Health is the most precious thing a person has. And if there are disturbing signals, indicating violations in the body, you need reliable and extensive information about a possible illness, which will help to cope with it. On our portal you will find descriptions of the causes, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of organs and systems.
We hope that the special information provided on the site will help in the fight for health. The list of diseases under consideration will be constantly updated so that we can cover as many medical problems as possible.
Varieties and atypical forms
This disease, depending on the health of the body and the type of carrier, can occur in several forms.
- Chronic - is characteristic of women who have completed the process of puberty. In fact, it is a form of complication hidden in children of superficial lichen. Hormonal fluctuations that occur with the female body at the time of maturation, undermine immunity, which gives the ringworm deprive the opportunity to develop stronger.
- Superficial - white spots with a red border are almost harmless to humans, because the upper layer of the dermis is affected.
- Purulent - corresponding to the name, sore skin produces pus. The parasite affects not only the surface of the dermis, but also the organism as a whole, initially penetrating the depth of the follicle, and then settling in the lymph nodes. This form is characterized by high temperature.
- The deep form - settles mainly on the skin of the legs, pseudo-mycelium are formed by dense knots at a depth of 3-4 cm.
- Plantar form - callosity-like formations appear on the foot, they peel off and hurt when walking.
- Nail - in appearance it is a common onychomycosis, with characteristic colored spots and a bundle of nails.
- Abortive - the most mild form, manifested by rashes of pale pink color.
- Papular - the skin begins to actively loosen in the places of appearance of centimeter tubercles. One of the most unpleasant, from a cosmetic point of view, forms.
Adolescent boys do not suffer from the chronic form, the parasite itself dies.
In addition to form, an important role in the choice of treatment tactics is played by the type of parasite that caused it:
- Microsporia - a disease transmitted between humans, of zoonotic and anthropophilic type.
- Anthropophilic trichophytosis is an infectious disease with a fungal pathogen that is transmitted only between people.
- Zoonotic trichophytosis is similar anthropophilic in nature, but indulges in human beings from cattle, cats and other animals.
It is important to understand that ringworm is a common name that combines two different diseases (Microsporia and Trichophytosis) caused by different pathogens. The localization and clinical picture of both diseases is very similar, therefore, historically, they were considered a single ailment, and afterwards they were separated, thanks to deep medical research.
Causes of disease
Ringworm is the result of the activity of the parasitic fungal microorganisms Microsporumcanis and Trichophyton tonsurans, whose main carriers are domestic animals (cats, dogs). Favorable factors are reduced immunity and the presence of fresh mechanical damage to the epidermis. Without these two factors, infection is extremely rare.
Depending on the state of the body, the depth of the colony of the fungus and what part of the body he “chose”, the clinical picture of the disease can vary, so the localization is as follows:
- inguinal and axillary cavities,
- skin under the scalp.
Therefore, the full name of the disease always sounds as follows: Superficial lichen of the body or Purulent ringworm of the scalp, etc.
In addition to the general symptoms of the type, there are specific clinical signs that arise depending on the pathogen that caused the disease:
- Trichophytosis - a place of trichophytosis development can be both smooth skin and areas under the hairline. Initially, the foci look like red-pink specks in diameter up to 2 cm. Everything starts from one island, its surface slightly swells, protruding above the level of the rest of the dermis. Even before the formation of a large number of foci, the first is covered with flaky white flakes that fall off when touched. Foci appear systematically throughout the body, but at the same time are located separately and into the general pathology, as with color lichen, they do not merge. At the next stage, one of the colonies becomes the main one - its size considerably exceeds the other foci, and the edges look like a torn flower. At the last stage of development of the disease, if it is not treated, the lesions turn into rings with a dense crust in the middle, and the hair breaks off completely in these zones. The favorite place of trichophytia is the body, neck, face and forearm, but sometimes there are exceptions and the parasite breeds on the scalp.
- Infiltrative-suppurative trichophytosis - this subspecies of the fungus is isolated in a separate group, because the pathogen is zoophilic. The disease is most prevalent in rural areas, sometimes it is called an occupational disease of the breeder veterinarian. In contrast to the above-described fellow, the inflammatory process begins immediately after infection and develops extremely rapidly, up to suppuration in the lesions. Zoofilny pathogen immediately affects all areas of the epidermis, while developing on smooth skin and areas of hair growth on the head, while he loves the mustache, beard, eyebrows. Reaching the stage of suppuration, the foci acquire a blue-purple color, their surface is covered with tubercles that form scabs, erosion and scales. When pressing on the skin from the mouths of the follicle pus is clearly released, the hair in such conditions fall out together with the bulbs. On the head, peculiar “honeycombs” are formed, which are softened only with proper treatment.
- Microsporia - the first 4-7 days of infection the parasite is in the incubation period, therefore, does not manifest itself. After the clinic manifests itself depending on the location of the development of the outbreak:
- The hairy part of the head appears sharply a round hearth with a diameter of 3 cm. It is covered with gray scales, after which hair breaks off in the affected area (the fracture occurs at a height of 5 mm). At subsequent stages, the lesion and the remnants of the hair are covered with a noticeable white bloom.
