Unable to pass by pansy flowers indifferent. Be they on the balcony, flower bed. Immediately overwhelmed several feelings: tenderness, romance.
All varieties are so similar to each other and yet so different. Delicate aroma and cheerful colors of the petals can not but please the eye.
Description and features of pansies
Pansies called the viol tricolor, in the people of Ivan da Maria. They belong to the family of violets. Plants exist as annuals, dvuhletki and perennial specimens.
Subdivided flowers in spring and summer blooming. Perhaps this is their uniqueness, that any variety is suitable for the timing of flowering.
It all depends on the time of landing. A root of brown shade in the form of a rod with small branches.
The stem extends from 10 to 30 cm. Inside it is hollow, triangular, upright or branched. Single buds with five petals sit on trihedral peduncles with two bracts near the flower.
Flower petals differ in size. Two of them are larger than the rest. The color of the petals carries a different range of shades, up to black. In the center of the bud are specks, and a picture emerges like a muzzle.
Poetic name pansies gave rise to many legends. Many countries and even regions have their own answers about why pansies are called:
According to an ancient legend, the flower got its name in honor of the girl Annie, who could not stand the separation and injustice towards herself and died.
And it all started like a fairy tale, the guy loved the girl, she answered reciprocate. The seducer just disappeared forever.
After her death, flowers with different colors stretched out on the grave, as if giving out her feelings: hope, resentment, sadness.
The Romans say that men who peep behind the goddess of love were turned into flowers with eyes.
In Russia, according to legend, the girl and the boy loved each other. Parents separated them and married a guy on a rich girl. From anguish Anya died.
Another legend, a girl, did not get the guy, she died from anguish. Flowers grew on the outskirts of the road, as if they continued to wait for the beloved.
Planting and reproduction of pansies
Open Pansies landed in a sunny place with a little shading. The penumbra is also suitable, but there is a slight difference in the final stage.
Flowers in the light grow larger buds than in the shade. But the duration of flowering in the shade more. The land of pansies prefer a light, nutritious, drained.
The soil before planting seedlings is dug up and saturated with humus, mineral additives. Grow pansies can be seedling, seed method and grafting.
Planting material is sown in June in open ground on a selected bed. Pour a layer of soil on top and tamp the ground a little.
As soon as two true leaves appear, make a pick. Roots before planting pansies shorten This will provide an opportunity to develop the root system well.
Step between seedlings from 10 to 25 cm. It all depends on the variety. For the winter, saplings should be covered with spruce leaves and a barrier to snow retention. Pansies from seeds will bloom in spring.
The substrate is prepared and seeds are sown in March. Powdered with soil, covered with glass. Containers are stored in a dark place until germination.
Periodically spray and air containers so that the earth does not rot. As soon as the seedlings appeared, the containers are exposed to a bright place.
When two true leaves appear, the seedlings spar in separate pots. Saplings gradually accustom to street walks. To do this, bring them to the balcony or terrace.
In the open ground seedlings of pansies planted after a stable weather without frost.
Although the plant is considered to be a frost-resistant crop, the seedlings may be frozen. Flowering can be expected a month after planting in open ground.
Green shoots cut off from the parent bush in June. Cuttings are planted directly in open ground closely together. In this case, choose a shaded, for example, under the trees.
Culture cover banks to create a good microclimate. As soon as new leaves begin to appear, the plant is rooted.
By the autumn, the cuttings will get stronger, then they are planted in a permanent place. Pansies at home can be grown in the same ways.
Only the landing place should be on the open balcony. If you want to put them on the windowsill, you should constantly keep the window open.
The plant loves sunny spaces when the temperature is from 10 to 25 degrees C. The flowers do not lose their decorative effect even at a temperature of 3-5 degrees C.
But higher temperatures will have a detrimental effect on the plant. Shrubs just burn out, and those that remain, stop flowering and resume flowering only in the fall.
Therefore, in such a situation should be considered shading bushes, for example, non-woven material. At home, you should not choose the western and southern balconies. The most optimal side is the east.
Watering to produce moderate. Do not pour the ground or bring it to dry. Overmoistened soil can develop rot, which will lead to the disease of the black leg and ruin the flowers.
With pansy care, do not forget about dressings. In the garden, the bushes to feed once a month. Copies on the balcony require more frequent fertilization, that is, weekly.
The first feeding can be carried out two weeks after disembarkation. The plant responds well to complex mineral fertilizers.
When making them you need to be careful and not to catch the leaves, pouring only at the root. Manure fresh out, the plant does not tolerate it. Loosen the soil after watering. Remove weeds.
Rejuvenation of perennial plants is carried out in 3 years. This will give impetus to lush flowering. Decorative flower to maintain regular removal of flowering buds.
For the winter, cover the flowers with spruce leaves and free them from it in early spring so as not to rot.
Balcony copies should be sent to a room with a temperature of 5-15 degrees C. If there is a garden, you can land them in the ground before frosts in 21 days.
Types and varieties of pansies
Among the variety of species and varieties of the most popular specimens.
In the photo pansies Flamenco. Flowers, corrugated various gamut of colors. In the center there are petals with a blurred shading of yellow and bright red.
The volume of the inflorescence is up to 5 cm. The bush is stretched up to 23 cm. In landscape design it is used to decorate flower beds, borders, flower beds.
