Many of us, having seen a red spot on our feet, do not attach any importance to this. But this can not be done, because our skin is a mirror of the body. The appearance of such spots can be a signal of health problems. Therefore, to avoid serious consequences for health and life, it is necessary to determine in time why the red spots on the legs appear and how to eliminate them.
In this topic, we will describe in detail the reasons for the appearance of red spots on the legs of men, women and children, as well as how this problem can be treated.
Red spots on the feet of a child and an adult: what could be?
The spot is called a limited change in color and sometimes skin structure. Spots on the body of red can occupy one area (face, back, chest, abdomen, arms, legs, buttocks, etc.) or cover the entire skin.
Spots on the feet may be red, brown, black, purple, white or other color. The shape of distinguished round, oval, multi-faceted spots that have clear or blurred borders. Some spots have a smooth surface, while others crack, crust, flake and itch. In addition, all the spots vary in size: from point to large spots formed as a result of merging. It is also important to determine if the stain is above the skin level.
According to the international classification, all spots are divided into pigment and vascular.
Vascular spots can have a different color: red, purple, blue, yellow or brown. The color of the stain is due to the condition of the blood and the vessel where it is located. Depending on the origin, several types of vascular spots are distinguished, namely:
The vascular patch of inflammatory genesis appears on the skin as a result of the expansion of the inflamed blood vessel. In turn, among inflammatory vascular spots produce erythema, acute inflammatory and non-acute inflammatory roseola.
- Erythema - These are red spots of the largest size of irregular shape with clear borders that can grow and merge with each other, occupying one or several areas of the body. Such a red spot is a sign of acute inflammation and is very similar to a burn, so the poet is accompanied by swelling and a feeling of severe itching. If a red spot appears on the foot, which itches, grows in size and has puffiness, then this is most likely an allergy on the legs. Also, erythema is characteristic of toxicoderma, contact dermatitis and other dermatological problems.
- Aromatherapy Roseola - These are small red spots that appear as a result of the expansion of a blood vessel, which have a pink or bright red color, swelling and desquamation, and can also appear on any part of the body, in particular - the legs. Moreover, these spots are prone to merge. Astro-inflammatory roseola is most characteristic of children who suffer from allergic dermatitis, eczema, and deprived of pink or childhood infectious diseases.
- Non-inflammatory roseola is hardly noticeable, because its color is pale pink. Also, the peculiarity of such a red spot is that it has clear boundaries, cannot grow, does not merge and does not peel off. Such roseol is called pale and most often it can be found in patients with syphilis, leprosy, and lichen-colored.
Non-inflammatory vascular spotswhich are based on the expansion of blood vessels, occur under the influence of psychogenic factors, so they are often called spots of shame, anger or stress.
Vascular spots of hemorrhagic genesis - This is a collection of blood in the epidermis or papillary layer of the skin. This type of spots is also divided into inflammatory and non-inflammatory.
Inflammatory hemorrhagic spots formed due to inflammation of the vascular wall, the expansion of its pores and the release of the liquid portion of blood into the surrounding tissues.
Non-inflammatory spots of hemorrhagic genesis arise after bruises (petechiae, bruises, bruises, hematomas) through damage to the integrity of the vessel.
Dark spots represent a site of increased or decreased accumulation of the pigment melanin.
With an increased accumulation of melanin, brown spots may appear. on the legs, arms, face, back and other areas of the body. And the color of the spots may have a different shade: from light to dark.
Classification of pigment spots based on their magnitude and mechanism of education. Thus, there are three types of pigment spots with increased accumulation of melanin: lentigo, freckles, chloasma and nevi.
- Lentigo - These are foci of increased accumulation of melanin of various shapes and sizes, which can have both clear and blurred boundaries. Moreover, such stains are often scaly.
- Freckles called the little brown specks that appear under the influence of the sun's rays, which most often covers the face, hands and back.
- Chloasma are fairly large patches of dark brown color, caused by increased production and accumulation of melanin in the skin due to diseases of the liver, adrenal glands, thyroid gland and organs of the reproductive system, especially in adolescence.
- Nevi represent a collection of nevus cells in the skin, which are laid during the prenatal development of the fetus, so they are also called birthmarks or moles.
But there are also spots where the pigment is absent, so the skin in such areas remains white. Depending on the size of white spots, they secrete vitiligo and leucoderma.
- Vitiligo - This is the absence of melanin in certain areas of the skin. Such spots may be congenital or occur on the background of inflammatory diseases of the skin.
- Leucoderma - These are small white spots on the skin, the cause of which can be psoriasis, eczema, lichen, syphilis, typhoid and typhus.
Causes of red spots on the legs
In some cases, the causes of such spots on the legs can be factors that are not related to health problems, in others - spots are a sign of a serious disease that is a threat even to human life.
