Callus: causes, structure, treatment

The upper layers of the skin - the epidermis - are composed of several layers. The lower ones gradually rise up, displacing the upper, “old”, cornified cells of the dermis, and with them the ingrained pollution, ammonia and salt. The process takes from one to two months, depending on the metabolic rate.

But, constant pressureas well as some viruses and skin fungi interfere with normal keratinization (keratinization). Old cells lose their ability to flake off in time. So dry corns are formed.

These processes can be rearranged in such a way that a cartilage root is formed under thick layers of outdated cells, which grows deep into the skin tissue. That's what it is core of corn. is he squeezes the skin vessels, interfering with the blood circulation of the skin. The root gradually grows, penetrating deeper and deeper into the tissue, so the removal of ingrown corn becomes problematic: if even a small part of the cone remains in the dermis, the procedure for removing the corn loses meaning, the cartilage will grow again.

Causes of callus formation

Among the causes of internal corns:

  • narrow, or vice versa, too loose shoes, especially with a flat sole, from artificial materials,
  • high heel shoesin which the weight of the body is transferred to the fingers,
  • foreign body (splinter, glass crumb) that gets into the skin as a result of walking barefoot,
  • dermatotropic (selectively acting on the skin) virus, for example, HPV,
  • nail, skin, fungus
  • circulatory disorders in the extremities (in patients with diabetes mellitus, in immunodeficient states).

On hands corns are usually formed due to prolonged friction tools, sports equipment, when working without gloves, infection with papillomavirus and skin fungus.

Corn in a child

In children, ingrown callus, especially in summer, is not uncommon, which is due to the fact that babies have delicate, delicate skin and they are constantly in motion: they hang on their hands, they run around a lot and jump. In this case, the main reason for the appearance of corns on the legs - bad shoesit is therefore important to closely monitor the hygiene of their feet and hands, the condition of their shoes.

Most often ingrown calluses occur. due to improper treatment of water cornswhen the bubble burst, and the mechanical impact continues. At the initial stage, there is a slight tingling, itching, burning sensation, which, with the formation of the rod, turn into dull pain, especially when it comes to walking. It is easy to determine the presence of an internal rod: it is very painful when pressed. A limp appears, wearing shoes becomes torture. In the event of an infection, the callus may fester.

Corns on the little fingers and between the fingers

Formed because of wearing too closeunsuitable in size shoe. As a rule, between the toes, sweating and friction are increased, and the skin is tender, so water calluses easily turn into rod-shaped ones. They manifest themselves with severe pain: the person tries not to step on his fingers, hence the limp and change of gait.

Corns on the fingers and palm

On the fingers and at the top of the back of the palms, the corns are formed due to the frequent friction of the fingers on the pen, sports equipment, garden or work tools. Other factors - skin fungus,papillomavirus, passing from an infected person to a healthy person through a handshake and articles of general use. Corns on the hands are very painful and hinder the implementation of the usual things.

Callus Removal

In order to effectively eliminate the callus, it is necessary to diagnose itby establishing the cause of it. A dermatologist will examine the appearance of the corn, conduct a blood test for glucose, hemoglobin, and antibodies to viruses. Based on the results of the survey, it will give recommendations for removal: if the education is infectious in nature or the corn is old, we can talk only about its hardware removal.

Drilling Method

The procedure is performed by a dermatologist. Preparation consists in disinfecting a skin area with an antiseptic. The device that is used to drill the rod acts according to the drill principle. No anesthesia is applied., because all the unpleasant sensations are limited only by burning of the skin due to increased temperature due to mechanical stress.

Laser removal

Suitable for removing any corns (newly formed or old ones), including infectious ones. The beam of an erbium or carbon dioxide laser penetrates deep into the skin, evaporating liquid only from abnormal cells, without contacting healthy ones. The method is popular because of painlessness, bloodlessness, exclusion of infection, the possibility of use in children and complete guaranteesrod removal in 1-2 procedures. Scar formation is possible only in people prone to the formation of keloid scars,

Cryotherapy

Liquid nitrogen is used for destruction, under the influence of which the corn is dying off. Apply local anesthesia, antiseptic treatment. More suitable for removing normal dry calluses or fresh root.

It is important! Self-removal of ingrown callus, which is caused by the papillomavirus, is dangerous! This can provoke serious complications, up to the development of a malignant tumor!

