Mycoplasmosis is an infectious disease, the causative agent of which is mycoplasma. This microorganism occupies an intermediate level between bacteria and viruses.
Mycoplasma is the smallest of all existing microorganisms that can grow and multiply autonomously. It is not even visible in the light microscope, does not have a cell membrane, it is this feature that brings it closer to viruses.
Mycoplasmas, like viruses, parasitize in the cells of their host. But unlike viruses, these microorganisms can exist and multiply in a cell-free environment.
Types of mycoplasma
There are more than 40 types of mycoplasmas, but such subspecies become dangerous for humans:
- Mycoplasma hominis,
- Mycoplasma genitalium,
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
These subspecies are parasitic on epithelial cells - mucous membranes lining the intestines, organs of the respiratory system and urinary tract.
Mycoplasma is a parasite that lives at the expense of the human body, and it is from it that it receives nutrients. Pathogenic microorganisms are a danger to the human body, because they cause the development of many diseases, including:
Symptoms of mycoplasmosis
Usually pronounced symptoms in mycoplasmosis does not occur. For most people, this infectious disease goes unnoticed. In some circumstances, the disease is activated, and then the characteristic symptoms of an infectious disease appear.
Pathogens sometimes affect the respiratory system of the human body. They cause diseases of the throat, lungs and bronchi, or affect the urinary tract.
Carriers of the infection Mycoplasma genitalium complain of such manifestations of the disease:
- unpleasant and even pain during intercourse,
- burning when urinating,
- inflammation and itching of the genitals
- intermenstrual bleeding or brown whiter in women,
- skin rashes,
- frequent colds.
The incubation period lasts from 4 to 55 days, but usually it is two weeks. Due to the fact that this infectious disease often occurs in erased or hidden form, it is almost impossible to establish exactly when the infection of the body by mycoplasma occurred.
Mycoplasmosis is a very insidious disease, a person may not be aware of the disease for a long time, but at the same time be a carrier of the infection and infect it with his loved ones.
Symptoms in women
Symptoms of mycoplasmosis in women are divided into two groups - those that occur when mycoplasma lesions of the external genitalia, and resulting from the penetration of microorganisms into the urinary system of the female body.
In women with the penetration of mycoplasma into the body, the genitalium affects the urethra and paraurethral passages, and bacteria also settle on the mucous membranes of the vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and pelvic peritoneum.
With such a lesion, the woman usually does not feel any changes and signs of the development of the pathological process. Occasionally, there may be slight vaginal discharge of a transparent color and slight itching of the external genital organs. Such symptoms usually do not cause concern in women, so they do not turn to a gynecologist while the disease progresses.
In the case of the penetration of parasites into the urogenital system, patients feel severe itching, pain in the lower abdomen and in the region of the external genital organs. During this period, a woman can detect purulent discharge from the vagina. These processes are accompanied by fever, chills, general weakness of the body.
Mycoplasmosis in women leads to menstrual disorders, which should also cause concern and cause visits to the gynecologist's office.
For pregnant women, this disease becomes very dangerous, it can cause such complications as:
- early discharge of amniotic fluid
- premature birth.
Pathogens also cause pneumonia, and in newborns, meningitis.
Symptoms in men
Mycoplasmosis in men affects the urethra, paraurethral passages, bladder, testicles, seminal vesicles, prostate gland. Practically every man with a lesion of the urogenital system by the mycoplasma of the urethra appears mucous discharge. Male patients also experience nagging pain in the lower abdomen and in the urethra. With a long course of the disease, mycoplasmas penetrate the prostate gland and cause prostatitis.
If the site of localization of the parasites is one or two testicles, the affected organ becomes inflamed, reddens, swells and increases in size. Such an inflammatory process causes pain in the groin, perineum and scrotum.
Mycoplasmas are able to inhibit the activity of sperm, so the disease often leads to male infertility. They can also settle in the exudative fluid and cause inflammation of the joints.
Such symptoms are characteristic not only for mycoplasmosis, but also for a number of other infectious genital diseases. For this reason, the diagnosis of the disease may be difficult.
Causes of mycoplasmosis
Mycoplasma can penetrate the human body in several ways - sexual, fluid, intrauterine and natal. If a pregnant woman acts as a carrier of these microorganisms, then the probability of having a child with mycoplasmosis is very high.