The flowers are frost-resistant, so they calmly endure the cold climate of the northern regions of Russia. Flamenco differ in long flowering, starting in April and ending in late autumn.
Grown in partial shade, but feel better in sunny areas. If you plant flamenco in June with seeds, then in August they can be easily transplanted from the distribution bed to a permanent place. The next spring, flowers will delight lush flowering.
Rococo. Compact plant stretches up to 20 cm. Folded corrugated petals collected in a bouquet look like terry.
Rococo in the flower beds look like an exotic plant. There is one drawback, rococo with poor frost resistance.
Among home pansies can highlight F1 Angel. Miniature buds up to 4 cm in diameter can be of different colors.
Description of medium-sized pansies
Quedlinburger Riesen (Quedlinburger Riesen). The volume of inflorescences up to 7.5 cm. The buds are white, blue, yellow, crimson with a yellow eye in the center of the petals and black spots near the base.
Gaint Forranner F1. Buds bright yellow with brown spots of petals closer to the base. Among its fellow is considered the most winter-hardy specimen.
Large-flowered varieties of pansies
Chalon Suprim. Inflorescences up to 8.5 cm. Corrugated petals of pale lilac color with light shades. A spot in the center of one of the petals with a cream edging.
Dynamite. White buds are combined with juicy tones of crimson hue on the lower petals. What makes the brand original and popular. In diameter of inflorescence up to 8.5 cm in diameter.
Magnum F1. Variety bred recently. The diameter of the bud is over 9 cm. Gentle blue petals with bluish spots.
Diseases of pansies
Pansy flowers are subject to the following diseases:
Cucumber mosaic. Carriers of the virus are insects. The leaves of the flower are wrapped in a roll, torn. The buds have an unsightly look.
Prevent illness by killing aphids. Infected plants can not be saved, they simply rooted out and burned.
Root rot. The disease starts from the roots and is transmitted to the whole plant. The color of the leaves changes, and the roots take on a brown color.
Fight: pay attention to the composition and acidity of the soil, adjust the watering, process fungicides.
Bacterial spotting. Favorable environment is cold wet weather. The roots are overcooled, spots appear on the leaves.
Struggle: process bushes with copper oxychloride, after cold precipitation, to collect and burn the infected zones.
Late blight rot. Affects the stems near the base. The leaves turn yellow, then blue. If the plant is on a balcony, you should snatch the plant and burn it. Earth throw away.
Mealy dew. The first signs on the leaves are white scurf, which over time is transferred to the buds.
In the first stage of the disease, these are just specks. They can be easily washed away, but then they increase in size, acquire a more dense structure.
The color becomes gray. A greater risk of infection are nitrogenous fertilizers. Struggle: in the preventive purposes to spray the bushes with whey. For diseases, treat the flower with fungicides, such as Topaz.
Spider mite The bush is enveloped in a small cobweb, and dots appear on the leaves. At the initial stage of infection process flowers with mineral oil, soapy liquid, tobacco extract. If it does not help, apply Ditoks, Fitoverm, Kungfu.
Aphid. The leaves are deformed, turning yellow, a sticky coating characteristic of aphids appears. A minor lesion is washed off with a solution of water and soap, planted on the flower of ladybirds. In more severe cases, treat with Akarin, Antiilin, Bison.
Slugs Pests gnaw the leaves of a flower. Fight with them is necessary before planting seedlings. Dig around the area, pour substances on which it is difficult to move the slug: eggshell, rubble, etc.
Scatter ash near bushes. You can prepare traps and in the morning to collect the "harvest". As the slugs attack at night. During the struggle with slugs watering cut and do it only in the morning.
How to use violet in garden design
Violet begins to bloom very early. The colorful carpet of pansies looks amazing. They will look very decorative if you plant a primrose or other spring bulbous flowers next to them.
Viola can be used for landscaping terraces and balconies. Garden vases with pansies will not leave anyone indifferent. Thanks to the many varieties, you can create perfect floral arrangements. Many landscape design experts recommend combining wild and cultural types of pansies. In the garden you can grow a field viola. The tricolor violet is almost always present in Moorish lawns. Fragrant violet is a popular ground cover plant that is ideal for shady places. Regardless of the type, the viola enchants with its beauty, original shapes and colors.
Choosing a place
The most comfortable violet will feel in well-lit places. These charming colors will suit a slightly shaded place. Violet fragrant prefers a light shadow. It will grow better in moderately humid places.
Young plants should be planted on flowerbeds, I observe an interval of 10-20 cm. Thick planting is one of the risk factors for the development of root rot.
Violet is considered an unpretentious plant, but it is better for her to pick loose, fertile soil. Land for cultivation should be with good drainage so that it does not stagnate water.
On poor and sandy soils, violets grow poorly, and their flowers become smaller. To avoid this problem, compost with humus must be introduced into the ground.
Pansies need moderate watering. Excessive moisture is contraindicated. Because of this, violets can rot. Despite the fact that they tolerate abnormal heat well, watering should be increased in dry weather. In the heat they must be watered every other day, constantly loosening the soil. Due to the drying of the soil, the viols lose their decorative effect. Trying to retain moisture, the bushes bend down to the ground. Flowers become small and inconspicuous. Flowering stops.
For better growth and development of the soil in which pansies grow, it is better to enrich with mineral fertilizers. The plant is fed with nitrogen, so that the foliage is thick and green. Phosphorus and potassium are necessary for bright colors of flowers. It is important not to overdo it with nitrogen fertilizers. Excessive nitrogen content in the soil in a wet environment contributes to the growth of fungal diseases.