For example, very often red spots are a consequence of epilation and disappear without a trace within a few hours. Also, there may be birthmarks on the lower limbs, and if they do not bother (do not increase, do not change color, do not hurt, do not itch, etc.), then there is no reason to worry.
In addition, a common cause of red spots on the lower limbs is an allergy to shower gel, soap, lotion or cream. In this case, it is important to no longer use the tool, from which the feet are red.
Another disease, from which the feet may be covered with red spots, is vasculitis - inflammation of the walls of blood vessels. In most cases, the skin of the lower limbs reflects the condition of the veins and arteries of a given area of the body. Therefore, a dermatologist can still refer you to a doctor-phlebologist or surgeon who deals with problems of blood vessels.
In addition to these reasons, an important point in the appearance of spots on the skin of the legs is a lack of vitamins A, PP, C or B. For avitaminosis A, brown flaky or red rough spots on the ankles of the legs are characteristic.
If there are red spots on the legs and itching, then it may be a symptom of lichen rosacea.
Types of foot patches, causes and treatment
Now consider certain types of spots on the legs, their causes and treatment.
- Rough red spots on the feet itch. Such spots are most often a symptom of allergic dermatitis, which occurs due to the use of cosmetics, the use of certain foods. A hypoallergenic diet and the elimination of the allergen (cream, soap, gel, etc.), as well as antihistamine drugs (Suprastin, Tavegil, Cetrin) and application of ointments with anti-inflammatory effect or with hormones will help improve the condition of the skin. But without the advice of a specialist, it is impossible to begin treatment.
- Dry red spots on the legs of the legs. Such dry spots not only spoil the appearance of the lower extremities, but are often accompanied by such an unpleasant sensation as itching. Most often, irritation on the calves of the legs occurs due to the use of low-quality cosmetics, wearing synthetic clothes or improperly performed depilation. Dry red spots on the feet may be the result of wearing tight shoes. With such stains, it is necessary to eliminate the causative factor and use moisturizers.
- Small spots of red. Small red rash on the lower extremities can affect both the entire area and can be localized in a specific area. The causes of this rash may be excessive insolation, a deficiency of vitamins in the body, chronic diseases of internal organs, vascular tumors, mosquito bites or other insects.
- Red spots on the legs with varicose veins: a photo. Varicosis is a disease of the veins of the lower extremities, which also affects the condition of the skin. Red spots on the legs with varicose veins can be represented by the vascular net, asterisks and red spots of different intensity, shape and size. Also, with varicose veins, the legs swell up and may ache, especially at the end of the day. When these signs appear, you should consult a phlebologist or a vascular surgeon. Treatment of varicose veins consists of venotonics, medical gymnastics, compression underwear and other therapeutic agents.
- Red spots on the feet. The causes of red spots on the feet are most often fungal infections, foot deformities, chafing, and chronic venous insufficiency. The appearance of itchy spots is characteristic of a fungal infection of the feet, at which the skin will also crack and ache. Treatment will depend on the cause. For example, with a fungal infection, antifungal drugs are taken in the form of ointments, creams or gels. To eliminate venous insufficiency using the same drugs as with varicose veins.
- Red spot under the thumbnails of the big toe. In most cases, the red spot under the nail plate of the thumb is the result of injury. But it is also impossible to exclude such causes as diseases of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, which are accompanied by oxygen starvation, rheumatoid arthritis and a fungal infection. Therefore, it is impossible to ignore the appearance of such a spot. Only a specialist can reliably determine the cause and prescribe an effective treatment.
- Bright red spot on the legs below the knees. Most often, red spots on the leg below the knee, which are similar to a burn, are found in erysipelas, an infection caused by streptococcus. The appeared spot is very sore, the skin of the lower leg is hot and their swelling is determined. This disease is contagious, therefore it requires immediate remedial measures. The treatment of erysipelas is performed by an infectious disease doctor or surgeon, depending on the form of the disease.
- Red spots on the lower limbs in a child. Red spots on the hands and feet of a child can occur as a result of insect bites, allergies, dysbiosis, pancreatic diseases, etc. The most common cause is food allergies, in particular cow's milk. In this case, the process is not limited to the limbs; therefore, red spots may appear on the face of newborns, especially on the cheeks and near the mouth. In case of allergies it is important to eliminate the allergens. If the child is breastfed, then the woman should adjust her diet, and if he was introduced supplements, then you need to revise the introduced products. Another unpleasant and dangerous skin disease for the baby is toxic erythema, which is characterized by red spots between the legs with a red rim. This rash appears on the second day of life and passes on its own. A serious disease in children is pemphigus, in which red spots and blisters form on the skin of the child’s feet.