Pharmaceutical drugs against internal corns

Available in the form of gels, creams, liquids, corn plasters, which are used after steaming corns:

  • Untidily salicylic acid and sulfur ointment for softening fresh corns. A hole the size of a cornhole is cut out in the center of the adhesive plaster and glued to the problem area. Corn smeared with cream and fixed with a second piece of plaster for 1-2 days. If necessary, repeat up to 5 times in a row,
  • Super Antimozolin, cream with lactic acid and urea for layer-by-layer removal of corns, corns and prevention of their formation. Put a thick layer on problem areas, cover with wax paper and put on socks. After two hours, wash off with warm water, removing the softened keratinized layers. Use daily until complete removal of corns,
  • Stop Corn, cosmetic fluid based on lactic acid for the treatment of dry and corns. Use up to 3 times a day, after softening, skin layers are scraped off with pumice stone,
  • Salipod, plaster. Active ingredients - salicylic acid and sulfur, which soften keratinization, so that they can be easily removed by sawing or pumice stone and remove the core.

Care must be taken when using acid-based products - it is harmful to healthy tissue. Removing the rod should only be done with sterile forceps, which should be boiled beforehand or treated with medical alcohol.

Folk remedies

For the fight against core corns are effective:

  • bath with soap and soda, mustard. The components are diluted in hot water and make a foot bath for 30 minutes. For self-removal of the surface rod will need at least 5 procedures
  • vinegar. It is necessary to drop it onto the root of the corn with undiluted vinegar, having previously glued the healthy skin with an adhesive plaster. You can carry out several procedures
  • celandine juice. Pharmacy form or natural fresh plant juice is used in the same way as vinegar,
  • garlic, onion. Fresh gruel is used for applications on corn, fixed with adhesive tape,
  • propolis applied to the corns for several days, securing with a plaster.

After steaming and using pharmaceutical or folk remedies, it is recommended to clean the softened dermis with pumice stone or sawing. Apply emollient creams or ointments, preferably with dexpanthenol (Bepanten) or regular baby cream with the addition of pharmaceutical vitamin A.

Prevention

Corn is easier to prevent than to heal. For this you need:

  • observe hygiene, use emollient creams and foot sweating agents,
  • refuse uncomfortable shoes
  • do not use high-heeled shoes for everyday wear,
  • timely treat water corns, preventing their transition to pivotal,
  • wear gloves to protect hands when working,
  • monitor the condition of the insoles, preventing them from twisting,
  • dry shoes periodically.

Why does a callus appear?

What are the causes of this type of corns? In constant

mechanical pressure, growing into a factor that traumatizes the skin. The increased proliferation of the cells of its outer layer, keratinocytes, as well as the activation of the intercellular space that strengthens the desmosomes, is the answer to the repeated compression effect to which the same area of ​​the skin is exposed.

As a result, the stratum corneum of the epidermis is significantly thickened and compacted, and this thickened area on the skin surface, consisting of dead cells, serves as “protective armor” for deeper tissues. In fact, this process, from a clinical and histological point of view, is hyperkeratosis.

Typically localized are the corns and callosus on the foot - on the cushion of the foot (in the projection of the heads of the metatarsal bones), at the base of the arch of the foot or on the heel. Very often, a corn toe on the toe is formed, especially on the big (from the outer side or plantar side) and a corn toed on the little finger of the foot (from the sole or side), there is a corn from between the toes (along the first phalanges and the sides of the joints).

And the callus on the palm of your hand is the result of occupations (production, sports, etc.) that require repeated use of certain equipment or hand tools that exert physical pressure on the same skin zones.

Risk factors for corns

Determining risk factors, experts, first of all, note the wearing of tight shoes and shoes in very high heels, which increases the pressure on the anatomical structures of the foot. Therefore, according to statistics, in comparison with men, corns in women are formed four times more often.

Other risk factors for both corns and calluses include:

  • flat foot (longitudinal and transverse) or too high arch of the plantar arch,
  • injuries and deformity of the foot, as well as hammer-shaped deformation of the toes,
  • overweight, increasing compression on the feet. For this reason (due to weight gain), a callus may appear during pregnancy, as well as a callus in a child with obesity,
  • curvature of the spine and the associated change in gait with a violation of the redistribution of weight on the foot in the process of movement,
  • insufficient blood supply to the distal extremities,
  • atrophy of plantar adipose tissue, softening the force of pressure on the metatarsal region, tarsus-metatarsal articulation, heads of metatarsal foot bones and heel. Atrophy can be age-related, as well as associated with the shift and deformation of the bones (congenital, traumatic or rheumatic origin) or severe contracture of the toes. By the way, this condition is aggravated by the same narrow shoes with high heels or with very thin soles, as well as walking barefoot on hard surfaces.