Diseases and pests
When growing pansies, flower growers rarely encounter diseases and pests. The greatest danger to violets are the insect larvae that live in the soil. This is a favorite delicacy of the grubs of the May beetle. Also, the plant is subject to attack by aphids and owls. Get rid of them is quite simple. To combat them use special tools that can be found in flower shops. Failure to follow the rules of viola can cause such diseases as powdery mildew, spotting, root rot, and black leg.
Violet is able to multiply by seed and grafting. Most often, to obtain a new offspring using the seed method. To preserve an interesting color of flowers, pansies are propagated by cuttings.
There is no need to specifically propagate violet tricolor or fragrant. Under suitable conditions, these species take care of themselves. They grow beautifully on loose fertile soil. Do not be surprised when new bushes appear under the berry bushes or along the tracks.
Depending on the type of plant viola sown at different times of the year. If you want to get an annual plant that blooms in early summer, seedlings are sown in late February. It is grown in greenhouses or boxes. As a rule, the first shoots appear in 2-3 weeks and dive into the ground, and in May they are planted in a permanent place. Such plants will bloom in early summer. When growing pansies as a biennial plant, sowing seeds in the open ground is made immediately after ripening, choosing the appropriate beds. For the seeds to develop well, they can be transplanted during flowering, when there are buds and flowers on the bushes. They are well tolerated transplant.
For the best varieties of pansies use this method of reproduction, as green cutting. The procedure can be carried out from May to July. For cuttings take green tops of the shoots, which have 2-3 nodes. They need to be planted in a darkened place, deeply deepened by 5 cm. It is equally important to spray the cuttings immediately after planting. As a rule, rooting of cuttings takes 2-3 weeks. At the same time they should be looked after and kept in moderately moist soil.For better rooting in the early days, the cuttings are covered with moistened paper. After that, they will not rot. The cuttings are regularly watered, sprayed, and weeds that grow nearby are weeded. When rooting cuttings in May, the first flowers appear in the summer. If rooted later, they will bloom in the second year.
Propagation of hybrid species of violets allows you to rejuvenate the plant. In most cases, in the third year pansies greatly expand. Because of this, flowering becomes not so attractive. You can get about 10 cuttings from one plant at a time. Over the summer, their number may increase to 45.
Tricolor violet - a flower with erect, branched, thin stems, 15-20 centimeters high. Leaves are arranged alternately. The shape is slightly rounded and heart-shaped. They are adjacent to large lyre stipules. The leaves on the stems - sessile, and lower - petiolate.
The flowers are quite large, solitary, irregular in shape, they open on elongated pedicels. In diameter reach 3-4 centimeters. The corolla forms five petals not similar to each other in shape. The bottom petal is yellow or white. It is larger than the rest. The two upper petals are purple-blue or deep purple. And lateral often have light-violet color.
Which plants are: annual or perennial?
Pansies are a perennial plant.. Most often, amateur gardeners purchase a one-year or two-year-old flower in stores. The question arises why they do not take perennial violet. The thing is that over time a beautiful flower loses its beauty. After three years, the plant is aging. Buds become small, and then not formed at all.
History of origin
It is not known exactly when and under what circumstances pansies appeared. Entire legends were invented about the origin of the violet tricolor, but which ones are true and which are not, is also not clear. Here is one of these legends:
Once, the goddess Venus wanted to swim away from human eyes. She discovered a secret corner in a distant grotto. While bathing, the goddess suddenly heard a rustle. Turning, Venus noticed a few eyes of curious mortals. She was very angry and decided to punish these people for such audacity. But Venus was unable to punish the curious, so she turned to Zeus, who turned their pansies.
We recommend to watch a video about the legend of the origin of Pansies:
What does the viola look like?
Pansies have a thin stem with round leaves and single flowers.. In height, the stem can reach up to 30 centimeters. Inside it is triangular, branched, hollow or erect. Sometimes, several creeping stems depart from one root.
Single buds with five petals, which, in turn, are located on a triangular peduncle with two bracts near the flower itself. Sepals located at the bottom more in size than the top. The prevailing tones in color are blue, violet and various shades of these colors. The plant has five stamens pressed to the pistil. They are in contact with anthers with short stamen filaments.
The leaves of pansies are petiole, are bare or absent-wavy along the veins. The shape of the lower leaves is ovoid. Leaves are elongated. Upper leaflets look different. Their shape is oblong lanceolate. Leaves on them are small. Each leaf has two stipules.
The root of the flower is thin, rod and branches little. It is brown in color. In the ground enters almost sheer.
Most popular varieties with photos
There are two categories of varieties of pansies:
Often, novice growers buy large-flowered Pansies, thereby making a mistake, because the small-flowered more hardy and stronger. They are not afraid of rain and sudden changes in temperature.
There are three types of plants:
- tricolor violet
- violet yellow
- Altai violet.
Breeders have created a lot of varieties, based on the above species.
This variety has large beautiful flowers. In diameter, they reach 5-6 centimeters. Grow on a long pedicle, which reaches 10 centimeters. The flowers themselves are not very bright, with wavy edges. The bush grows up to 15 centimeters tall.
It grows to a height of 20 centimeters. During flowering white flowers bloom with a green tinge. On the lower petals there are characteristic purple spots.