- Smooth skin - spots have a diameter up to 2 cm and light pink color. When the colony stabilizes, it begins to grow, with the center of the circles lightening, and the border is highlighted by papules. If the fungus is not treated, then double, triple, etc. will begin to appear inside the focus. inner circles.
- Zooanthroponous and anthroponotic microsporia - microsporia is no different on this basis, for the most part both subspecies are similar to surface trichophytosis, foci have: round shape, clear outlines and white scaly patina. What distinguishes this disease from trichophytia inflammation of the lymph nodes (occipital, cervical, parotid).
A person who has had an infiltrative-suppurative trichophytosis, besides scarring for life, acquires full immunity to the pathogen, therefore relapse is impossible.
Photo ringworm: how it looks
An animal suffering from ringworm suffers a lot, but you need to worry not only about its health, but about your own. If your pet has minimal prerequisites for an illness, immediately take him to the hospital, and after that - immediately go for an examination to a dermatologist with the whole family.
A classic example of a developing microsporia in the zone of the scalp. The photo shows a characteristic gray bloom tightly covering the affected area.
Stage of formation of the main colony during trichophytia. In the photo you can see how the main focus is larger than its usual counterparts.
Rare form of ringworm, struck nails. This really rarely happens, this onychomycosis develops very quickly, and the course of treatment will be 6-12 months, which makes it very difficult to fulfill all the doctor's recommendations and makes this form the most difficult to deduce from all varieties of ringworm.
The method of accurate diagnosis consists of two main stages and several additional.
- Examination - the doctor visually examines the lesions, collects anamnesis and biological material (scraping, hair roots).
- Bacterioscopic research - is a case study of the residues of vital activity of the pathogen and its reaction to seeding in a nutrient medium.
- Voodoo Lamp - is used when microsporia is suspected, the second name of this method is luminescent diagnostics.
- Differentiation - it is very important for medical professionals to distinguish ringworm from alopecia, favus, eczema or psoriasis, and in the case of deep ringworm from ostiofolliculitis and phlegmon.
Ringworm treatment methodology
The treatment, in case of ringworm, is aimed at the extermination of the fungus, which led to ringworm (sometimes onychomycosis). Self-treatment in this case is very dangerous, because it is impossible to classify the parasite's fungus without laboratory tests, and inadequate treatment can, at a minimum, disrupt the antagonistic balance and stimulate the growth of the disease. Usually, a dermatologist chooses a combination therapy consisting of both external agents and oral medication. The duration of treatment and the dosage of drugs used depend on: the type of parasite, the form of the disease and the stage at which the patient turned to a dermatologist.
A mycologist is a specialized physician for ringworm, but it is extremely difficult to find it, especially in small towns. Therefore, it is better to simply go to a dermatologist working in the dermatovenerologic dispensary - this solution will provide you with quality treatment and will deprive you of the need to look for a rare and expensive specialist.
This form factor differs from other external agents in that it remains on the skin for a long time, due to which the active substances are better absorbed. The scheme of treatment with ointments with ringworm is always combined with iodine. Typically, the ointment involves evening use (at bedtime), and in the morning the lesions are smeared with iodine.
- Sulfur tar,
Before applying external means it is desirable to worry about cleaning the skin. You can do this: manganese or furatsilinom.
In cases where ordinary ointments have a weak effect on the fungus, the doctor may prescribe hormonal external agents: Travokort or Mikozolon.
Gels and solutions
This treatment option is used in the presence of a thick corneous layer caused by the parasite, and also when it comes to the treatment of the scalp, because they do not stain the hair.
This technique is used exclusively in cases where diffuse rashes appear on the skin or there is a profound damage to the follicles and internal organs of the patient. Oral drugs are not only struggling with the parasite itself, some of them accumulate in the body and prevent relapses.
Most popular pills:
All drugs of complex action have side effects, therefore, to use them without a doctor's prescription is strictly prohibited.
These cosmetics, with ringworm, are used in order to achieve a certain effect depending on the type of the disease and its stage, so:
- Sulsen - violates the antagonistic balance unfavorable to the fungus side,
- Nizoral, Dermazole, Ketoconazole - directly affect the parasite itself,
- Tar shampoo - used for drying the scalp and general disinfection, in order to avoid diseases-satellites.
In order for immunity not to suffer from an unbalanced diet, you should follow general recommendations when you have ringworm: control fats and carbohydrates, not forget about fiber, eat fresh foods, be sure to take vitamins necessary for the body.
Of much greater interest are the forbidden products, because their use can greatly contribute to the disease:
- nutritional supplements,
- spicy dishes,
- lard and fat.
In this case, tea, coffee and cocoa can drink, within reasonable limits.
What you definitely should not do with ringworm is treated on its own. Determine the pathogen and the form is almost impossible at home, so traditional medicine is used as an adjunct to medical treatment.
Popular among the people are:
- Apple cider vinegar - wipe the affected areas 5-7 times a day with undiluted 5% apple cider vinegar. With a strong burning sensation and additional irritation, treatment is stopped.
- Olive oil and sulfur - Olive oil is slowly added to hot sulfur. The resulting thick gruel smeared pockets of depriving.