Infection occurs both during fetal development and in the process of passing the baby through the birth canal of an infected mother.
Infection of newborn girls occurs much more often than boys. At birth, mycoplasma hominis is detected in as many as 25% of girls. Often, treatment of mycoplasmosis in newborns is not required, especially in boys, since self-healing occurs.
Among adults who have sex, mycoplasma carriers are from 20 to 50% of women and 20% of men. Infection by household infection is extremely rare.
A child can become infected with mycoplasma not only during fetal development and childbirth, but also in close contact with the carrier of the infection. In this case, children often suffer from kidneys and liver, as a result of which hepatitis develops.
Mycoplasmosis occurs either with a weakened human immunity, or with the combination of these parasites with other pathogens. It is still not known exactly how Mycoplasma hominis attaches to epithelial cells, but it is clear that a strong bond is being established, without full attachment.
Strong communication with the host cells becomes possible due to the following circumstances:
- the similarity of the structure of the cell membrane of mycoplasma and the host organism,
- complete lack of cell wall,
- small sizes of parasites.
It is necessary to treat mycoplasmosis even if a person is not worried about any symptoms. Especially the treatment of an infectious disease is necessary for women who are planning to have a baby, because during pregnancy the infection often enters the body of the embryo, can cause miscarriage and many complications during childbirth.
Treatment must be comprehensive, therapy is required not only to the person acting as a carrier of the infection, but also to his sexual partner. In the treatment of the disease, general and systemic drugs are used. Based on the fact that the patient's body is weakened, it becomes expedient to use immunomodulators aimed at strengthening the immune system.
The main group of drugs acting on mycoplasma are antibiotics. Antibacterial agents of such groups are prescribed:
- tetracycline antibiotics,
Tetracycline antibiotics are not prescribed for the treatment of infection in children. Mycoplasma does not show sensitivity to the drugs widely used in pediatrics - cephalosporins and penicillins. Children are usually prescribed erythromycin, the most safe and effective antibacterial drug in the fight against these parasites.
Despite the high effectiveness of these antibiotics in the fight against parasites, in 10% of cases the death of pathogenic microorganisms does not occur. To destroy the causative agent of infection, a longer and stronger therapy is required, sometimes combined antibiotic therapy becomes effective.
Women are given topical administration of suppositories with metronidazole, as well as douching agents - miramistin, chlorhexidine. Considering that, against the background of the use of antibiotics, a fungal infection can enter the body, antifungal drugs, for example, fluconazole, are also prescribed.
During the treatment period of mycoplasmosis, it is necessary to refrain from sexual intercourse or use barrier contraceptives, such as condoms. 10 days after antibiotic therapy, a control study should be conducted for the presence of mycoplasma in the body. To do this, a woman or a man specialist takes a smear on the study.
Accompanying methods of treatment can be the installation of the urethra, physiotherapy, immunotherapy.
To protect your body from the penetration of mycoplasma into it, you should observe the following preventive measures:
- It is important to exclude casual sex, it is recommended to have a regular partner
- If there is uncertainty about the sexual partner, barrier contraceptives should be used.
- Every six months a woman is recommended to visit a gynecologist for the purpose of a routine examination,
- To conduct timely treatment of other infectious diseases that are sexually transmitted,
- Maintain immunity at a high level.
Mycoplasmosis is a serious disease that can lead to dangerous disturbances in the activity of the organism; therefore, it is important to treat it effectively in time.
Etiology and pathogenesis of the pathogen mycoplasmosis
Mycoplasma is a gram-negative unicellular microorganism that is a member of the mollicute class. It is intermediate between fungi, viruses and bacteria. The cell membrane of the mycoplasma is devoid of a rigid cell wall (this is the difference between prokaryotes and bacteria, in which the cells are covered with a carbohydrate-protein capsule). In this case, from the external environment, the contents of the cell are protected by the plasmalemma (the thinnest film visible only in an electron microscope). It consists of a complex of lipoproteins, which include molecules of proteins and lipids. With the help of plasmolemma, the parasite is attached to the cells of the host, and then lives and develops due to its intracellular resources. However, it becomes difficult to access for immune mechanisms.
