Metabolism in a living organism (metabolism) is a spectrum of chemical reactions that maintain a constant internal environment. Due to the transformations of some compounds into others, an individual grows, develops, multiplies, and resists the effects of the environment.
Conditionally metabolism can be divided into:
Violations of all types of metabolism are associated with genetic causes and acquired diseases. Quite often, the metabolism becomes pathological due to endocrine diseases. Changes in the balance of hormones lead to a slowdown, acceleration or other disruption of chemical reactions in the body.
Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism
Diabetes mellitus primarily affects the carbohydrate component of metabolism. In this pathology, there is a violation of glucose uptake by the tissues. As a result, cells receive less of the energy they need. And the concentration of glucose in the blood plasma begins to grow. Excess glucose acts as a poison on the body. Vessels, nerves, cells of the kidneys, liver, etc., suffer from an excess of this carbohydrate.
Severe complications develop:
- peripheral neuropathy (damage to sensory and motor neurons),
- autonomic neuropathy (damage to vegetative neurons),
- encephalopathy (damage to the central nervous system),
- nephropathy (kidney damage),
- fatty hepatosis (liver damage),
- retinopathy (damage to the fundus vessels),
- diabetic foot syndrome, etc.
In cells, due to a lack of glucose, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) synthesis and oxygen absorption are impaired. For energy, tissues begin to actively consume the stored fats. This leads to the accumulation of ketone bodies and other acid products in the blood. As a result, the pH of the blood decreases. After acidosis develops, compensatory mechanisms (including hyperventilation) are triggered. Patients observe deep noisy breathing. In the exhaled air smell of acetone.
Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by a multistep metabolic disorder. Initially, carbohydrate metabolism suffers. Further in the process and the remaining links.
Insulinoma is a rare disease that primarily violates glucose metabolism. When such a tumor in the body produces an excess of hormone beta cells of the pancreas. Too high concentration of insulin in the blood leads to a metabolic disorder, partly opposite to diabetes mellitus.
- episodes of severe hypoglycemia,
- increased appetite
- weight gain.
Hypoglycemia is manifested by trembling throughout the body, sweating, rapid pulses, and strong hunger. In severe cases, loss of consciousness occurs. A hypoglycemic coma can result in the death of a patient. Brain cells are particularly affected by low blood sugar. Even 1-2 episodes of severe hypoglycemia can lead to irreversible consequences: memory impairment, reduced intelligence, the appearance of personality changes.
Lipid metabolism disorders
Disruption of the balance of fats in the body is manifested, above all, dyslipidemia. At the same time, characteristic changes are found in biochemical blood tests.
- increased total cholesterol
- increased blood triglyceride levels
- increase of low and very low density lipoproteins,
- reducing the concentration of high-density lipoprotein.
Such disorders increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Blood lipids damage the vascular wall, provoke local inflammation and the deposition of cholesterol plaques. As a result, the lumen of the vessel narrows and worsens the blood flow. If tissues and organs receive less oxygen and nutrients, ischemia develops.
Atherosclerosis is a systemic process. All major vessels in the body suffer. The most important clinical significance is damage to the blood vessels of the heart, brain, limbs. It is atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries of these pools that cause cardiovascular accidents. The consequences of lipid metabolism disorders - myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke, etc.
The development of the pathology of fat metabolism lead:
- alimentary obesity.
In hypothyroidism, thyroid function is suppressed. Thyroid hormones are not enough to maintain a normal rate of chemical reactions. Fat synthesis processes are initiated in the liver. Blood levels of cholesterol and its atherogenic fractions sharply increase. Hypothyroidism quickly leads to the development of vascular complications even at a young age.
Hypercortisolism is a state of increased functional activity of the adrenal cortex. First of all, the natural glucocorticoid cortisol is actively synthesized. This hormone helps to increase the percentage of adipose tissue and the redistribution of subcutaneous fat. Extra pounds are mainly deposited on the stomach, face, chest, shoulders. Limbs, on the contrary, lose volume.
Diabetes mellitus contributes to the violation of lipid metabolism due to the action of hyperglycemia on the liver. Excess glucose and the presence of insulin resistance increase the production of excess cholesterol. In diabetes, the concentration of blood triglycerides is particularly high.
Nutritional obesity is overweight due to hereditary factors and poor lifestyle choices. It is believed that this disease is not associated with a specific hormonal failure. In fact, adipose tissue is the most massive endocrine organ in humans. Naturally, obesity is accompanied by certain hormonal changes. It is believed that the deposition of extra pounds contributes to an insufficient level of leptin or low sensitivity to this substance.
Obesity is also divided by the type of fat deposits. For men, the abdominal type is characteristic. With such obesity, an excess of kilograms is deposited in the abdomen. This type of disease is less favorable than the female type of obesity (the predominant deposition of fat in the thighs).