Corn structure

What does a callus look like? In appearance, the taped root, or internal corn, is a limited area of ​​a rounded shape with thickened rough skin of a whitish-yellow or gray-brown color. This is a cluster of dead cells - corneocytes, which, thanks to the cohesion (bonding) of ceramides, gradually condense. Over time, in the center of this area, a cone-shaped keratin root of corn does form, penetrating or growing into the horny and malpighian layers of the epidermis, and then into the dermis, causing tissue atrophy. Initially, with palpation, it feels like a hard grain, and with further development in the center of the cornified spot appears a hollow resembling a crater.

Is the corn spill contagious? No, this horny thickening of the skin is not contagious - unlike the plantar warts, the appearance of which is caused by the human papillomavirus.

A hard dry corn is characteristic of the foot cushion area, a solid core callus occurs more often on the outer surface of the little fingers or on the upper surface of other toes, but it can also be between the toes.

With a flat and painless knee, hyperkeratosis is diffuse and uniform in depth, but dermatologists regard its appearance as the first signs of the formation of a solid corns, which can be completely painless. However, as it penetrates deep into the skin, the corn callus hurts when it is pressed.

Consequences and complications

If the corn has become inflamed, it is the result of its infection, which can cause such consequences and complications as ulceration with tissue necrosis and abscess. This is especially dangerous with lower limb thrombophlebitis, peripheral neuropathy and diabetes.

It happens that the corn does bleed and causes a very strong pain (impeding movement), which is an indicator of the germination of the corn core below the papillary layer of the epidermis - to the dermis and its traumatic pressure on the capillary network of the skin, venules, arterioles or glomuses.

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Diagnostics

What doctor should I contact when a corpus callus or plantar wart has formed on the foot?

First of all, it is a doctor-podolog (or podiatr), as well as a dermatologist or orthopedist. As a rule, diagnostics is carried out on the basis of examination of the patient's foot, taking into account the existing symptoms.

Instrumental diagnostics can also be performed using dermatoscopy. And if there are suspicions of deformity of the feet or problems with bone and articular structures, the orthopedist prescribes an x-ray of the foot. He also evaluates her mechanics.

Differential diagnosis should determine exactly what it is: keratoderma, corns or warts (verruca plantaris). And the main difference between the wart and the corn on the sole of the foot is determined by the absence of a skin pattern on the wart and by the dark points on its surface, observed after scraping (which does not happen with dry calluses with a core).

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How to withdraw or how to remove the callus?

How to pull out a callus and is it painful to remove it? It should be borne in mind that from one time this is unlikely to succeed, and all attempts to pick it out with handy sharp objects can end with tissue damage with pain and inflammation.

Podologi, dermatologists and pedicure masters know which remedies for corns do need to be applied. Adequate and rather lengthy processing of corn is necessary. And hot soapy soda baths for the feet should become a mandatory daily procedure. And after steaming the keratinized skin and removing some part of it with ordinary pumice, you can apply:

  • patches,
  • fluids
  • ointments and creams,
  • folk remedies.

In order for the corn plaster from the core of corns to give the necessary keratolytic effect, salicylic acid or urea must be present in its composition.If the corn has not had time to grow deep, two or three times the application of the patch (which is glued for at least a day) can relieve this problem.

So, the patch Salipod softens the cornified skin due to salicylic acid and sulfur. Salicylic acid contains Urgokor plaster, Compid plaster from corns (but Compide intensive should be used).

Antimozol fluids are represented by means of Duofilm (with lactic and salicylic acid) and alkaline solution of Super Cleaner.

Corneal ointments and creams include:

  • 5-10% salicylic and sulfur-salicylic ointment,
  • Unna ointment with resorcin and salicylic acid,
  • Super Antimozolin ointment, Hemosol (with salicylic acid),
  • ointment with lactic and salicylic acids Kerasal,
  • Combined ointment Nemozol for removal of corns and corns (consisting of medical vaseline, paraffin, sulfur and salicylic acid),
  • cream with lactic acid Keratolan,
  • Basalmed cream-balsam, Anti-Mozolin balsam (Krok Honey), etc.

Cryopharm aerosol containing methoxymethane and propane is not used: papillomas and warts are removed with this agent.