Mycoplasma size ranges from 0.2 to 0.8 microns, and therefore the pathogen is able to freely penetrate through all protective filters created by the body. This microorganism is parasitic on the surface of the mucous membranes. This is perhaps the smallest microbe, capable of self-replication, like a tiny jellyfish. Its flexible membrane is able to take a different form, and therefore, even with a high-power electron microscope, mycoplasma is very difficult to detect. In chronic mycoplasmosis, the pathogen under magnification looks like a fried egg, but at the same time, it can very often take filamentary or pear-shaped forms.
When it enters the mucous membranes, the pathogen, attaching to the cell epithelium, provokes the development of local inflammatory reactions, without showing cytogenic effects. Mycopalism interacts with the cellular apparatus, which leads to a change in its cytogenic structure and provokes the development of autoimmune processes.
Characteristic features of mycoplasma
- In the course of its life, mycoplasma processes some substrates that contain steroid alcohols (in particular, cholesterol) necessary for its further growth and development.
- The parasite is able to grow and multiply in a cell-free space.
- Unlike viruses, it is susceptible to a number of antibiotics.
- DNA and RNA are simultaneously present in the cell of mycoplasma.
- There is a tendency towards specificity for the host.
- The parasite can be both an immunostimulant and an immunosuppressant.
- Mycoplasma can cause respiratory diseases and diseases of the urogenital tract.
The causes of mycoplasmosis
In the human body, 11 species of mycoplasmas are parasitic; however, only Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumonia and Mycoplasma hominis can provoke the development of the disease. To this day, there are discussions among scientists on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, and therefore there is not yet a definite answer as to under what circumstances mycoplasma causes the development of the disease.
According to many authors, the microorganism itself is not dangerous, since it can be not only a parasite, but also a saprophyte and is often found in perfectly healthy people.
The main causes of the disease include:
- Oral, genital or anal sex,
- Vertical transmission of infection from an infected mother to the fetus through the placenta,
- Passage through infected birth canal.
It should be noted that the contact-household transmission path is currently excluded from the possible.
Urogenital mycoplasmosis caused by Mycoplasma hominis
Mycoplasma hominis is a saprophytic microorganism that lives in the urinary tract of each person. However, under certain conditions, it can provoke the development of serious pathologies. Most often, when inflammation occurs, patients complain of painful urination. In some cases, the symptoms of urogenital mycoplasmosis are confused with the symptoms of gonorrhea or trichomoniasis. For several weeks after infection, women experience vaginal discharge with a very unpleasant odor, and during sexual contacts, many patients suffer from discomfort and even pain due to inflammation of the ureter.
Note: urogenital mycoplasmosis in men is often painless.
Diagnosis of mycoplasmosis
Diagnosis of the disease takes place in several stages. First of all, the patient undergoes a thorough examination by a specialist. Next, a laboratory diagnosis is carried out, involving the use of various techniques.
During the visual inspection is determined by the condition of the mucous membrane of the vaginal walls and cervix. In the case when the visual examination revealed abundant discharge with a characteristic pungent odor, as well as inflammation of the cervical canal and vaginal mucosa, a good specialist immediately suspects the development of urogenital mycoplasmosis.
If there are characteristic symptoms, the patient is recommended to have a pelvic ultrasound, as well as additional laboratory tests.
To clarify the causes of the inflammatory process, a cytological or bacteriological smear is taken from the patient.
Note: This analysis is necessary to identify other sexually transmitted diseases and symptoms similar to mycoplasmosis, but it is not possible to detect mycoplasma with it.
To make an accurate diagnosis, bacteriological seeding of secretions is carried out. With this analysis it is possible not only to identify the causative agent of mycoplasmosis, but also to establish its sensitivity to antibacterial drugs.
It should be noted that today this technique is considered to be not sufficiently effective, and therefore, in the course of diagnostics, patients are required to undergo PCR analysis for mycoplasmosis. With it, the causative agent is detected in 90% of patients.
Polymerase chain reaction is a fairly sensitive technique involving the determination of the DNA of a microorganism.
When setting the immunological analysis for mycoplasmosis, IgG and IgM antibodies are determined. Despite the fact that this technique is often used in diagnosis, it is considered not very informative, and therefore many authors recommend it to be carried out only to assess the effectiveness of treatment.