Male obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome. This condition is in fact hereditary. Insulin resistance is considered to be the cause of the disorder.
Male obesity is often accompanied by:
- type 2 diabetes,
- arterial hypertension.
Protein metabolism disorders
The pathology of the protein metabolism in endocrine diseases is manifested mainly in the violation of protein synthesis. These changes may be associated with a decrease in the number of amino acids, a violation of the qualitative composition of amino acids, an imbalance in the activity of enzymes, a deterioration in the regulation of the functioning of the digestive system, etc.
Suppression of the synthesis of proteins in the body contributes to:
- growth hormone deficiency (GH deficiency),
- lack of sex steroids (hypogonadism),
Growth hormone is secreted into the blood by the pituitary gland. This central endocrine system is part of the brain. Lack of growth hormone may be associated with hereditary factors, genetic disruptions or damage to the pituitary gland. Pituitary tissue can be destroyed by a growing tumor, hematoma. Also, GH-producing cells may suffer due to ischemia, hypoxia, trauma. Often, a lack of growth hormone leads to radical treatment (radiation therapy, surgery). In childhood, a lack of growth hormone is manifested primarily as a lag in growth. In adult men, this pathology leads to a decrease in muscle mass, strength and endurance.
Hypogonadism has a similar effect on metabolism. With a deficiency of testosterone in the male body decreases the synthesis of amino acids. As a result, new muscle fibers are not formed, and existing ones will atrophy. A man loses his muscular strength, his physique changes. Adipose tissue becomes relatively large, the volume of the shoulder girdle decreases.
Thyrotoxicosis and hypercortisolism are diseases that are accompanied by increased protein breakdown. In the first case, an excess of thyroid hormones leads to increased utilization of amino acids, in the second - cortisol. With thyrotoxicosis and hypercorticoidism, a man may experience severe hunger, eat a lot and still lose muscle mass. All incoming and existing proteins go to the synthesis of glucose. As a result, the muscles lose volume. With thyrotoxicosis, the man usually loses weight. When hypercorticoidism weight can be stable or even grow (due to adipose tissue).
Violations of water-salt metabolism
Complex systems in the body work to maintain the constancy of the internal environment. The balance is achieved due to the balance of incoming and outgoing water, mineral salts.
A lack of fluid in the body can result in:
- to a drop in blood pressure,
- decrease in circulating blood volume,
- decrease in volume of extracellular fluid.
Excess water is also extremely dangerous for humans. In severe cases, this imbalance can cause brain edema and patient death.
Water exchange is largely determined by the work of the hypothalamic-pituitary system. These central endocrine glands synthesize and release into the blood a special hormone - antidiuretin. If the hormone is low, then diabetes insipidus is diagnosed. In patients with this pathology, there is a strong thirst, frequent urination, dry skin, low blood pressure.
Excessive inadequate secretion of antidiuretin leads to a no less serious disease - Parhona syndrome. In this state, the body accumulates excess fluid, and the level of sodium in the plasma drops. As a result, develop general weakness, vomiting, convulsions, coma.
The level of electrolytes in the blood is affected by various endocrine glands. The parathyroid glands and adrenal glands (glomerular layer) are more responsible for mineral metabolism.
In the parathyroid glands, a special hormone is produced (parathyroid hormone). An excess of this biologically active compound provokes hyperparathyroidism. It is characterized by an increase in calcium and a decrease in the level of phosphorus in the blood.
This metabolic failure is manifested:
- lower bone mineral density,
- the appearance of kidney stones, gall bladder,
- the development of pancreatitis and gastric ulcer,
- psychopathy (up to the development of psychosis),
If parathyroid hormone is synthesized little, then the opposite state develops - hypoparathyroidism. In this condition, a lack of calcium in the blood and a relative excess of phosphorus are recorded.
- multiple caries,
- autonomic disorders (sweating, feeling hot, changing taste sensitivity),
- mental disorders (depression, anxiety, neurosis, decreased intelligence, insomnia).
The glomerular layer of the adrenal glands produces aldosterone. If this hormone is small (hypoaldosteronism), then the body loses water and sodium ions. And an excess of aldosterone leads to hypertension, fluid and sodium retention, and potassium loss.
For the correction of carbohydrate metabolism using several groups of drugs. In diabetes, the most effective solution is insulin and tableted hypoglycemic agents (for example, from the sulfanylurea group). For the pathogenetic treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metformin tablets are used. This substance eliminates the cause of metabolic disorders - insulin resistance.
Treatment of hypoglycemia is reduced to the introduction of a solution of glucose, steroids, glucagon. The most effective measure for insulin is surgery.
Therapy of fat and protein metabolism
Fat metabolism is adjusted by diet, lipid-lowering agents (statins, fibrates, omega-3 and omega-6). Hepatoprotectors may also be effective for lowering cholesterol.