In this class, compared with other gigantic sizes. In height reaches 25 centimeters. Flowers are 6-7 centimeters in diameter with a wavy edge. Color - white with a yellow middle.
The flower has an unusual color that looks like a tiger. The bush is quite compact, it grows to a height of 20 centimeters. It grows into a lush carpet. The flowers are yellow with black stripes. In diameter do not exceed 3-4 centimeters. This variety feels great in almost any soil, with good drainage..
A plant that is distinguished by its rapid growth and long flowering. Adonis is quite small, only about 15 centimeters in height. He has large flowers. The two upper petals are light blue, and the three lower ones have white-purple spots. In flowerbeds use groups. The variety is winter hardy.
Medicinal properties of the violet tricolor
Violet tricolor has healing properties, as its composition is extraordinary. It contains salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, essential oils, tannins and much more. Such a wealth of substances provides effective assistance for diseases.
Actions on the human body:
- Heals wounds.
- Relieves itching and irritation.
- Cleans the blood.
Drops made from plants can even cure sinusitis. Violet tricolor copes well with itching after mosquito bites in young children..
We recommend to watch a video about the medicinal properties of Pansies (tricolor violet):
Legend of the flower
There are many legends about the flower and its origin.. One of the legends says that once the girl Annie showed excessive curiosity. She became interested in the details of the lives of strangers. And in punishment it was turned into a plant.
In ancient Russia existed their beliefs about pansies. They said that because of love, the girl Annie turned into a flower. She fell in love with a young man who reciprocated. But since the young man was from a rich family, his parents insisted that he marry another, better off. Anyuta could not stand such a betrayal and died.
There was another legend. In the village lived a girl named Anyuta. She was trusting and kind. Once, a young man of attractive appearance came to her village. Annie could not resist and trusted him, but he deceived her. The guy said he would come back for her, but he never came again. The girl soon died of depression, and on her grave wonderful flowers bloomed, which looked like her beautiful eyes.
In Germany, Pansies are called stepmother. And such a name was coined by chance. The bottom petal is the largest and most beautiful. The petal symbolizes a clothed stepmother. Petals a little higher - they are dressed up daughters. The two remaining petals symbolize stepdaughters in poor robes.
Pansies are a beautiful flower about which legends and legends lie. He has not only unusual buds with multi-colored spots depending on the variety. He is a real helper in diseases when traditional medicine is less effective.
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What is pansy flower
Viola, lads, hatchets, moths, Ivan-da-Maria, funny eyes, flower, three-eyed - the so-called Pansy flowers, which are grown on open ground, are annual, biennial and perennial, belong to the family of violet. Differs in long flowering, which begins very early. Tricolor violet continues to delight until the beginning of summer, if landed later - until late autumn. When lads lose decorativeness, they are easily replaced by others.
Pansies are not only admired, but also widely used in medicine. Medicinal properties help with:
- strong coughing
- problems with the respiratory system
- inflammatory processes
- skin diseases
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
- used as an antiseptic,
- used as a choleretic drug.
What do they look like
Pansies refer to cultivated flowers that have an unusual shape: the petals are represented by a rich color palette from snow-white to bluish-black with yellow, red, blue hues, and in the center there is an unusual spot of bright color. The leaves have a light green color, oval shape with jagged edges. Three-eyes exude a gentle and pleasant aroma. In the axils of the viola leaves form flower stalks, the ends of which are topped with single large flowers.
The feature of the Pansies is that they are not tall plants, from 15 to 30 cm. The first flowering specimens have a color up to 4 cm in diameter, some breeding varieties reach 7-10 cm. From late April until late autumn, brotherhoods are actively blooming . Viola tricolor is a single plant. Propagated three-eye seedlings, seeds. It is grown up at dachas, garden sites, suspended flowerpots.
The varieties of tricolor violets are very diverse in color. Breeders have brought flowers with brown, dark purple, burgundy, red and orange shades, with petals bordered with a bright stripe, on the central color spots with catchy "eyes." The main varieties are presented in the following colors:
Violet tricolor classified according to the height of the bush, the size of the flower, color, shape of flower petals. There are:
- the height of the bush: short, medium, high,
- largest flower: small, large, giant (diameter over 10 cm),
- by color: monotonous, double, with contrasting stripes, spots,
- in the form of petals: the edges are smooth or wavy.
Varieties of Pansies
Many varieties of viola tricolor bred by crossing several types of violets. In total, more than 15 varieties of three-eyed eyes, which are very widely used by amateur gardeners and professional designers, are displayed. Moths are planted in places of decoration of ridges and borders, decorate flowerbeds, balconies, attic, windows. Popular species are represented by Violet tricolor and Violet Wittroka.
Viola tricolor or Violet tricolor is an annual, biennial plant. The stem is simple or branched, 10-40 cm tall. The color of the leaves and stems is dark green or green. The smell has a faint taste, sweetish. He likes light penumbra, likes to grow in direct sun, prefer loose soil. Viola tricolor is a wonderful ornamental plants for landscape design.
Garden Pansies or Violet Vittrock (viola x wittrokkiana) is a herbaceous plant of the Violet family. The variety of flowers is a hybrid obtained from the crossing of various cultivars (tricolor, Altai and yellow violets) and natural species. The colors of modern hybrids are significantly different from the usual violets. Variety Vittroka has larger brightly colored flowers.