The effects of mycoplasmosis
1. Mycoplasmosis is an infectious disease that causes many gynecological problems. This pathology can provoke the development of endometritis, salpingitis, and other inflammatory processes in the vagina and cervical canal.
In the case when a long time can not figure out the cause of the disease, it is likely that it is caused by mycoplasmal infection.
With the development of the latent form of mycoplasmosis, patients may experience primary miscarriage, placental abnormalities, polyhydramnios, and other complications that occur during pregnancy. In the chronic form of the pathological process, often due to a violation of ovulation, secondary infertility develops.
Very often, women who have undergone mycoplasmosis, various inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs are detected. In the case when the pathogen is transmitted in a vertical way, that is, from mother to fetus, this may provoke a spontaneous abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy, and in the latter cause premature birth.
2. In children, mycoplasma can cause diseases of the respiratory system, as well as pathology of the urogenital tract. In this case, the pathogen is detected on the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and on the lungs. In girls, they can affect the vulva and vagina, and in boys, the bladder.
With the development of respiratory mycoplasmosis, the child suffers a dry cough of paroxysmal character, which often develops at night and often resembles a cough with whooping cough. This condition can persist for several weeks or even months. Then the cough is gradually moistened, and passing wheezing appears in the lungs. In some cases, in the development of mycoplasmosis in children, a small, rapidly passing rash appears on the body.
The incubation period for the development of mycoplasma pneumonia lasts from two weeks to one and a half months. This pathology is characterized by an acute onset. The child refuses to eat, there are complaints of headaches, lethargy, and repeated vomiting may occur. Atypical pneumonia caused by the causative agent of mycoplasmosis, proceeds in waves, with mild oxygen deficiency.
In the case when the bronchi are involved in the inflammatory process, the disease also has a protracted course. At the same time, on the background of disorders occurring in the respiratory system, the child often develop extra-respiratory changes. These include pain in the joints (arthralgia), affecting one or two of the largest articular joints, a punctate rash or large red spots of irregular shape appear on the body, and also some groups of lymph nodes increase.
At the same time, mycoplasmosis in children may appear with uncharacteristic signs. Sometimes a child has increased flatulence, increases liver and spleen, and also shows symptoms of damage to the nervous system.
In newborns, in whose blood mycoplasma is detected, from the very first days of life, pneumonia, meningitis or severe kidney damage may develop. Unfortunately, a vaccine against mycoplasmosis has not been created to this day, and therefore only timely and adequate treatment can save a child from death.
3. In men, mycoplasmosis is diagnosed very rarely. However, they may be carriers of the infection. Therefore, in the absence of symptoms in the blood of the subject are often detected antibodies to the causative agent.
In 40% of mycoplasmosis cases in men, the disease is hidden. However, during stress or weakening of the immune system, the pathogen is activated and leads to the development of a number of complications. In such cases, patients complain of the occurrence in the morning of scanty transparent discharge, a burning sensation during urination, discomfort and pulling pain in the groin.
In the case when mycoplasma affects the tissues of the testicles, there is hyperemia, pain in the scrotum, as well as an increase in the testicles in size. Such a state often becomes a cause of disruption of the spermatogenesis process.
Also in clinical practice, there are cases when the pathogen mycoplasmosis provokes the development of pyelonephyster, prostatitis, arthritis, and even some septic conditions.
Mollicutes Edward and Freundt 1967
- Paramycetes Sabin 1941
on Wikimedia Commons
Mycoplasma source not specified 324 days (lat. Mollicutes) - a class of bacteria, unicellular microorganisms that do not have a cell wall, which were discovered when studying pleuropneumonia in cows. Mycoplasmas appear to be the most low-organized, self-reproducing living organisms, the amount of their genetic information is 4 times less than that of Escherichia coli.
Respiratory or pulmonary disease
Pulmonary form of mycoplasmosis - It is a contagious disease affecting the respiratory system. The microorganism called mycoplasma pneumonia provokes the respiratory form ( Mycoplasma pneumonia ), as well as a number of other varieties of mycoplasma, which are less common. Pneumoplasma (other name of the pathogen) provokes certain changes in the lung cells that entail their destruction, and also provokes a powerful autoimmune response, as a result of which the body begins to destroy its own tissues.