How to get rid of corns at home - folk remedies

Popular treatment uses such natural remedies as:

  • lemon juice (a tampon moistened with lemon juice at night is applied on the corn and fixed with an adhesive plaster, long-term treatment),
  • table vinegar (lotions with 9% vinegar - for a week twice a day for 3-4 hours, securing the tampon with adhesive tape),
  • vinegar essence (daily for three days, moisten the surface of the corn and glue with a normal plaster),
  • warm castor oil (compresses on horny skin - twice a day),
  • raw grated garlic - only not pickled garlic in vinegar - is applied to the corn (at night), closed with a napkin, and washed off with warm water in the morning,
  • a mixture of mustard powder with ground turmeric (1: 1) - thick paste is prepared on the water and a compress is made every day (hold for two to three hours).

How to pull out a callus (shallow) with onions? Grate it on a grater, mix it with vinegar (2: 1) and put it on a blister overnight (close the polyethylene film on top). They assure that such procedures for several days contribute to the softening of the rod, and its extraction will be easy and painless.

But it is unlikely that it will be possible to bring out the pivot corn: despite its unique biochemical composition, bee glue does not have a keratolytic effect on dry solid corns, but can relieve inflammation in case of ordinary corns. Herbal therapy involves the use of a paste of powdered dried licorice root (a tablespoon) and mustard oil (half a teaspoon). Apply, as in the above recipes.

Instead of a corn liquid, you can use celandine, more precisely - the juice of this plant, containing citric and malic hydroxy acids, which help reduce the density of dead skin cells. It is enough for 7-8 days every day three times a day to lubricate the corn with celandine juice.

What is a callus

This formation is located in the upper layer of the skin - the epidermis. This layer is a “brick wall”, on which there is a wide layer of cement-like substance on top, and a “roof” on top. "Bricks" are living cells of the skin, they are born in the lower row and, with time, rise to the top, displaced by newborn epithelial cells. As they rise, the nucleus and organelles are lost, the “brick” is transformed into the cement-like substance Eleidin, and then becomes the dead scale of the uppermost layer. This process is called "keratinization." It is also called keratinization by the presence in the last layer of keratin protein - the main substance that first encounters mechanical stimuli, chemical elements and microbes, preventing them from entering the lower layers of the skin.

In normal cells of the lower layer reach the top for 28-72 days. After that, they disappear, and together with them particles of dirt and those substances that the body removes with sweat (ammonia, some medicines and salts) disappear.

But if a certain area of ​​the skin is constantly under pressure, if it constantly rubs against clothes or a special type of virus has settled in it, preventing dead cells from flaking off in time, a dry corn (hyperkeratosis) appears. If keratinization processes are rearranged in such a way that, under a large layer of unshelled cells, a cone of cartilaginous density appears, which by its tip is directed into the deep skin layers, a corn with a stem appears. At the same time, the core squeezes the skin vessels, worsening its nutrition and contributing to the cone growing even more. Remove such a skin defect will not work, simply by removing the layer of dead cells, you need to get rid of the rod.

Corn structure

Causes of formation

As already mentioned, hyperkeratosis most often develops on the legs - in those places that are most susceptible to friction. Corn is caused by:

  • wearing uncomfortable (narrow, flat soles, not “breathing” pressing or too loose) shoes,
  • transferring the entire weight of the body to the toes, which happens when wearing high-heeled shoes,
  • walking barefoot often
  • foreign matter (wood chips, metal shavings, grains of sand, pieces of glass) in the skin, which skin tissue and trying to distinguish from healthy areas,
  • infection with dermatotropic (such, the effect of which is manifested in the skin) virus. Most often it is a human papillomavirus,
  • fungal infection of the fingers, nails.

On the hands of the core corns appear when:

  • frequent or prolonged use of a knife
  • lengthy writing with a pen that a person holds incorrectly
  • frequent work with garden tools,
  • playing sports: hanging on a horizontal bar, playing on rings or parallel bars,
  • foreign body contact,
  • contact with warts, papillomas, resulting in infection with the papillomatous virus,
  • fungal skin lesions of the hands.

Improvement of safety precautions when hand-made without gloves, wearing wide socks or unfixed insoles, which can wrinkle inside the shoe, increase the chance of corn with a rod. The risk group also includes people with impaired blood circulation in the limbs, diabetes or having problems with immunity.

Corn most often appears in the outcome of a wet corn, the so-called "dropsy."