- Grass collection - celandine, field horsetail, a series of tripartite mixed in proportions of 2: 1: 4, followed by 2 tablespoons. the resulting mixture is steamed in a glass of boiling water for 1 hour. The tincture is rubbed into the infected skin after taking a shower.
- Compresses of cabbage with sour cream - fresh clean cabbage leaf is applied to the hearth depriving for an hour, after which the area is smeared with sour cream and fixed with a bandage.
- Burdock root ointment, hop cones and calendula - the ingredients are mixed in a ratio of 2: 2: 1 (in grams) and a strong decoction is boiled out of them, after which the resulting liquid is mixed with vaseline in a ratio of 1: 2. Ointment is applied twice a day to areas with deprived and do not wash off.
In addition to food preferences, for a speedy recovery, excluding the possibility of infecting others and preventing relapses, the patient should:
- Wear daily replaceable knitwear and the same cap.
- Wash clothes separately from others, boil them and iron them in high temperature conditions.
- Follow the recommendations of the doctor when taking a shower: close the necessary areas with cling film, use special shampoos.
- Try not to touch things that are difficult to clean - pillows, carpets, etc. Linen for sleep change every day, and for pillows to buy a thick pillowcase.
- Daily carry out wet cleaning in the house.
- Separate personal hygiene products from the same products that the rest of the family uses.
In addition to general hygiene measures, there are specific rules of conduct when a patient appears in the house, infected with ringworm:
- daily external examination of all family members,
- constant disinfection of common areas,
- daily shower
- wash your hands with tar soap, after any visit to public places,
- regular inspection of pets,
- appeal to a specialist, should occur no later than a day after the detection of suspicious symptoms.
Possible complications and consequences
The most terrible complication after ringworm is that the hair can not recover, and the scars after the illness remain for life. Especially often this problem occurs if treatment is started late or the doctor’s recommendations are violated. There is no danger to health, but the aesthetic appearance of a person who has received such consequences leaves much to be desired.
South Korean plastic surgery can cope with the problem of unreconstructed hair and scars, but this is quite an expensive pleasure.
The main method of infection is contact-everyday, that is, a person needs to make contact with a patient (animal or person) or things he touched. Moreover, trichophytia and microsporia are transmitted in this way, respectively, the most active children are at risk, under the age of 15 years, they are easily in contact with animals and other children. Ringworm is a persistent, highly contagious disease, it can be picked up even at the hairdresser, with the improper care of the master tool. Sometimes healthy people also are vectors, the parasite just sleeps on their covers without developing because of the high immunity of the carrier.
Especially favorable for the possibility of infection affect:
- maceration - softening of the skin during prolonged bathing,
- violation of the mechanical integrity of the outer covers in any manifestation,
- diseases that weaken the immune system,
- stress, overwork, sleep disturbances.
Features in children
There are several features characteristic only of this group of patients:
- at a young age, ringworm, regardless of the form and pathogen, can settle anywhere on the body, especially the scalp,
- most often, babies develop precisely suppurative and infiltrative forms,
- regardless of the type of ringworm in children causes inflammation of the lymphatic system,
- very often, ringworm in a child is accompanied by fever.
Pregnancy and lactation
The fetus can not contract the ringworm during gestation, but the disease brings significant discomfort to the mother.
For treatment during this period there are several features:
- It is forbidden to be treated with complex and hormonal drugs, even if it is an external agent,
- underwear must be changed twice a day to avoid vaginal infections,
- taking a child to bed is strictly prohibited,
- when feeding, in no case should it be allowed to come in contact with the affected areas of the body, cover them with a sheet or oilcloth.
It is also impossible to simply ignore the process during this period: first, the whole house will be infected by the birth of the child, and secondly, the disease is fraught with a chronic form and corresponding consequences. The main thing is not to self-medicate and contact the appropriate doctor.
Video about lichen
Trichophytosis is not dandruff, but a serious ailment, commonly referred to as ringworm. How to differentiate these two problems and why you should definitely contact a dermatologist will tell this video.
Microsporia is the second type of pathogens leading to ringworm: what you need to know and how to save yourself. This video will help you understand the main causes of the disease, it also clearly explained the path of infection.
Modern medical preparations are quite capable of making the prognosis favorable. The main thing is to pay attention to yourself and consult a doctor, even if you think you have dandruff. It is important to undergo annual medical examinations so as not to turn your family into a hotbed of carriers of this parasite in a glowing form.
Symptoms of ringworm
The symptoms of ringworm can vary somewhat, depending on the location of the infection, on impaired immunity and on its ability to cope with the disease.
In this regard, it is customary to distinguish:
Deprive the surface with localization on the scalp. Most often, the infection occurs through contact with a sick person, or when interacting with an infected animal. If the superficial deprivation of the scalp does not get rid of in childhood, then there is the danger of its transition to a chronic form after puberty of a female child. In boys aged 13-15, untreated superficial lichen of the scalp often passes on its own.
Symptoms of this type of ringworm are:
A single plot, or multiple zones of damage with thinning hair. Such foci have a rounded shape.