Planting and growing
The beauty of the lads depends on the place of planting and the methods of their cultivation. Three-eyed eyes calmly bear the shadow, but growing in dark places will degenerate: to shrink, to lose the saturation of flowers, the stems will begin to stretch, fade, the flowering time will be reduced or stop blooming altogether. Watered crops with warm water from a watering can with a fine strainer so as not to damage the root system. If the air has a high temperature, then watering is carried out in the evening or early in the morning.
Variety selection and seed preparation
Prepare the seeds for planting should be in advance. They are sown in the fall. After wintering, active growth will begin, Viola will bloom around April. The plant is hardy, so it can calmly survive small frosts and snowfall, however, if winter is expected to be harsh, it should be sheltered in case of severe frosts. Sowing in late February - March will allow the plant to bloom in May and June. During summer planting, seeds can be planted directly into the ground. Pansies bloom in August and September.
Sowing of violets is carried out in two ways: on top of the soil under the film and filling the seeds with soil. Care is normal. The process is as follows:
- The soil mixture consists of land, peat, humus. The container with the mixture is placed in a dark but warm place. Every day, the film is lifted for several minutes, allowing the seeds to "breathe."
- In the soil mixture, grooves are made at a distance of 2 cm from each other and 0.5 cm wide. Seeds are planted through a row, lightly sprinkled with earth, covered with foil, periodically aired, lifting it. The container is placed in a dark, warm place.
After sowing, seedlings appear after a week or two. When the first young plants appear, the boxes are rearranged to a lighter place. Dive seedlings need to other tanks or missing rows when sowing. The distance between the sprouts must be at least 20 cm, because they greatly expand. To speed up flowering, it is necessary to apply the seedling method in advance, after planting seeds in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
Landing in open ground
Tricolor violets grow well in sunny places, fertile soils. It is advisable to plant on the ground, well warmed and illuminated by the sun. Additionally, the soil is enriched with fertilizers, contribute organic matter. Soil should contain moisture and nutrients. When digging the site in the spring, it is desirable to use complex mineral fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium). However, the use of manure is prohibited, since the three-eyed eyes do not like "fat" soils.
Care for the tricolor violet
To longer admire the blooming flower bed, you must carefully consider the recommendations for the care of violet. The root system of the axes is shallow, therefore during the heat it is necessary to mulch them with cut grass or straw. In August, when the viola is still blooming, and the seeds have ripened in place of the unwinding buds, the box and it is better to cut them - this will prolong flowering. It is necessary to pinch the failed shoots. If Viola dries out, you should cut everything dry and feed it.
The main recommendations for care are in compliance with the mode of weeding, feeding, watering, loosening the soil. The tips are as follows:
- Weeding and loosening the soil. This is done as needed, it is desirable to loosen the ground after watering.
- Feeding. They should be regular, but not less than two times per season. The main dressing during the growth of buds. Mineral fertilizers are used, compost can be used.
- Watering. Viola do not like excess moisture, optimally watered every other day, but it all depends on weather conditions. In hot weather, moths water more often.
The method of propagation by grafting retains all the powers of the mother flower, allows you to get many new plants. Hybrid varieties multiply this way. A stalk is an escape with 2-3 internodes. Reproduction is carried out in May - June. The plant is planted to a depth of 0.5 cm. The density of planting is high: up to 400 pieces per square meter.
After planting, cuttings are regularly sprayed with water for several days. It is very important to cover them from direct sunlight, it is desirable to shade the place. After the "moths" take root, you can land on a permanent place. Plants will bloom in summer, some in autumn.If grafting is carried out in the middle of summer / in August, then the flowering period will occur only in the next spring. During the summer, one plant produces about 40 cuttings.
Pansies in landscape design
Brothers or tricolor violets are very much in demand among landscape designers: they decorate garden lanes and streets with spectacular flowers. Such flowerbeds look elegant and decorative. Flower cultures are selected by size, color range. A good combination gives the use of some viols, but different shades. The advantages of using violets are as follows:
- large selection of color palette
- earlier flowering
- simultaneous flowering of young crops.
The use of moths on the garden plot is varied. They are used as a primary, complementary or bordering plant. On the basis of trekhglazok, designers spread real floral ornamental carpets, planted paths or decorate them with pots. Moths blend perfectly with colors such as:
Varieties of pansies with photos
A variety of varieties of bros is the result of the selection work of botanists from around the world. Three-eyed eyes are widely used in modern landscape design. There are several groups of varieties: large-flowered, violets with small flowers, gigantic. They also distinguish: single-color varieties, two-colored (2 upper and 3 lower petals are colored with similar in tone but different colors), spotty (3 lower petals are decorated with contrasting spots).
The diameter of the flowers is 7-8.5 cm. The main varieties are: Ice King, Winter Sun, Heavenly Queen, Magic of March, Jupiter, Evening Heat:
- Ice King: pale yellowish green, lower petals with purple spots,
- Winter Sun: bright yellow, lower petals velvet brown spots,
- Heavenly Queen: pure blue,
- The magic of March: dark purple, almost black, when fully bloomed, velvety petals,
- Jupiter: purple-purple, whitish above,
- Evening Heat: brownish red.