There are many more reasons for the appearance of red spots on the lower extremities, but in any case, it is not necessary to self-medicate. The first step is to contact an experienced specialist, who will help determine the cause of such a rash and prescribe an effective, and most importantly, safe treatment.
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What are spots on the skin
Rashes on the human body often have a different look, size, shape (round, oval). The spot is the change in shade of the skin. Spots can take the form of a skin rash (small red dots) or large formations and occupy large areas, spreading all over the back, stomach, legs. Rashes can be edged, scaly, different colors, with shades of blue, orange, lilac, white. Often, along with a change in color, the shape of the skin changes. This area rises above the rest of the surface, forming plaques, bumps, and blisters.
The appearance of spots is very often accompanied by itching, peeling, pain sensations. Sometimes their occurrence goes away without any disturbing symptoms. If they are located in inaccessible places, a person may not immediately notice them. In many cases, skin lesions indicate the presence of any chronic diseases of internal organs. Red spots on the body are often a manifestation of allergies. The appearance of skin rashes is sometimes indicated by infectious diseases.
Partial discoloration of the skin is caused by various factors. They are external and internal. The first include exposure to the sun, wind, frost, high temperature, chemicals. Internal factors are diseases of various kinds that affect a person. This may be the occurrence of infection, inflammation of the digestive system. The elimination of spots and rashes due to external factors is an easier process. Often they do not require treatment, but they pass on their own.
In order to determine the reason for the appearance of strange spots on the body, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist. After diagnosis, he must prescribe the appropriate treatment. Common causes that cause skin blemishes are:
- allergic reactions
- thermal, chemical burns,
- dermatological diseases (lichen, eczema),
- fungal diseases
- infectious diseases (rubella, chickenpox),
- chronic diseases of internal organs,
- disorders of the immune system,
- stressful conditions.
Red spots on the body
The most common type of skin lesions on the human body are specks of reddish hues. If the red spot on the body itches - this is a sign of dermatological diseases or fungal infections. With candidiasis, itching, redness of skin can occur.Different types of dermatitis, versicolor, eczema appear with itchy and flaky reddish spots. Infections such as chicken pox, measles, and meningitis are accompanied by the appearance of small rashes, dark red spots, and crimson hues. All these diseases cause itching, often unbearable.
When allergic reactions to healthy skin pops pimples, specks of red shades. As a result of stress sometimes appear dark red and burgundy spots on the neck, chest. They often disappear after stabilization. With metabolic disorders, a rash appears on the face and hands. In all these cases, the occurrence of stains may be accompanied by itching, and pass without it. Red spots on the body, which do not itch, sometimes appear because of the disruption of the blood vessels. The occurrence of vascular spots occurs mainly in the elderly.
Spots on the body of light brown color are associated with the action of the sun. This phenomenon is called “pigmentation disorder.” After sunbathing, the skin may become covered with brown spots. This suggests an excess of melanin in the body. In elderly women, the skin is often covered with senile plaques of a dark brown, black color. Pigment formations are easily removed from the skin with the help of lightening creams. Black specks can be a sign of diseases such as: diabetes, polycystic ovary, cancer of internal organs.
Very often, when dermatological pathologies in healthy areas of the skin specks appear, covered with scales. This is a dead part of the dermis affected by any disease. Peeling may be accompanied by itching. When they are combed, the scales are removed, then the diseased area of skin is covered with them again. Peeling spots on the body appear due to the following diseases:
Deprive leaves spots on the skin with a clearly defined border. In a short time, they spread throughout the body. With seborrhea, the skin is flaky and itchy. Reddened places on the skin of a person, accompanied by desquamation, are with fungal infections. The skin can begin to peel off and turn red due to dryness or exposure to low temperatures.
Lesions of the skin, having the appearance of pinkish spots, often occur due to atopic dermatitis. This is a manifestation of an allergic reaction of the body. It may cause the use of any products, dust, contact with chemical means. Sometimes spots of a pink shade arise because of an unstable psychoemotional state of the person. Localization of the rash covers the neck, face, hands, chest.
With a disease such as lichen pink, specks appear on the back, thighs, and sides. The disease is activated with reduced immunity, after the transfer of infectious diseases. Ringworm, which provokes pinkish rashes, happens in childhood. Mostly the disease affects the skin on the head of the child, but sometimes it is localized on the face, neck.
Due to an insufficient amount of moisture, the skin is dried out and becomes coarse. Dry spots on the face, arms, neck, occur during prolonged exposure to the sun. The same effect produces wind, frosty weather. The appearance of dry spots can be triggered by pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. The lack of nutrients affects the condition of the human skin. Dry pinkish or red specks often appear as an allergic reaction to external stimuli.