Symptoms of the disease

The fact that a person has developed hyperkeratosis with a rod can be thought of when it becomes uncomfortable to put the foot in a certain position, it hurts. In this case, the pain is not acute, piercing, as in the case of splinters, but dull.

What does a callus look like?

This is a stretch of light skin, with the same skin pattern as the surrounding integument. It has a heterogeneous structure, a shape close to round, and a “hole” in the center. On closer examination, the formation resembles a stopper inserted into the skin, when pressed it is painful and can cause gait disturbance. Unlike warts, it does not bleed even with strong pressure and does not form in one localization in the plural.

  • on the heels
  • on the toe: mainly on the little finger from the outside, and between 1 and 2 fingers, 4 and 5 fingers from the inside,
  • on the palms
  • on the fingers.

Hardware pedicure

This is a method in which “drilling” of a hyperkeratosis area is carried out under visual control. The skin of the foot or hand does not require preliminary softening in the bath; no other preparation is necessary.

After disinfection of corns with a medical antiseptic, the dermatocosmetologist takes a special device, which is essentially a drill, selects the desired milling cutter and proceeds to remove the corns.

The procedure is performed without local anesthesia, as it is painless. The maximum that a patient can feel is a burning sensation resulting from an increase in temperature in the treated tissues. It passes after a couple of seconds after the termination of processing, after which it can be continued again.

Read more about carrying out this manipulation in the article "Features of a medical pedicure."

Laser corns removal

Removal of corns with laser is the optimal treatment method. It is carried out without prior preparation of the patient and is suitable for removing both old formations with a rod, and in the event that a corn has just formed. Ideal for those cases when the corn is a consequence of infection.

Laser therapy is performed by fractional or non-fractional laser. In the first case, the light beam, the task of which is to evaporate the pathological structures, will be fed in separate beams, creating microdamages. A non-fractional laser implies the delivery of a laser beam in one continuous spot. The latter is used more often.

Corn with a rod can be removed with an erbium laser, but more often for this purpose a carbon dioxide plant is chosen to allow the beam to penetrate deep into the skin and evaporate the liquid from the core of the formation. Healthy tissues remain intact.

After the procedure, a dry black-brown crust remains at the site of exposure, which should disappear itself within a week. Independent removal of a scab is fraught with infection of a postoperative wound and the occurrence of subsequent scarring and hyperpigmentation.

Laser removal is an optimal remedy for corns. It has such undoubted advantages:

  1. the procedure is painless and low-impact,
  2. a high-temperature laser beam kills any microbes in the area being treated,
  3. the device can be adjusted so that there is full control over the depth of impact: healthy tissues will not be injured,
  4. high temperature coagulates blood vessels, so the procedure is bloodless,
  5. as a result, a crust is formed, tightly welded to the surrounding tissues, the area under which cannot be infected, unless the crust is removed forcibly,
  6. immediately after the procedure, the wound will be treated with a special local remedy, a waterproof plaster will be applied to it - and the person may return to daily business,
  7. the laser ensures the removal of corns in 1, less often - 2 sessions,
  8. dry corn in this localization will not recur,
  9. scars after removal are formed in rare cases of persons prone to this.

How to remove the corn from the core of the house?

Home treatment is effective only with shallow calluses. To do this, you need a three-step effect, which is repeated every day until complete self-withdrawal of both the corn and its stem:

  1. Steaming in the bath.
  2. Application on the site with a callus means, which will dissolve the connection between the stratified dead cells (keratolytic drug).
  3. Removal of the drug, applying a softening cream.

Stir up your feet in one of the following solutions:

  1. Soap soda. For 5 liters of water with a temperature of about 40 ° C you need 10 teaspoons of soda and 2 tbsp. l grated household soap. The limbs are steamed for about 30 minutes, after which they need to be wiped off and put on top of the ointment from pins: “Super Antimozolin”, “Vitaon”, “Nemozol”
  2. Mustard: 2 tbsp dissolves in 2 liters of hot water. l mustard powder.
  3. Starchy: for the same amount of water you need 3-4 tbsp. l starch.
  4. Salt: you need 4 tbsp. l sea ​​salt.

Wipe your feet, clean your feet with a pumice stone or a metal file, but not a blade.

It uses keratolytic drugs. An excellent tool in terms of price / quality ratio is the Salipod. It is a preparation based on salicylic acid and sulfur, the main task of which is to penetrate deeply and dissolve the bonds between unshelled dead skin cells. In addition, salicylate provides anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Also in the patch contains rosin, which has an additional antiseptic effect, and lanolin with rubber, softening the skin.