How is pulmonary mycoplasmosis diagnosed?
Microorganisms spread from the body of a sick person. The patient is a source of infection for another week and a half since the onset of symptoms. However, if the illness occurs with a long-term increase in body temperature (which is characteristic of a chronic process), the time of infectious danger of the patient can last up to thirteen weeks!
The causative agent is spread by airborne droplets common to infections parasitic on the respiratory organs. In addition, you can become infected by contact through touching the patient's hands, personal hygiene items, toys. The spread of mycoplasma in this way occurs most often among toddlers in kindergarten groups.
It must be said that a person can be completely resistant to mycoplasma. This quality is inherited. After a person recovers mycoplasmosis, his immunity is maintained for five to ten years. The latent period in the formation of the respiratory form of mycoplasmosis includes from seven to fourteen days.
What are the manifestations of pulmonary mycoplasmosis?
The first manifestations are an increase in body temperature to thirty-eight degrees (short-lived), burning sensation in the pharynx, cough, increased activity of the sweat glands, nasal congestion, hyperemia of the pharyngeal and oral mucosa. Due to the fact that the disease covers the tissues in stages, when infection penetrates the bronchi, an unproductive cough is observed, in some cases accompanied by the release of a small amount of mucus. If the disease is not treated at this stage, mycoplasma develops (atypicala) pneumonia. In general, the manifestations of pulmonary mycoplasmosis are very similar to the manifestations of the flu, but the course of the disease is very long. If the flu symptoms develop during the day - two and seven days pass, then with mycoplasmosis, the symptoms appear one after another and long enough.
In the respiratory form of the disease, symptoms also subside gradually over a period of three to four weeks, and in some cases even up to two to three months. In adolescents, the overflow of the acute form of the disease into chronic often causes the formation of bronchiectasis (incurable enlargement of the bronchial lumen), and pneumosclerosis (the formation of conglomerates of connective fibers).
What methods are used to determine the respiratory mycoplasmosis?
What is the treatment of respiratory mycoplasmosis?
The most effective means for the treatment of the respiratory form of mycoplasmosis are drugs from the group of macrolides. The most widely used of these is macropenic medicine.
This drug is used in the treatment of pulmonary mycoplasmosis in patients of mature age, but it is allowed to use it in the treatment of children from eight years. Typically, the drug does not cause side effects in patients.
The drug is not prescribed to patients suffering from complex liver ailments (cirrhosis, hepatitis) and patients with impaired renal function.
For small patients, weighing thirty kilograms or more, macropene dosage is four hundred milligrams three times a day. There is macropen in the form of syrup, which greatly facilitates its use.
In the treatment of mycoplasmosis of the pulmonary form, tetracycline group preparations are also used (The most commonly used drug is doxycycline.). Drugs from this group are most effective if the disease is caused by several types of pathogenic microflora at once (Mycoplasma pneumonia + pyogenic streptococcus). The amount of the drug is prescribed at the rate of four milligrams per kilogram of body weight on the first day, then two milligrams per kilogram of body weight. The number of days of the appointment is prescribed only by the doctor.
How does the infection spread?
After cure of mycoplasmosis, the body practically does not produce immunity, therefore, once cured, you can become infected an unlimited number of times (this is facilitated by the weakening of the protective mechanisms).
The latent period for this form of mycoplasmosis is three to five weeks.
How does the disease proceed?
Only in fifteen percent of the disease is a classic picture. With the overwhelming number of diseases, mycoplasmosis is combined with gonococcus , chlamydia or other pathogens. In this regard, the manifestations of the disease are usually mixed.
The representatives of the weaker sex may not cause any symptoms at all, therefore therapeutic measures are often delayed and the disease flows into the chronicle. The representatives of the stronger sex can also develop a latent form of the disease.
Patients suffering from urogenital mycoplasmosis, experience the flow of specific mucus from the vagina or urethra. The color of mucus varies from yellowish to colorless. Often mucus outflows are associated with pain or a burning sensation during urination or during mating. Patients suffer from itching in the urethra. Sometimes there is hyperemia of the urethra, itching in the anus and pain in the groin.