White scaly spots
If skin rashes have the appearance of bright, rough spots, most likely, it is scaly versicolor. It is also called the solar fungus. In this disease, an inflammatory process begins in the stratum corneum. Affected cells die off, forming scales. The stain begins to itch and peel off. Characteristic features of this species of lichen is the presence of light spots on the dark body. On the pale skin education have a yellow-brown tint.
Redness on the skin in the form of spots often take the form of blisters, shiny patches, edema. Similar traces appear after bites of blood-sucking and stinging insects. The center of the bite can swell up and begins to swell - this is the body's reaction to injecting poison into the skin. Many infectious diseases are characterized by the appearance of purulent formations of red color, blisters. For example, in a chickenpox, red bulges form with an abscess in the middle, which then become covered with a crust. Similar rashes can appear in case of skin lesions with eczema, psoriasis.
Grayish spots on the human body cause such a dangerous disease as cancer. In this case, the skin formations are characterized by a smooth surface. Pigment spots that appear in the sun can also be gray. These are flat rashes that appear in older people. Spots with gray scales are also available when they are infected with a species of lichen.
In order to get rid of unpleasant skin rashes, it is necessary to accurately establish the diagnosis. On this depends the appointment of adequate treatment. Medicines are prescribed only by a doctor based on diagnostic tests. This process begins with a survey of the patient and his physical examination. Then follow a laboratory examination with the use of special equipment. The following studies are conducted:
- Dermatoscopy. Assessing the condition of the dermis using a tool for visual examination of skin lesions.
- Tissue analysis. A scraping is taken from the affected area. Particles of the skin are examined under a microscope for the detection of parasites.
- Blood test. This method determines the presence of inflammation in the body.
- Bacteriological examination. The doctor takes a smear and conducts tests to identify microorganisms.
In order to remove the spots from the body, it is necessary to find out the cause of their occurrence. Therapy is prescribed by a specialist on the basis of laboratory data and information received from the patient. Treatment depends on the type, form, nature of the disease, which provoked the appearance of spots. The following types of drugs can be used for therapy:
Treatment of serious diseases is carried out in a complex, with the use of several groups of drugs. If the disease is mild, often only topical preparations are used. Medicines are available in the form:
- ointments, creams, sprays,
- solutions, tinctures.
Ketoconazole is an effective antifungal agent. The active substance of the drug powerfully inhibits the activity of fungi, destroys their cellular structure. The tool is used to eliminate skin lesions caused by dermatological diseases. It is prescribed for the lesion of the scaby, psoriasis, seborrhea, mycosis of various species
Ketoconazole is well tolerated by the body, has almost no contraindications. The course of treatment is 2-8 weeks. A distinctive feature of the drug is that it quickly eliminates skin rashes. A plus can be considered the possibility of using medication for pregnant women. The disadvantages of funds include a large number of side effects.
Metronidazole is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. This is one of the best modern drugs. Is an antimicrobial drug of high efficiency. The active substances of metronidazole destroy many types of bacteria, reduce the risk of recurrent diseases. It is used to treat complex infectious diseases, chronic diseases of internal organs.
The advantage of Metronidazole is the successful treatment of acne, herpes, purulent formations on the skin. The disadvantages include the presence of many side effects. Among the undesirable manifestations - the violation of the functions of the nervous system, upset the esophagus, urinary tract, allergic rash on the body. The medicine has good reviews from doctors and patients.
Claritin is an antihistamine that successfully eliminates allergies in adults and children. Used to treat urticaria, allergic dermatitis, other skin diseases, accompanied by rashes. In addition to the active substance - loratadine, it contains natural elements, flavors. The drug is not addictive, which is a big plus. It can be used for a long time, without fear of harm to health.
A distinctive feature of the tool is that it quickly relieves the symptoms of allergies, without causing dryness of the dermis. The drug has many advantages: it can be administered to small children, has almost no contraindications, is well tolerated by the body, side effects are rarely observed. The only disadvantage is that it is recommended to abandon it during pregnancy and lactation.
Spots on the skin - causes
The skin is the largest organ of the human body, so any changes on its surface should be taken seriously. Spots on the body are areas of skin that differ from the rest of the cover in color, density, etc. Doctors distinguish these types of spots on the skin:
- pigment - spots that appear as a result of melanin imbalance,
- vascular - resulting from diseases of the cardiovascular system,
- artificial - resulting from exposure to dyes - paint, makeup,
- spots resulting from skin diseases - dermatosis, allergies, depriving.
Red spots on the skin
Redness on the skin may indicate dermatitis, infectious diseases, reduced immunity, allergies, abuse of solar procedures. Skin allergies are red spots that can be small or large, spreading over large areas of the skin. Urticaria can appear and disappear, change location. From exposure to the sun, small red itchy spots appear on the skin.