On the face may appear areas of flaky skin, the scales of which are grayish or white. They are very similar in appearance to dandruff.
The more actively the microorganisms causing lichen begin to multiply, the more the hair begins to break down. Over time, the area looks as if the hair on it was cut at a level of 1–2 mm from the skin.
The edges of the affected area are surrounded by small bubbles. After they burst, a yellow crust forms in their place. The skin itself may be slightly hyperemic.
The affected areas have a large diameter and can reach 10 cm, and sometimes exceed this figure.
Itching with a superficial form of ringworm is most often not observed. If it occurs, it has a rather weak degree of severity and does not cause discomfort to the person.
A patient with superficial deprive is more experiencing psychological discomfort, since his appearance is seriously affected.
Deprive the surface, affecting smooth skin. Often this type of ringworm can be confused with rosy lichen, but between them there is one significant difference - pink lichen never affects the hands, feet and face. Ringworm, in turn, can occur anywhere on the body. In addition, pink lichen will not last more than 8 weeks, and ringworm can disturb a person for many years, often changing the stage of remission to the acute stage.
Symptoms of the surface form of ringworm affecting smooth skin are:
Bright spot with clear borders. The boundaries themselves will be raised above the skin, forming a small roller. It consists of blisters and pinkish papules. The middle of the spot is lighter, covered with skin scales.
If the disease is not treated, then the spots may grow.
The patient will be chased by itchy skin.
Most often, the facial versicolor occurs on the smooth skin of the neck and face, and often appears on the lower extremities and on the body.
Chronic ringworm. The chronic form of ringworm in adulthood can only be detected in females. The disease develops against the background of an infection that was not cured in childhood and is exacerbated if the ovaries and the thyroid gland are disturbed. A general decrease in immune forces and hypovitaminosis can also be a push.
Symptoms of chronic ringworm are as follows:
The affected area is the scalp (mostly temples and the back of the head), smooth skin (mainly elbows, buttocks, thighs, palms), nail plates.
When a hairline is affected, the rods themselves break at the root. The focus does not grow by more than 10 mm, there is no inflammation, and a scaly scar develops over time.
When smooth skin is involved in the process, the spot has no clearly defined boundaries, it can reach large sizes. The color of the spot can be of any shade, ranging from pink and ending with bluish. Chronic eruptions are always itchy and flaky.
If the nail plate is involved in the pathological process, then its color changes first. From light pink it transforms to gray. The nail grows turbid, grows dull, starts to crumble. There are two options for changing the nail plate: it becomes either thinner or thicker.
Infiltrative-suppurative form of deep ringworm. This type of disease affects only the human hair follicles. This form of the disease can only be infected by an animal.
The symptoms of deep ringworm are as follows:
The rise in body temperature.
Swollen and sore lymph nodes.
Concomitant skin rash of an allergic nature.
General weakness and malaise.
Large red patches appear on the head, their diameter can reach 10 cm or more. They have an uneven surface with hillocks rising above it. Externally, deep ringworm resembles a tumor. The similar look is caused by the fact that suppuration of hair follicles occurs. This inflammatory process is accompanied by swelling of the skin, which elevates the plaque above the surface.
A person experiences pain at the site of inflammation. If the follicle is opened, then purulent contents will be released from it.
As the inflammation subsides, loose brown crusts appear in the middle of the plaque. If a man is exposed to a disease, then his plaques can form on his mustache and beard.
The abortive form of the disease is characterized by the appearance of pale spots that have no clearly defined boundaries. Symptoms of the disease are mild, itching is not very pronounced.
Erythematous and edematous type of ringworm can occur in childhood or in women. This form of the disease is characterized by the presence of pronounced inflammation and allergic skin reactions. The surface of the spot is covered with small scales.
Papular squamous form of the disease affects the chest and face. At the same time, the formed plaque rises above the surface of the skin, has pronounced hillocks, and is covered with dense skin scales. Itching of the skin is pronounced to a great extent.
Causes of ringworm
The reason for the appearance of ringworm can be only one - it is infection from the carrier of the fungus. Carriers can act both people and animals (most often it is stray dogs or cats).
On the skin of a healthy person gets the element of wool, a particle of the dermis, soil or hair shaft, which contains a pathogenic fungus. It penetrates deep into healthy skin or nail and begins to multiply. If hair follicles are located nearby, the fungi gradually grow into them, occupying the entire space of the bulb. After that, they begin to climb up the hair, accumulating in high concentrations between the hair scales. As the disease progresses, the mushrooms destroy the core. As a result, the hair breaks due to the increased weight. Around the rest of the hair shaft, the fungus continues to multiply, forming a white sheath. It can be seen without special magnifying equipment. This is the mechanism of ringworm infection.
The ways of infection can be identified as follows:
Transfer is flexible from animal to human. In this regard, children are most at risk. After all, they are often in contact with homeless animals. Moreover, parents should know that puppies and kittens of homeless animals often suffer from ringworm, and the symptoms of affection may not be visible on their fur until a certain time. In addition to homeless cats and dogs, domestic animals, such as pigs, goats, sheep, etc., also act as a natural source of infection. Rodents can be carriers of the infection.