Tricolor violet with small flowers
Small-flowered varieties of pansies have flowers with a diameter of up to 4 cm. The variety is distinguished by early and long flowering, winter hardiness, compact bushes. Main varieties:
- Little Red Riding Hood has bright red flowers, diameter from 3.5 to 4 cm,
- Blue Boy is distinguished by flowers of blue-blue color, in diameter from 3 to 4 cm,
- The Snow Maiden has white petals, 3-4 cm in diameter.
The diameter of the flowers is 8-11 cm. There is a viola in three colors: blue, white, golden yellow:
- white: reaches 8 cm in diameter, petals with smooth wavy edges, bush 20 cm high,
- golden yellow: single golden yellow color, up to 8 cm in diameter, petals with smooth edges, bush height 20 cm.
- blue: purple-blue, on the lower petals there are dark purple spots, diameter up to 8 cm, smooth edges of the petal, height of the bush is 25 cm.
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Features of the structure, the requirements for care
The botanical description of the violet is less poetic and is of interest to gardeners who are interested in breeding and growing it in the garden as an early perennial plant.
Viola is a biennial plant. In nature, it is distributed throughout the European part of the continent, as well as in the regions of the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. In the south, it can be found down to the southernmost borders of Russia, in Ukraine and in Moldova. In the wild form, the viola grows like weeds, it is hardy even in the harsh subarctic conditions. Cultivated hybrids require care and transplantation, since at the age of two, the flowers of the plant become small and inconspicuous.
But the natural properties - endurance and undemanding, allow you to grow interesting hybrids and use all possible ways of breeding pansies in the open field and as a one-year balcony decoration at home. Pansies, subject to simple rules of care transform garden plots in areas with a cold climate.
Pansies: Agrotechnika growing from seed
It would seem that in the agrotechnology of cultivation there is nothing complicated or impracticable. But in garden beds, alpine hills you want to see not small wild flowers, but beautiful cultivated varieties with large inflorescences and rarest colors.
Fans of pansies are not averse to admiring the delicate flowers growing in vases, drawers and just in pots on the balcony. Thanks to the efforts of modern breeders such an opportunity exists - it is enough to get acquainted with the simple agrotechnics of growing the violet tricolor, to choose the variety and the method of cultivation.
The stem of a plant reaches a height of 10-15 cm to 30 cm, less often, in giant hybrids up to 45 cm. Usually, there are several straight or climbing stems from the root, depending on the care of the plants and their variety. Stems are bare or slightly pubescent with fine fibers, ribbed trihedral shape.
The root system is fibrous: the lateral numerous roots closely girth the taproot.
The lower leaves are large, egg-shaped with long petioles, and the upper ones are oblong, sessile. Just as the plant stems the leaves can be covered with fibers, depending on the type of flower. Between the upper leaves and the stem there are long stipules from which flower stalks appear.
The flower consists of a brush, on which there are 3-4 paired bracts. Cups of flowers do not fall off after flowering - seeds ripen in them, which can then be collected independently.
A corolla consists of 5 petals, where, as a rule, the lower, unpaired petal differs in shape and color. Two pairs of upper paired leaves are larger. In the center of the corolla there is a pistil and five stamens with anthers, tightly pressed against it. When ripe fruit - "seed boxes", it tightly hold the sepals.
Pansies: growing from seeds in open ground
Sowing seeds can be carried out at different times, depending on the desired timing of flowering.
In the middle zone and in the south, the cultivation of "pansies" from seeds in open ground begins in the middle or in the second half of September, when the weather is still warm, so that the seedlings have time to germinate and grow strong before the onset of cold weather. When under-winter crops, it is desirable to shelter them if winters with a low snow cover and strong frosts prevail in the region. Earlier sowing in these areas is undesirable because the seedlings can outgrow, and this will delay their flowering in the spring, and the flowers will be smaller.
In the northern regions, sowing pansies is necessary in early August or not later than early September. Here, a natural snow cover will serve as a shelter for young shoots, but in early spring, in case of severe frosts, snow retention is needed so that the flowers do not die during night frosts before the onset of a steady positive temperature.
Sowing seeds in open ground in May-June will allow to decorate the garden with flowering plants in August-September.
Pansies: growing flowers by seedling
For growing hybrids that are more demanding in weather conditions, in regions with a cold climate, where spring does not come before mid-May, and summer heat leaves already at the beginning or in the middle of August, it is possible to admire pansies grown at home in a seedling manner . In the spring, when the snow melts, warm weather sets in and the earth warms up, it will remain to plant the seedlings in open ground. As an option, you can grow pansies in flowerpots in order to transfer them to the garden during the summer period. This method of cultivation will not cause any problems for florists.
Flower seedlings of pansies can be grown in two ways: in peat pots or in boxes.
Sowing in peat pots
• Small-sized pots are filled with one-third of the soil mix.
• Seeds are sown, 3-5 pieces, sprinkled on top of them, no more than 1 cm.
• Next, the pots are transferred to a container (pallet), covered with foil and put in a warm place until the first pair of true leaves appears. Shoots appear within 10-14 days.
• Daily seedlings need to open and leave for ventilation, monitor soil moisture.
• Seedlings dive twice in seedling containers, with an interval of 5-7 days.
• It is recommended to plant seedlings in the ground at night temperatures not lower than 18 ºС.
Sowing in seedling boxes
- The prepared boxes are filled with soil mixture.
- At a distance of 2 cm make grooves, a depth of 0.5-1.0 cm. Sow the seeds and sprinkle with earth.