Red scaly patches on the body is a symptom of psoriasis. In this disease, bulging, scaly patches of round or irregular shape appear, covered with skin scales of gray-white color, which fall off. The disease is characterized by severe itching, with damage to a thin film under the flaky layer may appear "bloody dew." Plaque localization in psoriasis - on the head, arms, folds (elbow, knee, armpits).
Red spots on the body may indicate the presence of a fungal, viral or bacterial infection in the body. Such rashes and spots on the body often appear as a symptom of the disease. It may be:
- measles - maculopapular rash, merging into large spots,
- rubella - papular rash, not detectable at palpation,
- chicken pox - papular rash, small individual eruptions,
- scarlet fever - red bulging pimples.
On the body, bright or pale pink spots may indicate an allergic reaction to drugs, products (citrus, milk, sweets) or cosmetics. Peeling spots on the skin can be rosy lichen, a distinctive feature of which is the symmetry of the location of the rash. First, when the pink lichen disease occurs, a “maternal” plaque appears, a little later - small spots, which eventually merge with the “maternal” plaque into a large spot.
Spots on the body, similar to lichen pink, are scaly versicolor, which may be tan, lilac. The causative agent of this disease is Pitisporum fungus. First, the patient appears small spots, which then merge into a large formation. This disease is contagious and can be transmitted through contact or through hygiene items (towels, napkins). The risk of getting sick increases in the presence of chronic diseases, excessive sweating.
Brown spots on the skin
Spots on the body of brown - it is melanosis - a violation of the synthesis of melanin, because of which there is excessive pigmentation. Pathologies that cause age spots on the body:
- liver disease - causes the coloring of small areas of skin in brown,
- endocrine disruption - cause failure of metabolic processes, which leads to the appearance of age spots,
- tuberculosis also leads to a violation of pigmentation,
- kidney problems lead to the development of uremic melanosis.
The cause of melanosis can be prolonged contact with toxic substances - coal, oil and others. People who work with toxic substances are at risk of diseases such as toxic melanosis. Workers who are often in contact with arsenic may experience arsenic melanosis. Male adolescents in 10-15 years may appear yellow-brown moles, which are called Becker nevus. This violation is associated with hormonal changes in the body of adolescents.
Leopard syndrome is a rare genetic pathology that is characterized by the appearance of a variety of pigment spots on the body. The appearance of this syndrome may signal that it is necessary to check the functioning of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Brown spots on the skin, similar to moles - this lentigo. This disease can be caused by a failure in the immune system, gene mutations, papillomavirus activity.
Testify of oncology may melanosis of the name Dubreus. At the initial stage, with this pathology, a brown spotted rash appears. Over time, irregular-shaped spots grow and become similar to the contour map pattern, later on the formations become dense, papules and nodules are formed, which can become a malignant tumor.
White spots on the skin
Such a symptom as white spots on the body can talk about diseases of internal organs, injuries, fungal infections, malfunction of the immune system, hormonal disorders and other problems. Leucoderma is a disease in which melanin production stops or becomes insufficient. The symptom of the disease - small rounded white spots on the skin. The appearance of white spots of irregular shape is a symptom of vitiligo, a serious and poorly understood disease.
White spots on the skin after sunburn appear due to:
- fungal skin lesions,
- diseases of the liver, kidneys, adrenal glands,
- hormonal disruptions
- genetic pathology,
- immunity failure,
- infectious diseases - syphilis, leprosy and others,
- the presence of scars and scars.
Bruise spots on the body
Emerging hematomas themselves are a symptom of some serious diseases:
- disruption of the liver, leading to blood thinning and bruising,
- varicose veins - with this ailment there are bruises on the legs,
- hemorrhagic vasculitis - an autoimmune disease in which the walls of blood vessels are destroyed,
- beriberi, which makes vessels fragile,
- bleeding disorders due to a lack of platelets or taking certain medications.
Dark spots on the skin, similar to bruises of purple or blue, can be:
- angiokeratoma - benign vascular formation,
- thrombocytosis - purple spots that appear due to an increase in the number of platelets,
- flaming nevus - wine-colored spots caused by damage to vessels located close to the surface,
- Kaposi's sarcoma - a purple spot, similar to lichen, which is a signal for the development of a tumor.
How to remove spots on the skin?
To cure a skin rash, it is necessary to eliminate the cause of its occurrence. If the skin rash in the form of red spots appeared due to an allergic reaction - eliminate the allergen, if due to an infectious disease - cure it.In some cases, spots on the body are signals of the development of a tumor or a serious pathology of internal organs, therefore, a medical consultation is not only desirable, but obligatory.