Transfer of the fungus from a sick person to a healthy person through contact-household way. Household items, combs, underwear, and clothing used by the patient are dangerous. For a long time, spores of the fungus continue to support their vital activity on car seats, on sofas, on soft toys, carpets, etc. They can live without a human or other living organism for several months.
Contact with the diseased skin of an infected person can be dangerous in terms of fungal transmission.
Infection with ringworm can occur in a barbershop where the rules for disinfection of instruments are not followed.
However, experts point out that infection with a fungus after its short contact with healthy skin does not always occur. To mycotic organisms began to multiply on the skin, in the hair follicles, on the nails, they need favorable conditions. If the human immune system is strong, then it will not allow the pathological activity of the fungus. In this regard, the integrity of the skin is also important.
The factors that create favorable conditions for ringworm infection include the following:
Maceration of the skin. This process is characterized by softening of the dermis as a result of its prolonged contact with water. This can also be attributed to hyperhidrosis of the palms and feet, violations of the chemical composition of the secretions secreted by the sebaceous and sweat glands.
Frequent contact with the land or animals associated with professional activities.
Any injuries, scratches, abrasions, cracks, burns, abrasions, callosity of the skin, that is, all that leads to a violation of its integrity.
The crowding of people, which is especially important for children's groups, increases the risk of infection with ringworm.
Neglect of personal hygiene. It is known that the spores of the fungus are easily washed off with water when it comes into contact with the skin of a healthy person.
Skin infections and reduced immune defense of the body as a whole. In this regard, depressions, stressful situations, chronic diseases, acute infections, etc., have a negative effect.
What is dangerous ringworm? Consequences and complications
Ringworm does not pose a serious threat to human health or life. Most often, after getting rid of the disease, the scalp is fully restored.
However, if the disease provokes suppuration and inflammation on the scalp, this can lead to hair loss without the possibility of their subsequent recovery.
Children who have had ringworm in infiltrative-suppurative form may have one or several bald spots on their heads in the future. In addition, there is a risk of attaching a secondary infection.
Answers to popular questions:
Is ringworm contagious? Yes, ringworm is an infectious and highly contagious disease.
Can the ringworm pass without treatment? The possibility of self-rid the body of ringworm exists, but it is negligible. Science knows of several cases when the disease has passed without any medical intervention, however these are isolated phenomena. Most often, the infection, causing inflammation once, begins to spread further. If the disease has developed in childhood and has not been subjected to therapy, then it will persist until adulthood.
Can ringworm develop again? The disease can develop again if a new infection has occurred, or the treatment has not been completed. The body is not able to form immunity against ringworm fungi.
Ringworm itches or not? The disease causes itching, and in some cases it can give the patient expressed anxiety.
Is it possible to wash with ringworm? The disease is not a contraindication to the implementation of hygiene procedures. During the illness, it is best not to take a bath, but a shower.
What if I get sick with ringworm during pregnancy? You should not panic if the infection developed during gestation, as these mycotic organisms are not capable of having a pronounced effect on the child or woman. If infected, you should consult a doctor and receive the recommended treatment. During pregnancy, oral medications are not prescribed to get rid of the infection, it will be enough to use ointments prescribed by the doctor.
Which doctor to contact?
If symptoms of ringworm are found in an adult or in a child, you should immediately consult a doctor. This may be a specialist dermatologist or infectious diseases.
The doctor with the help of his available diagnostic methods will confirm or deny the fact of infection and prescribe the appropriate treatment. It is worth remembering that without treatment, ringworm is able to provoke very unpleasant consequences in the form of baldness or suppuration, and can also be extended to surrounding people.
In addition, there is a possibility that under the symptoms of ringworm hiding such diseases as: atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen planus, focal alopecia, etc.
Treatment for ringworm can not be very fast. As a rule, therapy takes from one month to 6 weeks. To prevent the disease from becoming chronic, all the recommendations prescribed by the doctor must be strictly followed.
The treatment must be carried out by a specialist, as attempts to get rid of the infection on their own can also lead to the hronitization of the process. In this case, the disease will periodically remind of itself, capturing all new patches of skin and scalp.
If during the diagnosis on the skin a single focus is found depriving, and the patient feels well, then only local treatment can be prescribed. However, it is practiced only when the location of the rash on the skin without vellum or hard hair. The patient is recommended in the morning to treat the affected surface with iodine in 5% concentration, and then apply anti-mycotic ointment. The evening before applying the ointment, the skin is treated with salicylic acid.
If there are several plaques on the body, the disease is treated in a hospital. At the same time, local therapy is mandatory supplemented with intake of drugs.
Ointments for the treatment of ringworm have a thick consistency, remain on the skin for a long time, do not drain and do not spread much. In addition, they are not able to penetrate deep into the cells of the epidermis, which means that the risk of side effects is minimal. Their composition may include clotrimazole, ketoconazole terbinafine, mycoconazole.
The application of ointments is recommended to be combined with the pretreatment of the skin with iodine, as this contributes to the drying of depriving, providing an antiseptic effect.