Reduce overweight with obesity helps:
- dietary restrictions
- physical exercise,
Specific treatment helps to normalize fat and protein metabolism in diseases of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands. Hypothyroidism is corrected by synthetic thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism is suppressed with thyrostatics, radioactive iodine, or surgery. With hypercorticism, the main treatment method is surgery.
Therapy of water-salt metabolism
If the water-salt and mineral metabolism is disturbed, then appropriate treatment is required.
For the treatment of diabetes insipidus used synthetic antidiuretin. Parhona syndrome is corrected by tightly limiting fluid intake.
Hypoparathyroidism usually requires the use of calcium and vitamin D. In hyperparathyroidism, surgical treatment is more often carried out.
Hyperaldosteronism is eliminated by surgery or conservative therapy (diuretics). Hypoaldosteronism corrected by the introduction of sodium chloride, liquid and synthetic mineralocorticoids.
Causes of impaired exchange in men
The metabolic processes in the body are largely dependent on the lifestyle that a man leads, on the balance of his diet, on good sleep, physical activity, and the frequency of stressful situations. The causes of impaired metabolism may lie in the failure of the nervous system, the imbalance of the endocrine system, with impaired synthesis of immune and transport proteins, in case of disruption of the genetic apparatus of the cells themselves.
The altered composition of the diet will quickly lead to nutritional deficiencies. The body will become deficient in any vitamins, microelements, fatty acids, and as a result, the metabolism process will be disturbed. One of the causes of violations is changes in the quantity and quality of food, when the food does not match the energy expenditure of the organism. If you put it easier, then malnutrition in the form of strict diets or overeating.
A serious argument for disturbances in metabolism is the accumulation of toxic substances by the body, as well as heavy metals. Any emotional shock - accidents, family problems, severe illness, etc., is also the cause of failure of the metabolic processes. The duration and frequency of stress or depression are very important in such situations; the longer the time period, the more aggravated the problem.
Violation of metabolic processes in men can occur due to hormonal failure. These are changes in the pituitary or adrenal glands with subsequent failure of metabolic processes. They occur due to tumors, congenital disorders, severe stress in the early period of life or serious diseases that affect the state of these organs. Disorder in the balance of sex hormones with dysfunction of the testicles, when the male body produces more female hormones than male. In this variant, metabolic failure is accompanied by impotence.
Hormone disorders include pathological changes in the thyroid gland and diabetes mellitus (type 1.2), when there is insufficient insulin production or reduced sensitivity to it. Very often, the disturbed metabolism has a hereditary factor - the breakdown of certain genes that are involved in the encoding of enzymes that transform substances in the body. At risk are men who abuse alcohol, smoking, gluttony with a sedentary lifestyle.
Which doctor to contact
Despite the many signs of metabolic imbalance, a man is better to turn to a therapist first. After the examination, the doctor will be able to make a diagnosis and determine with which specialized specialists he will treat the patient. Most often, such problems are further dealt with by an endocrinologist. However, additional consultation with a neurologist, sexologist, andrologist, psychotherapist is often necessary.
Why can metabolism be disturbed in men?
There are many reasons for this and, above all:
- Disruption of hormonal levels,
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases of internal organs,
- Long period of smoking and alcohol abuse,
- Violation of lifestyle, overeating.
Of course, the true causes of metabolic disorders are much greater. Below we look at the symptoms, causes and methods of treatment of impaired metabolism in the representatives of the stronger sex. If you started to notice violations in your body, then you should not delay with this - be sure to consult your doctor.
What is metabolism?
Metabolism is a disorder in the chemical and biological composition of the basic life processes of our body. Thanks to the normally functioning metabolism, the food consumed by us is processed into vital energy. Energy gives us the opportunity to fully function, work, perform reproductive function, overcome stress and adapt to changes in the world around us.
Metabolism is a complex process that, in a healthy person, is constant and continuous.
Causes of metabolic disorders
The vital functions of our body, as well as all metabolic processes in it, directly depend on what kind of lifestyle we lead, how much we sleep, what we eat, whether we have bad habits, how often we move and subject our body to stress and nervousness.
Metabolism is directly dependent on all those processes that occur in our body. For example, a malfunction of the nervous system, impaired functioning of the thyroid gland, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system, a hereditary factor - all this leads to problems with the metabolism of a person.
It has been proven that it is enough for some patients to change the diet, as they have a malfunction in the body. If the tissues and cells of our internal organs need additional amounts of vitamins and minerals, then as a result of this, all metabolic processes are disturbed, that is, the metabolism slows down. As you know, the food that we eat every day should be fully consistent with our energy costs. That is, both overeating and malnutrition are bad for the body.