It is possible to whiten brown spots on the body if it is harmless freckles or hyperpigmentation caused by long exposure to the sun. Other types of this defect will disappear when the main disease is eliminated. To combat hyperpigmentation, several methods are used:
- reduced melanin formation
- exfoliation of the upper layer of the skin,
- protection of exposed body parts from solar radiation.
The treatment is carried out as follows:
- In order to speed up the obtaining of the desired effect, bleaching agents are used.
- To reduce the synthesis of melanin used drugs with hydroquinone and azelaic acid.
- To reduce the number of tyrosinase - an enzyme involved in the formation of melanin, use tools with arbutin and kojic acid.
- Do well with pigmentation and drugs with salicylic acid, arbutin, eugenol and some other components.
Allergic Rash Treatment
Spots on the body of allergic origin are treated with antihistamines and traditional medicine.
Therapy for skin allergies:
- When the urticaria appears, you can take Suprastin, Claritin, Zyrtec, Tavegil or another drug.
- When allergic red spots on the skin itch, you can apply Gistan in the form of an ointment or cream, homeopathic ointment Iricar, zinc ointment. Hormonal remedies for allergies prescribed by a doctor.
- Effective folk remedy for allergic rash - powder from the shell of raw eggs. It is taken in a third or a quarter of a teaspoon, extinguished with lemon juice.
Each type of disorder requires a special approach - there is no general therapeutic scheme. Only a dermatologist can prescribe adequate treatment.
Since dry spots on the skin often itch and itch, doctors recommend:
- Take antihistamines - Tavegil, Suprastin, Zirtek.
- Lubricate the affected areas of potent drugs (iodine, salicylic acid, sulfuric ointment) can not be - it will cause deterioration.
- It is forbidden to steam out damaged skin and expose to solar radiation.
How to treat hematomas on the body
Dark spots on the body of unknown origin cannot be treated on their own - these can be manifestations of serious diseases.
Ordinary hematomas (bruises) at home can be treated:
- Body - pharmaceutical powder diluted with water and make a compress.
- Iodine - on the hematoma make iodine grid.
- Lead lotion - you can buy it at the pharmacy and make compresses.
- Heparin ointment - it relieves inflammation and swelling, contributes to the rapid resorption of the bruise.
Types of spots on the skin
Spots are skin areas that are distinctive from the main skin in color and structure.
They can be:
- act above the skin.
In practice, dermatologists divide all neoplasms, which are localized on the skin, into three main categories:
- pigment (age) - the main cause of their appearance is an imbalance of melanin in the body,
- vascular ("star") - provoke their occurrence of diseases of the cardiovascular system,
- artificial - appear on the body due to the effect on the skin of various coloring pigments - tattoo, makeup.
They are also classified according to signs of skin diseases - depriving, dermatosis, diathesis, prickly heat, allergies.
Pigmentation can be either white or brown. In addition, doctors distinguish:
- natural pigmentation, which occurs due to the effect on the skin of ultraviolet radiation - tan, thus melanin protects the skin from burns, cancer, dermatosis,
- melanin pigmentation associated with excess and lack of basic pigment.
The imbalance of melanin production makes itself felt when:
- hormonal disorders,
- during pregnancy
- taking hormonal therapeutic drugs
- the onset of menopause in both women and men
- skin aging,
- genetic inclinations
- infectious infection.
With a lack of melanin, hypopigmented signs appear on the skin:
With an excess of melanin, hyperpigmented spots are characteristic:
- congenital - moles (nevi), lentigo, birthmarks,
- acquired - senile spots (senile lentigo), freckles (ephelidov), chloasma.
Most often, pigmentation is localized on the face, in the decollete area, on the hands.
Vascular spots are pink, purple, purple-red shade. They are classified into the following types:
Hyperemic in turn are divided into:
- patches of inflammatory nature, filled with blood, arising from the inflammation of the walls of blood vessels, called roseola (diameter less than or equal to 2 cm) and erythema (diameter greater than 2 cm),
- spots of non-inflammatory etiology, manifested as a result of nervous shocks, anxieties, experiences, called marks of shame.
Hemorrhagic formations occur due to:
- external exposure - bruises that go on for several days,
- manifestations of signs of vascular diseases are traces of internal hemorrhages requiring serious medical therapy.
Teleangiectic stains are a consequence of the expansion of the walls of blood vessels, the violation of their elasticity due to the influence of diets, drinking and smoking, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and heart, and the excessive influence of ultraviolet radiation. Represent the so-called "vascular grid".
Symptoms of many infectious diseases are reduced to the appearance of spots on the skin. Very common is lichen. It has a fungal, bacterial and viral etiology, and may occur due to weakening of the immune system and hereditary predispositions.