Doctors prescribe the following ointment for the treatment of ringworm:
Salicylic ointment. It can not be applied to the skin. The ointment has an antimycotic and anti-inflammatory effect; after its application, the treated surface should be covered with a sterile cloth.
Sulfuric ointment in 10% or in 10% concentration. It helps get rid of mycotic organisms and bacteria, has a positive effect on the process of skin regeneration.
Sulfur tar ointment. It is applied to the surface of lichen and the surrounding tissue. If the skin around is swollen, then a sterile dressing should be applied on top of the ointment.
Mikospor. This ointment contributes to the destruction of the cells of mycotic organisms, it must be applied in a thin layer.
Lamisil. It has a damaging effect on fungi, prevents their further reproduction.
Prescription antimycotic agents for local treatment of ringworm is Vidal milk and Lassar paste. They are made in a pharmacy to order.
If the skin around the treatment area is dirty, it should be washed. They do this not with ordinary water, but with disinfecting compounds, for example, with furatsilina solution, potassium permanganate, Miramistin.
Gels with antimycotic effect are also often prescribed by dermatologists for the local treatment of ringworm. They are quickly absorbed and do not stain clothes, so they are easy to use.
In addition, gels contain high concentrations of drugs:
Exifin gel in 1% terbinafine-based concentration.
Mikogel KMP, in addition to the antimycotic effect, has an antibacterial effect. The main active ingredient is miconazole.
For the treatment of the scalp it is more convenient to use antifungal drugs in the form of solutions. They have good permeability and do not stain hair. They can be used for the treatment of depriving smooth skin as a preparation before applying an ointment or gel.
The following solutions are considered the most effective:
Vokadin based on iodine.
Yoditsirin on the basis of iodine and glycerin.
Nitrofungin based on 1-chloro-4-nitrophenol. Modern and effective remedy that has antimycotic and antibacterial effect.
In addition to local treatment, it is possible to prescribe drugs with antifungal effect in tablet form. They contribute to the destruction of the fungus from the inside. However, it is worth remembering that such a remedy can be recommended only by a doctor. Although they have a pronounced therapeutic effect, antimycotics can cause side effects.
Popular oral medications are:
Griseofulvin. It is a natural antimycotic with a narrow spectrum of action against fungi that cause ringworm. The full course of therapy is up to 15 days.
Orungal. The course of taking this drug on the basis of itraconazole lasts up to 15 days.
Lamisil with the active ingredient terbinafine can be recommended to receive for 6 weeks.
Fluconazole. The course of treatment with this drug is up to 8 weeks.
The effectiveness of the therapy is assessed using a fluorescent lamp. At the end of the therapeutic course, a repeated scraping of the skin will be performed. If the fungi continue to be present on the integuments of a person, then the treatment is either continued or replaced with a different drug.
Do not refuse the recommendation of the doctor to shave off hair at the site of injury. This will not only economically apply the tool, but also increase the effectiveness of treatment.
It is important to take precautions within the family, if there is a person with ringworm. To prevent its spread, you can use shampoos with antimycotic ingredients as a preventive measure: ketoconazole (1%), zinc pyrithione (up to 1%), selenium sulfide (1.5%), povidone-iodine.
Children with uncomplicated ringworm are treated at home. They should not attend educational institutions for 14 days from the start of therapy or more.
Education: Diploma RSMU them. N. I. Pirogov, specialty "General Medicine" (2004). Residency at the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, diploma in "Endocrinology" (2006).
5 diets, the effectiveness of which is confirmed by modern science
Causes of ringworm
Mushrooms Microsporum and Trichophyton are among the most studied. They live only in the surface layers of the skin and do not penetrate deep into the body. Damage to the mucous membranes (oral cavity, urogenital system) with ringworm is also not observed.
Fungi can be infected in four ways: from a person, from animals, in a pool or sauna, and through the soil. But for the development of a full-fledged process, predisposing factors are required:
- the use of foreign household items - combs, towels, bed linen, clothes, shoes,
- since ringworm is transmitted to humans through animals, contact with them and irregular hand washing leads to infection,
- skin injury, including invisible to the eye,
- reduced immunity.
The causative agent of the disease persists in the external environment, so it is enough to touch the surface, where the sick animal was before, as the fungus gets on the skin. There, it is usually destroyed by a system of local immunity, but when combined with several predisposing factors, it causes a manifestation of the disease. Ringworm is less common in adults than in childhood.
Main symptoms of ringworm
The incubation period is from several days to two weeks. Sometimes symptoms develop within a few months after the fungus gets on the skin. Therefore, it is very difficult to determine the time and source of infection and to organize timely anti-epidemic measures.
The first manifestations are often overlooked by the person. The initial stage is characterized by small nodules or vesicles that are “confused” with an allergic reaction. Then the elements quickly merge and form a typical lichen hearth. Various forms of the disease are described by their symptoms.
Ringworm on the surface of the scalp
Children are mainly ill from 5 to 12 years. Since the scalp is less commonly seen by a person, a considerable amount of time passes from the onset of the first symptoms to the diagnosis.