Another cause of impaired metabolism is poisoning the body with poisons, toxins and other harmful chemical components. Even our emotions can cause a malfunction in the body — severe, severe stress experienced, problems in the family, at work, in personal life, illness of loved ones, injuries — all this leads to malfunctioning of the body. The more intense the experiences will be in this case, the more globally there will be a problem that needs to be solved.
Hormone failure is the most common cause of metabolic disorders in both men and women. Basically, the violation occurs in the brain - the pituitary and adrenal glands. At the slightest failure in the functioning of these organs, the metabolism is disturbed. In turn, the cause of the dysfunction of the brain and adrenal glands is benign or malignant tumors, stress, elevated neuro-emotional tensions, and diseases. In men, there can be a failure in the testicles and then - the amount of female hormones produced will be significantly more than the male. In this case, a man in 98% of cases waiting for impotence.
Other causes of hormonal imbalance and, as a result, metabolic disorders, are diabetes, thyroid disease, prolonged alcohol abuse, physical inactivity (sedentary lifestyle), overweight caused by overeating, and smoking.
Signs of impaired metabolism
The main symptom of impaired metabolism in men is overweight. Moreover, the harder the disease stage, the more accelerated the excess weight begins to increase, even if the patient eats very little. If the metabolism is disturbed, it means that there has been a failure in the processing of fat that enters the body from food. Consequently, fat begins to be intensively deposited in the body, raising the level of cholesterol in the blood. Excess weight leads to a failure of cardiovascular activity, reproductive function, the thyroid gland.
Signs of impaired metabolism can be - increased fragility of hair, nails, deterioration of health, swelling of the extremities.
How to treat impaired metabolism?
The treatment of metabolic disorders in both women and men is identical. If the patient marks the first symptoms of malaise, as well as a quick weight gain, then the treatment will consist of a therapeutic diet and normalization of the daily regimen. The patient is recommended to exclude from his diet an increased amount of fats, carbohydrates, bread, sweets, fatty, fried, harmful products. At one meal, you need to take fewer calories than a person needs to start the process of burning fat.
Patients with impaired metabolism are encouraged to establish their sleep and wakefulness regime, as well as include increased physical activity in their daily routine. Of course, you need to try less nervous and not worry about trifles.
If the cause is a genetic factor, the doctor prescribes the treatment after a complete diagnosis of the body. The standard treatment has such diseases as a metabolic failure, such as diabetes mellitus, disruption of the thyroid gland, as well as hormonal disorders associated with reproductive function.
Symptoms of impaired metabolism
Symptoms of metabolic disorders in the representatives of the strong and weaker sex have many similarities. First, failures lead to the fact that a person begins to feel weakness, malaise and fatigue. In addition, he has a decrease in physical activity, which leads to an apathetic and depressive state.
Constipation and diarrhea can also be alarming signals, as the metabolic disorder is accompanied by dysfunction of the digestive system. Pathological processes also adversely affect the work of the cardiovascular system, which leads to the development of hypertension and pain in the chest. Changes are reflected in bone density, which threatens with osteoporosis. Very often, a metabolic disorder is the cause of diabetes.
Symptoms of impaired metabolism in men
The most common sign of a metabolic disorder is an excess of subcutaneous fat (cellulite). This deficiency is a cause of concern for many men. In this case, the processing of fats, as well as low-density lipoproteins, is impaired. Fats accumulate in the body and serve as a reason to increase cholesterol. Its excess in turn negatively affects the work of the cardiovascular system. The fragility of nails and hair, unhealthy complexion, swelling - additional signs of metabolic disorders.
Treatment of impaired metabolism in men
Treatment of impaired metabolism in men is not much different from a similar disorder in women. The initial stages of the disease can be stopped if the patient reconsiders the diet and food intake regime. It will minimize the consumption of carbohydrates and fats of animal origin. Will begin the use of fractional nutrition, which reduces the amount of food in a single dose and further reduces the size of the stomach. It is very important to have a well-established sleep pattern and adequate physical exertion during wakefulness, to avoid stress.
Genetic changes or neglected diseases associated with metabolic disorders require regular therapy and constant medical supervision. After diagnosing and determining the pathology, the doctor prescribes medication in accordance with an individual scheme. Diabetes can be treated with glucose-lowering drugs, the thyroid gland with thyroid drugs, dysfunction of the endocrine glands suggests a different hormonal therapy.
Diagnosed disorders that are not amenable to therapeutic treatment are eliminated surgically, when removal or partial resection of the organ that has been damaged is performed. Operations can be shown for tumors, thyroid abnormalities, pituitary adenoma. To postpone medical measures in the presence of the first suspicions of metabolic disturbances is very dangerous, it can face serious complications and more problematic treatment.
Expert Editor: Pavel Alexandrovich Mochalov | D.M.N. general practitioner
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - “Medicine” in 1991, in 1993 “Occupational diseases”, in 1996 “Therapy”.
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