Experts determine the type of depriving on the characteristic signs of spots on the skin.
- When pityriasis on the body appear yellow and brown marks with a crust.
- With pink lichen - rounded pink with red border, scaly.
- In shingles, red inflammations resemble an allergic rash with blisters that is localized along the nerve trunks on the back, under the ribs.
- When the lichen planus is red, the neoplasms are similar to the nodules that are interconnected, forming large foci of inflammation.
- With white lichen, white spots appear without clear boundaries.
- Ringworm is characterized by the formation of shapeless balding patches on the head.
Deficit symptoms are very similar to rash with chickenpox, measles, and rubella. Sometimes the lichen is confused with eczema and skin allergic dermatitis.
Darkening of the skin can indicate the development of a complex form of dermatitis - photodermatosis, as well as age pigmentation.
Therapy aimed at treating patchy skin contributes to:
- eliminate hormonal imbalance,
- normalization of the functioning of internal organs,
- strengthen blood vessels
- identifying allergens that undermine health,
- modeling of strong immunity.
In each case requires a specialist inspection. Dermatologists, endocrinologists, trichologists, mycologists, neurologists, allergists, and venereologists deal with the treatment of skin diseases. Often, with the appearance of spots on the skin, complex therapy is prescribed.
The origin of the spots is different. To confirm the diagnosis of the external signs of the manifestations - the size, structure, form of tumors requires an in-depth study of skin modifications. Scrapings in places of formation of stains are a mandatory procedure after the patient is examined by a doctor.
- oral medication,
- hormonal drugs
- anti-inflammatory, antifungal ointments.
Self-treatment of stains is unacceptable. When they spread throughout the body, itching, burning and pain should not postpone a visit to the doctor.
In the absence of proper treatment of infections affecting the surface layer of the skin, there is an accumulation of toxins in the body, damage to internal organs, tissue necrosis.
Prevention of skin spotting
Skin is an indicator of people's health.
Small inflammatory foci in the form of spots tend to develop into large ulcers and wounds, so caring for it should be reduced to the following:
- the use of non-aggressive cosmetic and detergents,
- Avoiding contact with external irritants - use of gloves, masks, respirators in everyday life,
- maintaining a healthy lifestyle - giving up bad habits, normalizing sleep patterns and activity,
- dietary compliance,
- the passage of fortified courses,
- frequent walks in the fresh air,
- minimizing the effect on the skin of ultraviolet radiation,
- normalization of the mental state
- preference for relaxation activities
- the choice of wardrobe items from natural fabrics.
The implementation of the above preventive measures is mandatory with frequent recurrences of spotted problems. Follow a healthy lifestyle is much easier than finding the root causes of skin diseases and their elimination.
What are the spots
What is a stain? This is the part of the skin that is different in color. Tactile, it is either smooth or with a small protrusion above the surface and rough.
Spots can be divided into several groups:
- vascular - acquire pink, red, purple color,
- pigment - brown and white,
- artificial - tattoo and permanent
- deprive and others
The spots look like dark or bright white skin.
Formed by increasing or decreasing the amount of melanin pigment. Subdivided into:
- Hyperpigmented. Often they have an innate nature - lentigo or a birthmark. But, can be acquired - freckles, melasma. Characterized by increased pigmentation on the skin.
- Hypopigmented. On the contrary, they appear due to the lack of melanin pigment. They can also be congenital and acquired as a consequence of diseases - lichen, leucoderma, eczema, psoriasis.
Deprive is a common skin disorder. The cause of the occurrence is bacteria or viruses. The disease is characterized by discoloration of the skin, itching and painful sensations. At the same time immunity decreases.
Lichen spots can be of several types:
- Giber lichen - pink or red with clear edges. Stain scaly and itchy. The cause of the disease is the herpes virus of the sixth and seventh species,
- shingles - manifested by the appearance of red inflamed spots with bubbles,
- ringworm - accompanied by itching, severe desquamation, hair loss on a sore spot,
- scaly - damaged skin becomes pale and flaky,
- lichen planus - spots become purple and spread not only on the surface of the skin, but also on the mucous membranes.
Almost every person has experienced the appearance of red spots on the skin.
The cause of their occurrence may be:
- allergic reactions to products, medicines, household chemicals, ultraviolet,
- skin diseases - dermatitis, etc.,
- reduced immunity
- infection - chickenpox, measles, scarlet fever,
- sexually transmitted diseases
It is important to monitor body temperature when red spots appear. If fever, sore throat, peeling, itching and burning begins, then you should visit a dermatologist in the very near future.
Sometimes white spots appear on the skin, they can be a little lighter than the skin and most often be temporary. Causes are abrasions, cuts, skin infections.
However, sometimes such specks serve as a signal for more serious reasons - stress, chronic diseases, infections, burns of different etiologies.