At first, just thinning of the hair is observed. A week later, they break off at a short distance from the skin. Ringworm on the head is characterized by the following features:
- peeling area in diameter of 2-5 cm. Sometimes there can be several lesions,
- a week later the fungus penetrates deep into the hair, making it brittle. Hair starts to break off. The photo clearly shows round or oval shaped bald spots,
- above the surface remain the “stumps” of hair, around which spores of fungi are located. Lichen element looks dull, as if powdered with dandruff,
- skin is red, swollen due to the inflammatory process,
- hair looks “sick”, if you hold your hand over it, do not return to the starting position, but remain flattened.
Most often ringworm is localized in the temporal part of the head, on the crown or top of the head. In the absence of treatment from the primary element, several daughter screenings of smaller diameter “bud off”.
Superficial ringworm affecting smooth skin
Deprive on smooth skin is superficial. But he is diagnosed much earlier, as a person quickly notices pathology in open areas.
Manifestations of ringworm on smooth skin can be confused with other types of lichen, especially pink. There are a number of signs that allow you to accurately diagnose:
- the lack of specific localization - on the body (especially in the inguinal folds), on the arm (hand, there is no pink here), on the face and feet, which is also not characteristic of other types of herpes,
- the element of the rash of bright color, the edges are clear, rise above the surface,
- in the central part is lighter, peels off,
- itching is characteristic.
Unlike pink lichen, which can be self-cured in a maximum of two months, the ringworm has been haunting a person for years and without treatment takes on severe complicated forms.
It develops more often in women with a history of a skin disease, presumably of fungal nature. The triggering mechanism of exacerbation are diseases of the ovaries, thyroid gland, reduced immunity.
Chronic disease has the same location: head, smooth skin and nail plate. The manifestations have some differences from the primary infection:
- the hair breaks off immediately at the root, the focus is small (about 1 cm in diameter) with no signs of inflammation,
- on smooth skin, the element is large, but without clear edges. There is always severe itching and flaking,
- if the disease is localized on the nail, it changes its color to gray, tarnish, begins to break and crumble. Sometimes the nail thickens in the form of uneven tuberosities.
With any localization of the chronic process, it is less pronounced than acute. Not inflammatory, but atrophic processes predominate. This sluggish course is due to the reduced ability of the body to respond to the pathogen.
Deep infiltrative suppurative ringworm
A special form that involves hair follicles in the process. A person becomes infected only from an animal. A prerequisite is a strong depression of the immune system or improper self-treatment, which “drives” the disease deep into the tissues.
With deep lichen, the leading role in the clinic goes to the general symptoms. The fungus is always combined with the bacterial flora, which causes the symptoms of intoxication:
- weakness, malaise,
- regional lymphadenopathy, painful nodes,
- multiple allergic rashes,
- the element is similar to a tumor: it protrudes above the surface of the skin, has an uneven, bumpy surface,
- skin is red, painful,
- hair follicle suppurate, if you press on it, you can see the expiration of pus.
After opening the abscesses, the place becomes covered with a crust. When injured - bleeds. There are several more forms of ringworm, which are much less frequently described: abortive, erythematous and edematous, papular-squamous.
Medicines for treating ringworm
Fungal infections are always difficult to cure. The pathogen is very viable, so for its destruction requires specific drugs. They are prescribed only by the doctor, based on the type of fungus, the form of the disease and the general condition of the patient.
Therapy can take a long time. It is important to strictly follow the recommendations received. Cure ringworm alone is impossible. Local treatment is prescribed only for a single small focus, which does not capture fluff hair. In other cases, combination therapy is required. The following groups of drugs are used for treatment.
They are preferred because they contain a large concentration of the active substance, they do not stain clothes, they are easy to apply. They are prescribed for lesions of the skin, sometimes on the scalp.
- "Exifin". The concentration of terbinafine 1%. It specifically acts on the pathogen, destroying its shell. "Works" on the skin surface, the surface of the nail. Apply 2 times a day during the month.
- "Mikogel KMP". Additionally, it has an antimicrobial effect, therefore, it is used for complex deep forms of the disease. The active ingredient is miconazole.
Before applying the gels, hygiene measures are carried out, the center is smeared with an antiseptic solution (usually 5% iodine) and only then a preparation is applied with a thin layer. The zone should be slightly wider than the diameter of the hearth.
The most extensive group of drugs of local action. They consist of effective specific agents that destroy the pathogen. Ointments can only be treated with superficial forms of the disease, as they do not penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin.
- "Lamisil" ("Zalain", "Exifin") - active ingredient terbinafine. Especially effective for skin lichen. Apply to the focus 2 times a day for 4 weeks.
- "Clotrimazole" ("Kanesten", "Fueginal") - imidazole, which is part of these ointments, copes with the pathogen for a month with regular triple application.
- "Lotseril" ("Exoderil", "Batrafen") - the last generation of drugs that kill fungi in two weeks. Apply twice a day.
- "Salicylic ointment" - refers to non-specific antiseptics. It is also used to reduce the symptoms of inflammation.
- Sulfur tar tar ointment is one of the oldest proven anti-decay drugs. Recently, easier to find in the form of shampoo. Removes swelling of tissues, disinfects the surface of the epidermis. Due to the specific smell, it is better to apply overnight in addition to the main treatment.
