of the skin itself, but also on the follicles. Under the influence of pathology, they can die off, and focal alopecia (alopecia) occurs on the skin. And if a man, especially an elderly man, can still come to terms with the loss of hair on his head, then for women and girls this can be a heavy blow. But for psychological discomfort, hair loss is not necessary, only the symptoms of the disease are enough - reddening of the skin, dandruff, formation of scales and crusts on the skin. Consequently, in dermatitis, the patient may experience not only physical but also nervous suffering, which leads to neuroses and depressions.

Also, do not forget that seborrhea is often a factor that provokes allergic skin diseases. And in many cases, seborrheic inflammation extends beyond the area of ​​the skin covered with hair, goes to the skin of the face, neck, appears on other parts of the body. There is a risk of developing generalized seborrheic dermatitis, which directly threatens human health. And when the disease passes to the eyes or ears, there is a high risk of developing conjunctivitis and otitis.

Watch the video: Seborrheic Dermatitis Dandruff: Diagnosis and Management - OnlineDermClinic (December 2019).

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