Dark pigmentation is disorders such as melasma or melanosis, blue-gray dyspigmentation.
Any long-term and severe chronic disease contributes to melanosis. This causes melanin deposits in the skin. Frequent pathologies are:
- Endocrine melanosis that occurs with adrenal insufficiency, dysfunction of the sex glands, diabetes, thyrotoxicosis, etc.
- Hepatic melanosis, developing on the background of the liver dysfunction.
- Cachectic melanosis in tuberculosis.
- Uremic - occurs in chronic renal failure.
Or else it is called the Nevus Becker. Often occurs in boys aged 10 to 15 years. Men and women are rarely affected.
Looks nevus in the form of a yellow or dark brown spot of irregular shape with growing hair. Most often it appears on the shoulders, forearms, chest, back. Can grow to a diameter of 20 cm.
The reasons for the appearance of a nevus are still not clear. There are suggestions that this may be due to hereditary predisposition to this type of pigmentation or the body's reaction to ultraviolet.
Melbiasis of Dubreus
It looks like a flat dark-colored patch, perhaps a slight elevation above the skin. The size reaches an average of 5 cm, but after a few years it grows to 10 cm.
The color changes from light brown to dark, sometimes black. Such melanosis is considered a precancerous condition. Often accompanied by papillomas and knotted elements.
Damage areas are dense, with peeling and erosion. The skin around this formation reacts with a manifestation of redness, freckles, foci of keratosis, which are indicators of the transformation of melanosis into melanoma (a malignant tumor).
The reasons for the occurrence of Dubros melanosis are:
- ultraviolet abuse,
- skin sensitivity to light
- trauma to the skin,
- overdrying of the skin.
Frequent disease in children. Looks urticaria in the form of red-pink spots, developing into bubbles with liquid. The spots are very itchy.
And after opening the bubbles on the skin marks remain brown-brown. Urticaria occurs more often in a child. As a rule, during puberty the spots disappear.
If the urticaria is an adult, then the situation is complicated by the appearance of systemic mastocytosis, often resulting in disability or death.
The causes of pigment urticaria are still being studied. Presumably, the provoking factors are:
- immune response,
- climate change
- inflammations and infections
- genetic predisposition.
Coffee Stains - Nevus Spilus
Such hyperpigmentation occurs in the form of single spots with even color and clear boundaries on any part of the skin. Pigmentation may appear from birth.
Spots never have hairiness, and dark or black dots are distinguished on the surface. Presumably the cause of education in heredity.
These are small dark spots on the face or body. Pigmentation becomes more noticeable in the warm season with solar activity. With age, freckles may disappear.
It is more common in people with blond hair, eyes, skin. Scientists have proved the dependence of the appearance of freckles on genetic predisposition.
The spots look like bunches of freckles, appear in unusual places and get a shade of coffee with milk.
Such formations may appear from birth or in childhood.The color is different, but mostly brown shades prevail.
Rarely spot gets a gray-blue color. Formations appear on the surface of the arms, legs or torso in the amount of not less than 5 pieces. The patient is affected by nerofibroma, which later spreads to other organs - nervous tissue, adrenal glands, etc.
In cancer, such spots are reborn from 3 to 15% of cases. The nervous system and the locomotor system suffers. There is epilepsy, depression, fatigue, vertebrae are destroyed, cystic formations appear, etc.
The mutating gene of the 17th chromosome, transmission by inheritance is to blame for the appearance of this disease.
Nevus Ota and Ito
Ota appears as a single speck of black and bluish or dark blue in the eye area, upper jaw or cheek. Sometimes you can find merging spots. Even less often, pigmentation can be bilateral.
The disease sometimes goes to the sclera, nasal mucosa. Spots appear from birth and do not pass by themselves.
Scientists have not yet determined the cause of the nevus Ota. Often this disease affects the people of the Mongoloid race and very rarely the Europeans and the Negroid race.
Nevus Ito is similar to Nevus Ota. The difference is only in its location - the neck, chest and shoulder blades.
If unusual formations appear on the skin, then the person should first consult a dermatologist for advice.
Only a specialist can determine the disease and prescribe the appropriate treatment in appearance, size, color, shape and other indicators.
If the case requires to verify the diagnosis, you will need to take scrapings from the damaged place, to undergo a consultation with an oncologist or venereologist.
Depending on the problem, different treatments may be prescribed:
- the primary disease and the resulting patches are its symptoms,
- an allergen, if allergy is manifested with supportive therapy,
- lichen spots that need an integrated approach with the use of oral and external agents, the use of hygiene products and the strengthening of immunity,
- pigmented areas, lightened by special means, peels, mesotherapy, cryo procedures, laser.