If the therapy of the disease is not carried out, the pathogen enters the internal organs of reproduction and violates the condition of the fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries, testes in men and vas deferens. If such changes have already begun, men complain of pain in the scrotum, perineum, rectum. Women also have pain in the groin and in the lower back.
Sometimes mycoplasma affects the joints and causes arthritis or the mucous membrane of the eyes and causes conjunctivitis.
There is evidence that this pathogen, alone or with other types of pathogenic microbes, can disrupt the production of blood, suppresses the immune system, and also provokes autoimmune processes (failure of the immune system, in which the protective bodies attack the tissues of their own body).
What diagnostic methods are used to detect urogenital mycoplasmosis?
In the definition of this disease, the following diagnostic methods are used:
- polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which indicates the presence of pathogen DNA in the urine, secretions from the genital organs,
- cultural way
- treatment of paired sera,
- immunofluorescence (RIF).
In more detail, each of these methods has already been considered a little higher.
Therapy of urogenital mycoplasmosis
Because the disease usually goes away without any special signs, patients come to the gynecologist or urologist for consultation even when the disease has spilled over into a chronicle or has given complications.
Therapy of urogenital mycoplasmosis is carried out by methods that suppress and destroy the infection.
Therapeutic measures are prescribed strictly individually, their choice is influenced by the complexity of the clinical picture, the course of the disease, the presence of other diseases or complications.
Tetracycline antibiotics are used as the main infection measures ( metacycline, tetracycline, doxycycline ), azalides ( josamycin, erythromycin, azithromycin ), and also fluoroquinolones ( pefloxacin, ofloxacin ).
If, in addition to mycoplasma, the patient is affected by other types of infection, in addition to the antibiotic, agents are prescribed to destroy these infections ( antifungal, metronidazole ). Therapy is necessarily monitored by a doctor, control is carried out for a long time.
A number of drugs and dosages that are used in the treatment of urogenital infections:
|Doxycycline||On one hundred milligrams twice a day for seven days|
|Erythromycin||Five hundred milligrams four times a day for seven days|
|Ofloxacin||On three hundred milligrams twice a day for seven days|
|Azithromycin||One gram once|
The causes and mechanism of development of mycoplasmosis
Infection with mycoplasmosis occurs at the moment of contact of a person, in whose body there are already these parasites, with a healthy person. Most often this happens in groups of people, especially new ones. But epidemics of this disease are extremely rare. If a person has contact with a sick animal, then he cannot become infected. This is due to the fact that in the animal the disease is caused by other types of microorganisms that are safe for humans.
Mycoplasmosis is transmitted by sexual (genital form), contact-household (urogenital form), airborne (pulmonary form) and vertical (from the mother with urogenital form, causing pulmonary form in the fetus or child) ways.
Mycoplasma enters the human body through the mucous membrane. After that, it begins to actively proliferate, causing changes in the place of introduction. This is manifested by symptoms of inflammation of an organ. The parasite is able to release toxins into the bloodstream, which causes signs of intoxication in a patient. In respiratory mycoplasmosis intoxication is expressed much stronger than in urogenital. The transfer of mycoplasmas from one person to another does not mean that the second will be sick. Possible and the carriage of this disease. This is when the disease does not manifest itself clinically, but a person can infect people on contact.
It is transmitted by airborne droplets or from the mother to the fetus through the placenta. It is divided into mycoplasmal bronchitis and mycoplasma pneumonia (pneumonia). The former resemble flu, or another viral infection, only with a longer course.
The incubation period is 1-2 weeks.In rare cases, it reaches 3-4 weeks. It starts with a rise in temperature, nasal congestion and a strong cough. After joining the process of the lungs, an even greater temperature rise occurs, the cough becomes with a small amount of sputum, shortness of breath occurs. The duration of this variant mycoplasmosis is about 2-3 months.
In case of severe disease, it is necessary to stay in the hospital. Antibiotics, antitussive (for the first few days), expectorant drugs, antipyretic drugs and vitamins are used for therapy. Antifungal drugs are also used in the treatment.
Complications of mycoplasmosis
Given that the causes of mycoplasmosis is a small microorganism that does not always cause any complaints to the patient, complications of the disease are often possible. These include bronchiectasis (pathological irreversible expansion of the bronchi), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidneys). As well as arthritis (inflammation of the joints), infertility, premature labor, frequent miscarriages. That is why, in order to prevent such serious consequences, it is necessary at the slightest suspicion of mycoplasmosis to consult a pulmonologist, gynecologist or urologist (depending on the affected system).