Salipod in the form of a medical narrow patch is applied to the skin, after which it is fixed by the usual patch in place. The exposure time is indicated in the instructions. After you feel that hyperkeratosis has softened, his “hat” can be slightly cut with scissors. So act step by step until the whole rod comes out.

At this stage, you can use the following pharmacies:

  • the drug based on salicylic acid "Nemozol"
  • means "Mozolin"
  • plaster on the basis of salicylate "Entsy".

You can apply and folk remedies:

  • celandine juice (or Super Super Celandine pharmacy medicine),
  • a gruel of onion or garlic, which is applied to steamed calluses and fixed with a bandage,
  • “Flat cake” of grated raw potatoes,
  • propolis,
  • cut in half aloe leaf.

After peeling off the softened areas, an emollient is applied to clean and dried skin. This may be an ointment purchased in a pharmacy, containing dexpanthenol (Bepanten, Dexpantin), a household doctor for feet, Oriflame, Faberlic, or others, which are positioned as softening, containing vitamins A , E or D-panthenol. Very effective tool that you can prepare yourself, taking a baby cream and oil vitamin A and mixing them 1: 1. It is applied after each procedure keratolysis conducted at home.

Key features

Corn most often has smooth contours, yellowish color, it is very dense to the touch. When putting pressure on a corn, a person will experience pain.

The distinctive features of such skin growth include:

It will be difficult to get rid of the corns on their own, as it penetrates deep into the skin.

The corn is formed from an old dry corn. Therefore, dermatologists consider it as a late stage of solid corn.

The corn is not filled with liquid.

The corn has always a cone-shaped root, which goes into the deep structures of the dermis.

The pain with pressure on the corn is dull, but rather intense. It arises from the fact that nerve fibers pass between the core of the corns and the bony structures of the legs. Their compression responds with painful sensations.

Corns occur in places of excessive friction of the skin. Therefore, for people of some professions, such skin growths may even be beneficial. They protect normal skin from damage. For example, it concerns guitarists and weightlifters. Formed on their fingers "armor" of horny cells allow them to get rid of the pain and injury of the dermis. However, for the vast majority of the world's population, corn is a problem that they would like to get rid of. Especially when it comes to core skin growths.

Symptoms of Corns

Corn looks like a skin seal that has a yellowish gray or yellow color. It rises above the surface of the skin, but not significantly. By itself, the corn does not hurt. Discomfort occurs when pressure on the corn, for example, while walking, or while working with any tools.

A distinctive feature of corns is the presence of a root that goes into the deep structures of the skin. In the center of the corn is the cap of the rod.

Pain with pressure on the core of the corn resembles the pain that occurs when splinters get under the skin.

With pressure and injury to corns, they do not bleed, which allows them to be distinguished from warts.To see the blood, the wound must be very deep.

Favorite places of localization of such corns are:

Toes: gaps between 1 and 2, or between 4 and 5 fingers, the outer side of the little finger, thumb.

Although the corn is corrosive, under conditions favorable to it, it can form on any part of the skin.

At an early stage of its formation, the corn does appear to be a little discomfort. The affected area may redden, it may itch. As the skin layers thicken, the callus becomes larger in size, hardens more and more, a small hole appears in its center. When the rod expands, the person has pain.

Since the root of the corn provokes the appearance of pain, a person may limp while walking.

Corneal Complications

If the corn is not treated, or try to cut it, but in violation of the rules of antiseptics, then there is the likelihood of infection.

Microorganisms caught in the corn provoke its inflammation. In this case, the skin growth becomes red, swollen, begins to hurt badly.

If time does not turn to the doctor, the corn begins to fester. When pressed on it, pus and exudative fluid can show through from skin cracks.

If the inflammation spreads to the tissues surrounding the callus, then it threatens the development of cellulitis or an abscess. When bone foot is involved in the pathological process, osteomyelitis develops in a person. Also, inflammation can spread to the synovial membranes and articular elements of the foot.

The pain that a person experiences while walking causes him to redistribute the load on the foot. This affects the muscles, joints, nerve fibers, which can lead to tissue deformation. A person's performance deteriorates, his quality of life suffers. Therefore, if the corn does hurt, and even more inflamed, it is necessary to get rid of it.