- The soil is regularly moistened with the irrigation method, as necessary, before the first picking.
- After picking, the grown plants are transplanted into more spacious containers or individual pots, choosing the strongest shoots. Watering and loosening is carried out as needed.
- As in the first case, the boxes are stored at room temperature, under the film, daily airing and moistening the soil, if necessary.
When forcing out seedlings, it is necessary to monitor sufficient and uniform illumination after germination. In addition, during the forcing period of pansies, it is desirable to feed complex mixtures. Feeding and preventive treatment with fungicides should preferably be carried out at least once every two weeks.
When planting flowers of different varieties in the open ground, to preserve the variety, be sure to follow the rules of zoning, because as a result of cross-pollination for the next year, you can not see your favorite pansies in your garden.
Pansies: growing cuttings
Flowers of pansies in the second year of life, if they remain in the same place in the garden, become smaller. Such plantings need an update: so that next year the flowering will be abundant, plantings are thinned out, leaving one main stem with unblown ovaries, and the bushes cut in May, with two or three nodes are seated in the ground. Cuttings are abundantly watered using biostimulants, which will accelerate the development of the roots. In dry summers, cutting is best done under film, since during this period it is important to maintain humidity in the upper soil layer. Seedlings will delight flowering in early autumn. In addition, this method of planting rejuvenates flowers.
Compliance with the rules of agrotechnology will make flowering regular, long and abundant. Usually, all flowers prefer the conditions in which they grow in nature. Pansies in their natural environment are found on the edge of the forest, in non-greasy, but fertile soil with a neutral level of acidity. Sandy soil leads to the grinding of flowers with insufficient feeding.
Pansies need moderate and regular watering, which is best done in the evening. After watering - mandatory soil loosening to improve aeration. Excess moisture is harmful for tricolor violet roots. The lack of moisture leads to the fact that the stems begin to creep along the ground, stretching and turning into creeping plants with small flowers. In case of insufficient watering, flowering also stops.
In order to stimulate the growth of vegetative mass, it is necessary to introduce nitrogen into the soil before planting, and for the formation of buds and lush flowering - phosphorus and potassium. Mineral dressing should be made strictly according to the norm, remembering that their overabundance is just as damaging to flowers as a flaw.
It is categorically impossible to plant a viola in the soil fertilized with fresh manure. It is not only a source of nitrogen and organic matter, but also a breeding ground for infections.
Pests and diseases
Bacteria, viruses and pathogenic fungi that affect pansies in the soil, water and air are quite a lot. Diseases to which, without exception, all plants of the garden:
- Mealy dew
- Downy mildew
- Fusarium roots and leaves
- Bronze leaves
In addition to infectious diseases, violets suffer from aphids, gall nematodes, spider mites. Not averse to feast on delicate slug leaves. But worst of all, insects are the main distributors of infectious diseases. Therefore, to protect flowers, it is often necessary to apply both fungicidal and insecticidal agents simultaneously in order to solve the problem in a comprehensive manner.
It is important to learn one golden rule that will help protect garden plants from many troubles: unfortunately, gardeners themselves are to blame for many diseases of their favorite flowers, because any violations of agrotechnical requirements lead to weakening of plants, and they become defenseless in the environment of bacteria and viruses, insects pests.
The best treatment for the disease is proper care. For example:
Watering with cold water causes stress in the plant, leading to mechanical damage to the roots, which are compressed due to a sharp drop in the temperature of the soil and water. Further, microcracks are formed in the roots into which viruses and bacteria that live in the upper layers of the soil easily penetrate. Gradually, the harmful microorganisms increase their numbers, feeding on the intercellular juices of the flower, and when one plant dies, the harmful and invisible inhabitants of the gardens and vegetable gardens are transferred to everything that grows and blooms nearby.
Pansies: choose the best varieties for flower beds
The variety of colors of the flower stuns riot of colors, and, of course, gives room for the creation of landscape compositions: rabatok, borders, alpine slides. But that's not all! Small and medium-sized flowers, large and giant in size, are additional touches for decorating flower beds, allowing you to play with shapes and sizes, creating volume and wavy lines.
Low-growing viola "tricolor" with large flowers (5-8 cm) is suitable for framing garden paths. Viola Vittrock with giant flowers, reaching 10 centimeters in diameter, can become the center of the composition of violets. All together, flowers of different sizes can form the basis for a bed of continuous flowering, from early spring to late autumn, if you follow the calendar, plant the seedlings first, then sow the seeds, and in the middle of summer to update the bed with seedlings from cut cuttings.
Whichever type of tricolor violet is chosen to decorate the garden, do not forget to pay attention to the cultivation of a lively floral carpet. If in a timely manner to loosen the soil, water a flower bed and cut fading plants, the flower bed will always be updated, look fresh and delight with an abundance of flowers.
Finally, before you buy seeds of pansies, draw a plan of the landscape, denoting on it step by step what type and color should be placed. The drawing must be transferred to the site, calculate the required number of seeds, and only after that go for the purchase.
Of the four hundred types of viola, bred by breeders, be sure to attract at least ten. This will be enough to translate the idea.
Pansies Victorian Blend
Refers to the rococo variety. The bush grows by 18-25 cm in length, the diameter of flowers reaches 5.5 cm. The variety has a dense and abundant flowering. Colors are characterized by variegated, bright shades and strongly wavy petals. The flowering period begins in late April and ends in August. They are usually decorated with flowerbeds or borders, as well as used for planting groups in flower beds.