Treatment of respiratory mycoplasmosis
For the treatment of respiratory mycoplasmosis, antibacterial drugs are major. Most effective against mycoplasma:
- tetracyclines - tetracycline (750-1000 mg per day, divided into 3 doses), doxycycline (200 mg per day, divided into 2 doses),
- fluoroquinolones - ofloxacin (600 mg per day, divided into 2 doses), ciprofloxacin (1000 mg per day, divided into 2 doses),
- macrolides - sumamed (500 mg 1 time / day or 1 g disposable), erythromycin (2000 mg per day, divided into 4 doses), clarithromycin (1500 mg per day, divided into 3 doses), azithromycin (1 g one time or 500 mg 1 time / day) ,.
The duration of treatment may take from 7 days (in mild cases) to 21 days (in severe cases). Antibiotics for mycoplasmosis are selected strictly individually.
Also for the treatment of pulmonary mycoplasmosis using symptomatic drugs. These are antitussives (codecs on 1 tablet, no more than 4 doses per day, stoptusin, 1 tablet in 3 doses) - used in the first few days of the disease with a painful paroxysmal cough. Expectorant drugs (Ambroxol, 1 tablet in 3 doses, Lasolvan, 1 tablet in 3 doses, ACC, 1 sachet in 4 doses) - with an agonizing cough with difficult sputum. Antipyretic (paracetamol 1 tablet in 4 doses, nimid 1 tablet in 2-4 doses, ibuprofen 1 tablet in 3 doses) - when the body temperature rises from 38 ° C. If you have a sore throat - sprays with antiseptics (Yox, stoptusin, Givalex) or tablets (dekatilen, Strepsils) - every 3-4 hours. With nasal congestion - spray or drops (nazol, noksprey, aquamaris, naphthyzinum).
In severe cases, treatment should be strictly in the hospital under the supervision of a doctor.
Treatment of urogenital mycoplasmosis
The main drug in the treatment of urogenital mycoplasmosis, as well as respiratory, is an antibiotic. Groups and dosages are the same. However, the duration of treatment from 3 to 7 days. This is due to a milder course of the disease. In addition to this drug, antifungals are used (fluconazole 100 mg, 1 tablet daily for 10 days, or 500 mg one time after a course of antibacterial drugs). Probiotics to restore microflora (Linex 1 capsule in 3-5 doses, bifiform 1 capsule in 3-4 doses, Lacidofil 1 capsule in 3-4 doses). Vitamins (vitrum, quaddevit, undevit - 1 tablet in 4 doses) and immunostimulants (laferon 1 tablet in 3 doses, interferon in the nose every 2 hours) are used to strengthen the immunity.
Treatment of mycoplasmosis in women adds to all of the above vaginal suppositories with antibiotics (metronidazole, 1 candle at night for 10 days, gravagin, 1 candle at night for 7-10 days).
After the end of therapy, a woman needs to undergo a control study. To do this, 10 days after the last antibiotic pill, a female doctor (gynecologist) takes a smear and makes it. This procedure must be performed three times during each subsequent menstrual cycle. Only if during these three months all the results are negative, can a woman be considered healthy.
Treatment of mycoplasmosis in men adds to the general principles of an ointment or cream containing antibacterial substances (metrogyl, oflokain - rub into the head of the penis 2-3 times a day for 1-2 weeks). At the end of treatment, treatment is monitored. Any method of laboratory research, which is available in a medical institution, a male doctor (andrologist or urologist) checks for the presence of mycoplasma in the body.
Symptoms of urogenital mycoplasmosis
Urogenital infection caused by mycoplasmas is divided into acute, chronic and asymptomatic. Very often, mycoplasmosis is detected during a routine examination by a gynecologist by chance.
Symptoms of mycoplasmosis in men are minor discharge from the urethra, slight itching inside the canal or on the head of the penis, possible pain during urination, a feeling of discomfort in the genital area. Also, with the defeat of the testes and their appendages, there is a slight soreness and slight swelling of the scrotum. When a genital mycoplasma infection is attached to the prostate, there may be an increase in night urination, a slight pressing pain in the anus or in the lower abdomen.