Corns Treatment

In order to get rid of the corns, it is necessary to remove the cornified layer of the dermis and remove the root. The latter task is particularly difficult if the shaft is deep. Provided that the specialist will remove only part of the root, the plantar callus will form again after some time.

It is imperative to remove the corn in the case when there are the following indications:

While walking a person experiences pain, limps.

The corn was inflamed, swollen and reddened, and pus began to stand out from it.

Corn is the cause of trauma to the surrounding tissue, it becomes covered with cracks and begins to bleed.

Drilling corn

Under the conditions of the pedicure master's office, it is possible to drill core corn with a drill. Such removal of the corn is not accompanied by painful sensations, except for a slight tingling. Therefore, you can do without anesthesia.

Horny skin is removed using special grinding nozzles and cutters having different diameters. In the bed of corn put antiseptic composition and antibacterial ointment. After the procedure, a person may experience some discomfort, but after 2-3 days he will completely pass.

The disadvantages of the procedure include:

If the core of the corn is deep, then get rid of it at once will not succeed.

During the treatment may damage healthy skin. The master must act very carefully and accurately.

Since this method of corn removal is a contact method, there is a chance of infection.

Corn cryodestruction with core

The method of cryodestruction involves the treatment of corn with liquid nitrogen. At the same time, keratinized skin areas are affected by low temperatures (up to -196 ° C). Corn tissue is frozen and completely destroyed. The time of the procedure does not exceed 4 minutes.

After such an impact, the skin becomes white and then a bubble forms on it. This is the so-called cold burn. As a rule, anesthesia during cryolysis is not required, since liquid nitrogen is an analgesic. However, if a person has a high threshold of pain sensitivity, then he may be offered to anesthetize the treatment area using local anesthetics: ointments or sprays with Lidocaine.

Heals the treated area of ​​the dermis for 2 weeks. This is an average tissue repair period. After the crust disappears, there will be no scars or scars on the skin.

Formed after the procedure, the bubble can not be pierced. Also, do not tear the crust. Otherwise, it is possible to infect the wound.

The disadvantages of cryodestruction include:

If the rod is very deep, then it is not always possible to completely destroy it with the help of nitrogen.

With the wrong care of the wound in the recovery period, there is a chance of infection.

The method of cryodestruction does not handle large corns, as the death of large areas of tissue is associated with the risk of complications. In addition, it will increase the period of the recovery period.

Removal of corns with radio wave method

The source of radio waves with which you can remove the corn, is the Surgitron apparatus. The energy emitted by it contributes to the evaporation of moisture from the cornified cells, thereby destroying the corn.

The electrode that produces radio waves does not heat up, so it does not burn the tissues that surround the corn. The procedure is highly accurate.

The radio wave treatment method for corns has a number of advantages, including:

The procedure is painless, so it can be done without anesthesia.

Healthy skin that surrounds the wart is not injured.

The likelihood of bleeding is absent.

During the processing of corn radio waves, all pathogenic flora dies.

The wound tightens very quickly, leaving no scars or scars behind.

Electrocoagulation of corn

Electrocoagulation of the corns involves burning it out with the help of a high frequency current. The protein in the cells folds, so the corn is destroyed. A small crust is formed at the site of exposure of the electrocoagulator, which will disappear on its own in 7-14 days.

This method has not only its advantages, but also disadvantages, among which are:

The cost of the procedure is low, it is ubiquitous.

Corn can be worked to the depth to which it is necessary.

Vessels are cauterized during the procedure, so there is no probability of bleeding.

The risk of infection is minimal.

Cons electrocoagulation of corns:

The procedure requires local anesthesia, as it can cause pain.

During the processing of the corn there is a chance of damage to the surrounding tissue.

If the core lies deep, then a scar may remain after the wound has healed.

It is important to process the corn to a sufficient depth. If this is not done, then it may appear again.

Drug treatment of corns with a rod

It will take a long time to get rid of the corn with the help of drugs. Moreover, the result will not always be positive, as the roots that lie in the depths of the tissues often cannot be removed.

For the treatment of corns apply drugs with keratolytic effect. They loosen horny cells, which are easily removed by mechanical means. Most often in the composition of such drugs contains salicylic acid. Auxiliary components are disinfectants and painkillers.

Before starting treatment, you need to pay attention to the following points:

If applied with acid in the composition to the healthy skin surrounding the callus, this can provoke a burn or severe irritation. Therefore, you need to use such drugs carefully.