The plant is highly frost resistant. It germinates well in loose, fertile soils and loves the sun, but can grow in partial shade. Sowing seeds produced in June, and in late August-early September, seedlings are planted in the ground at a distance of 15-20 cm.
Large-flowered frost-resistant variety of pansies begins to bloom one of the first among other varieties. It has a compact appearance. It has bright monochrome petals, it comes in different shades. The biennial plant blooms in both spring and autumn, and the diameter of the flowers reaches 8 cm. It is not capricious and blooms in the year of sowing during early planting. Flowers of this variety are often found in gardens, vases and pots.
Seeds for seedlings are sown from February to August. The first shoots appear after 7-10 days if they are stored under a transparent film or glass and maintain the temperature at 18-20 degrees. When the seeds germinate, they are removed from the glass and grown in bright places, protecting from direct sunlight. Planting seedlings in the ground is carried out at a distance of 20-25 cm.
In open ground, seeds are sown from mid-spring to late summer. The plant should grow in a cool place.
The flowers of this series reach 5 cm in diameter and grow tightly to each other, growing well. They are undemanding, cold-resistant and very hardy. It is better than others to carry the rains and often harmoniously complement other spring plants. More effectively blooms when grown in cool places.
Planted in open ground until mid-summer. Harvesting seedlings begin to do from January to February. The plant grows best in lighted areas and loves moisture. To bloom was stronger, fading flowers are removed.
Blueberry with cream
The height of the plant reaches 15 cm. Abundant flowering and compactness, together with the original color, are predominantly dark purple with white edging, making the series particularly spectacular. Often can be seen on the curbs and flower beds, as well as in flower beds. The species begins to bloom from mid-spring, and the last period falls at the end of autumn. Variety resistant to frost and unpretentious in growing. It grows in fertile, loose soils. He loves the sun, but can grow in partial shade.
The variety has branched, compact bushes, growing to 20-25 cm. The average size of flowers (5-7 cm) with abundant flowering complements the beautiful color. On the edge of the corrugated petals, the main background is complemented by an original edging, the width of which varies according to temperature conditions. Coloring can change the intensity, creating a lively play of colors. The variety series is used for curb and group plantings in open ground or to decorate garden vases or balconies.
When sown on seedlings in early March, flowering begins in the same year. Landing in the ground to produce before the end of frost. For flowering next year, planting in a permanent place is carried out in the first two months of summer. It grows well in moderately moist, fertile, drained soils. Loves sunny places or partial shade.
Viola Ampelnaya Waterfall
Flowers of golden color in diameter reach 5 cm, forming a ball with dense continuous flowering. Hanging shoots of cascade varieties grow to 30 cm. The plant loves moisture and sun. It tolerates frosts. The first flowers bloom in May. The flowering period ends in September. When sown from February to March begins to bloom in the same year. They disembark at a permanent place in the last days of April or at the beginning of May, keeping a distance of 20 cm. Looks great on balconies in hanging pots.
Viola Williams Velor
Flowers with a diameter of 3-4 cm grow tightly adjacent to each other, creating a lush ball. Compact bushes grow up to 20 cm in height and up to 30 cm in diameter. A perennial, abundantly flowering plant of bright shades favorably differs from other varieties by its cultivation. It is unpretentious and tolerates bad weather conditions. It is grown up by groups on borders or the Alpine hill, and also in balcony flowerpots.
Grown in sunny places or partial shade in well-drained soils. Sowing of seedlings begins in February and ends in April, and in late May, the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place. When planting seedlings bloom from mid-summer to the first frost. When planting by sowing seeds, flowering begins next year. The flowering period is the beginning of March - the end of November. The variety type should be fertilized only with complex mineral fertilizers and covered for the winter. To extend the flowering period, you need to remove faded flowers.
Viola Wittrock Alpensee
Bushes of this variety grow to 15 cm, and the diameter of the flowers is about 5.5-6.5 cm. The plant is unpretentious in cultivation, loves the sun and moisture. It has good frost resistance. When planting seedling method begins to bloom in the same year. Seeds for seedlings sown in February. Sowing in a permanent place is carried out in the first two months of summer, with flowering begins next year. The flowering period from late spring to early fall. Planted in garden vases, balcony boxes or in flower beds and rabatkah.
Very large flowers reach 10 cm in diameter. The ornamental plant is extremely spectacular. It has a bright, eye-catching color. Grown in the sun or semi-dark places. He likes wet, drained and fertile soils. Need moderate watering in dry time to maintain the size of the flowers. The largest flowers grow while maintaining a temperature of 15 degrees.
Sowing seeds carried out from January to February, and in May transplanted to the open ground. For flowering next year, sowing is done at the beginning of summer, and planting at a permanent place at the end.
Sowing seeds for seedlings in early March, shoots appear after a week. Pick in the phase of two true leaves. In the open ground seedlings are planted in April and May. When sown in open ground in June-July blooms the following year.
The variety has large flowers with a diameter of 7-9 cm. Low, compact bushes grow to 15 cm. The plant belongs to the early flowering varieties. Can be grown in sunny places or partial shade. Unpretentious in growing. It grows well in small volumes of land and has a high frost resistance. Suitable for decorating the curb and flower beds, as well as for planting in balcony drawers and garden containers.