- Pasta Lassara is a topical combination preparation based on zinc, salicylic acid, starch and petroleum jelly. Treats symptomatic means, does not cause allergic and other unpleasant reactions.
Ointment against ringworm have advantages in treating a disease in open areas of the body. Other dosage forms are used on the scalp or in hidden places. Lime ointment can be cured only in the first stage of the process, when the lesion on the skin is isolated.
These drugs are absorbed into the systemic circulation and act on the fungus systemically. They are prescribed for multiple foci of ringworm, with a deep form and a chronic process that is not amenable to traditional local treatment.
- Griseofulvin. Purposefully penetrates into the cells of the skin, nails, hair, killing all pathogenic pathogens there. It has many adverse reactions, so the need for use is discussed with your doctor. The dose is calculated individually depending on body weight.
- "Orungal." The drug is a broad-spectrum effective in many types of mycoses. It blocks the synthesis of the main substance of the cell wall of any kind of fungus. The course of treatment is short from 3 to 7 days.
- Lamisil. Systemic drug, which, unlike many similar drugs, is well tolerated by patients and has a minimum of side effects. This greatly expands its scope of application (in children, in elderly and debilitated patients). Duration of therapy is 6 weeks.
After the course of tablets, it is necessary to conduct a control study. If the cells of the fungus remain in the second scraping, the preparation is replaced by another.
Dosage form is very convenient when getting rid of ringworm on the scalp. Solutions do not stain hair, penetrate well between the bulbs. On smooth skin, they are recommended to treat the focus before applying an ointment or gel.
- "Vokadin (iodine)". It acts not only on fungi, but also on bacteria and viruses. Antiseptic broad-spectrum. It is used in pure form or diluted. Concentration and frequency of application prescribed by the doctor on an individual basis.
- "Yodditserin". Contains iodine and glycerin. No local irritant. Penetrates deep into the tissues. Effective against fungi and many bacteria.
- "Nitrofungin". Specific modern means of inhibiting the growth of fungi of the genus Microsporum and Trichophyton. Sometimes it causes skin irritation, in such cases it is recommended to dilute the solution with water in a 1: 1 ratio. After treatment of the elements "Nitrofungin", you should protect the skin from the sun.
We have listed the main drugs and their principles of application. Appoints them only dermatologist. To engage in self-treatment of this serious disease is absolutely impossible.
Hygiene measures in the treatment of ringworm
The causative agent of ringworm persists for a long time in the external environment. A sick person releases spores of fungus with dandruff and scales from the lesion. They can be stored on household items, furniture and lead to re-infection of the patient or his relatives.
To prevent the spread of ringworm (especially family members) and reduce treatment time, hygiene measures must be observed.
- Daily treatment of the apartment: after a thorough wet cleaning, all surfaces are disinfected with antiseptic solutions (organic silver solutions do a good job of this). After cleaning all the rags boil or soak in special solutions.
- Processing bed linen: spores of the fungus die during boiling, so all the clothes with which the patient comes in contact must be boiled down. If the treatment is done at home, the kit changes to a new one every day. So do with underwear. You can wash things with the addition of 1% solution of chloramine.
- If a child is sick, you need to disinfect all toys. The child is isolated from the children's team.
- When the process is localized on the head, it is washed daily with antifungal agents (tar soap).
- Destroys the spores of the pathogen and selenium. There are many hygiene products - soap, gel, shampoo. They are used when washing hands, bathing. With a severe form of the disease, you need to bathe daily (only under the shower), with a light one, at least twice a week. Rubbing the affected surface with a towel is impossible, it is better to just get wet. They wear a protective bandage on their heads to prevent the spread of spores.
- All things of the patient need to be stored in a separate place.
All family members who are in contact with the patient should wash their hands and bathe with special antifungal drugs and inspect the skin and scalp every day (if a peeling or dandruff is detected, you should immediately consult a doctor).
Features of treatment of ringworm in children
Ringworm occurs in children much more often than in adults and has its own characteristics, on which the treatment tactics depend. Children are more susceptible to allergic reactions, they often have multiple lesions and infection of skin areas.
When prescribing therapy, it is important not to allow its transition to the chronic form (insufficient doses and duration of the course), but also not to cause adverse reactions and complications from taking sufficiently toxic antifungal drugs. The principles are as follows:
- Mandatory appointment of antihistamines. Elements of the lesion cause severe itching, so young patients comb the primary focus,
- a combination of specific local drugs and anti-inflammatory ointments. Children, combing depriving elements, bring in a secondary bacterial infection,
- preference is given to local antifungal agents. The decision on systemic treatment is taken only by the doctor
- children must be strictly isolated from their peers, otherwise ringworm will quickly spread in the children's team,
- always appointed funds to strengthen the immune system. Nutrition is enriched with proteins and vitamins, the child should not be very worried because of his diagnosis (often this happens in adolescence), sometimes the prescription of light sedatives is required.
In boys, ringworm can sometimes lead to self-healing. In such cases, it is important to check whether the cure is complete, otherwise the process is transformed into a chronic form.