Symptoms in women are divided into mycoplasmosis of the external and internal genital organs. Signs of lesions of the external organs include a slight itching in the area of the entrance to the vagina, minor discharge from the urethra or vagina. And if mycoplasma gets into the internal genital organs, pain may occur in the lower abdomen, in the lumbar region or anus. The menstrual cycle is broken, intermenstrual bleeding is possible. With the running form of genital mycoplasmosis in women, “habitual” miscarriages or infertility are possible. Also, if a sick woman still managed to get pregnant, then stillbirth or premature birth is possible. In this case, the child has a number of pathologies.
Diagnosis of urogenital mycoplasmosis
In order to properly diagnose the urogenital infection of the genitourinary system, an examination and laboratory research methods are needed. On examination, inflammatory changes, swelling, redness, erosion, soreness can be detected. This will lead the doctor to the idea that the presence of any microorganism. To clarify the use of such methods of laboratory diagnosis, such as:
- Bacteriological method. A smear from the urethra or from the vagina is applied to a special medium and colonies of microorganisms are grown.
- Serological method. Detection of specific antibodies in the blood to this parasite.
- Polymerase chain reaction. Detection in the urine and discharge from the urethra and vagina fragments of the genetic material (DNA) of the parasite.
- Immunofluorescence Method. Detection of mycoplasma in the discharge from the urethra or vagina by using special stained antibodies.
- Genetic probes method. Finding mycoplasma using special fragments of genetic materials.
Symptoms of respiratory mycoplasmosis
Initially, mycoplasmosis symptoms resemble flu or another viral infection. There is an increase in body temperature up to 37.5-38.5 ° C, a dry, hacking cough appears, a tickling sensation occurs in the throat, and the nose is blocked. A little later, after a few days, the infection falls lower in the bronchi. In this regard, cough increases, it becomes unbearable and paroxysmal. Sometimes with a little sputum. In the future, the lungs are involved in the process, there is mycoplasma pneumonia (pneumonia). These symptoms include severe shortness of breath, and in the sputum there may be streaks of blood. With adequate and timely treatment, subsidence of the disease processes occurs from 3 weeks to 3 months. Mycoplasmosis in patients with weak immunity is characterized by complications such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain), arthritis (damage to the joints), and nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys). The transition to the chronic form is also possible. In this case, it is necessary to periodically examine the patient for the development of bronchiectasis (pathological and irreversible airiness of the lungs and expansion of the bronchi) and pneumosclerosis (replacement of normal lung tissue with connective, scar).
Mycoplasmas differ from other bacteria in the absence of a rigid cell wall (as a result, only the cytoplasmic membrane separates them from the external environment) and pronounced polymorphism.
In the culture of a single species, it is possible to distinguish large and small spherical, ellipsoid, discoid, rod-shaped and filiform, including branching (because of this, all mycoplasmas were once attributed to actinomycetes) cells. Various methods of reproduction are also described: fragmentation, binary division, budding. When dividing the resulting cells are not equivalent in size, often one of them is even not viable. Mycoplasmas are forms with the smallest known cellular microorganisms, including less than the theoretical limit of independent reproduction on a nutrient medium (this limit for spherical cells is 0.15–0.20 µm and for filamentous - 13 µm in length at 20 nm in diameter).
Diagnosis of respiratory mycoplasmosis
In order to diagnose pulmonary mycoplasmosis, a single X-ray of the lungs and a general blood test (as with other types of pneumonia) are not enough. There are a number of methods for determining the pathogen in a patient:
- PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Identifies parts of mycoplasma DNA that are contained in sputum or in secretions from the nasopharynx. This method is the most popular, because the result will be known only after 1 hour.
- Cultural (bacteriological) method. A small amount of sputum is placed on a special medium. The growth of the parasite takes 5-7 days. This is the most reliable way to diagnose.
- Immunofluorescence method. In the blood, antibodies are released that the body sends to destroy mycoplasma.
- The method of paired sera. Conduct 2 samples for the detection of antibodies to mycoplasma. The first is made up to 6 days of illness, the second - 2 weeks after the first. Allows you to determine the quality of treatment.