It is forbidden to apply preparations for the treatment of corns to the dermis, which has cracks, wounds, cuts or abrasions.

If the product is used for the first time, the body may give an allergic reaction to it.

Patches to get rid of corns

The anti-callus patches that are capable of destroying solid corns include:

Leiko. This patch contains salicylic acid.

Urgo. In addition to salicylic acid, lactic acid is a part of the patch.

Kompid - a plaster from silicone which allows not only to soften a corn, but also to remove from it excess pressure, promoting anesthesia.

Chinese patches based on natural ingredients, for example, plaster Shuyangsuan, Yin Zi, etc.

Dr. Chicarelli on a hydrocolloid basis.

Salipods from Corns

Salipod is an inexpensive patch for the treatment of corns. It contains not only salicylic acid, but also sulfur. The use of the patch allows you to reduce inflammation and pain, and also effectively destroy the cells of dry corn. Strengthen the action of basic substances such components as rosin, lanolin and rubber.

Before applying the patch on the corn, it must be steamed in hot water. Glue the patch on the corn for 2 days, after which it is removed, trimmed the softened areas of the dermis and again cover them with a plaster. To get rid of corns, will require 3-6 procedures.

The patch is not recommended to use without prior medical consultation. Contraindications to its use: pregnancy, severe kidney disease, the presence of ulcers and moles in the area of ​​application.

Appearance and manifestations

Corn has a distinctive appearance. It is a small cornified area of ​​skin of white or grayish color, rounded shape with clear contours. Inside it there is a hollow with a yellowish top (cork) at the end, in which the root or core of the corn is located.

A common place for the localization of corn is the plantar part of the foot, which is exposed to the greatest mechanical stress, namely the area under the fingers, between the first and second toe or near the little finger. It also occurs on protruding fingertips and heels. On the hands of the corn with the core are formed in rare cases, which is associated with the peculiarities of professional activity, constant work with the same tools.

The corn is formed gradually. At first, it does not cause serious discomfort, and a person may not even pay attention to it, but as the root grows deep into the soft tissues of the foot, painful manifestations increase.

Manifestations to which education leads:

  • the deterioration of the skin nutrition in the area of ​​the corns, caused by the compression of the vessels with its stem and contributing to its growth,
  • irritation, inflammation of the skin,
  • tingling sensation
  • dull pains and discomforts with a certain formulation of the foot,
  • problems with full support on the foot and wearing shoes,
  • gait change.

The severity of the painful symptoms depends on how deep the root has grown into soft tissues. On palpation of the affected area there is a feeling that there is a small pebble or other foreign object under the skin.

Causes of

Various adverse factors can provoke the formation of corn. The most common of them are:

  • wearing poor-quality, narrow or unsuitable in size shoes, leading to constant rubbing and squeezing of the skin,
  • frequent wearing of high-heeled shoes, provoking improper distribution of the load on the foot, namely increasing the pressure on the front part,
  • violation of the integrity of the skin of the foot (cuts, scratches, splinters, slivers, splinter or other small foreign body),
  • presence of a fungal or bacterial infection on the skin,
  • flat feet, irregular gait due to chronic problems with the locomotor system,
  • walking barefoot
  • wrong or untimely cured wet corns.

Increased sweating of feet, overweight, and failure to follow basic hygienic rules for foot care can also provoke the development of corn. Her appearance does not depend on age. In the presence of predisposing factors, it can form in both an adult and a child.

Hardware methods

To combat the corn, a number of hardware procedures are successfully used to quickly and reliably remove the core. Among them:

  1. Drilling. Inexpensive method with minimal risk of injury to nearby healthy tissue. The core of the corn is drilled using a special apparatus, equipped with nozzles or cutters of different size, thickness and shape.
  2. The impact of the laser. It is shown in advanced cases when the root of the corn has sprouted quite deep. The essence of the method consists in burning a horny skin with a laser beam with a laser beam. The method is effective for combating all core calluses, regardless of the cause of their occurrence.
  3. Cryodestruction The removal of internal corns occurs under the influence of liquid nitrogen, which destroys keratinized tissue and causes their spontaneous rejection. It is used mainly to remove large corns of corns (up to several centimeters in diameter). Compared to other methods, it is characterized by high risks of damage to healthy tissue, which is associated with difficulties in controlling and adjusting the depth of exposure.

Such procedures are carried out by qualified personnel in specially equipped beauty salons or clinics, take a little time and do not require any prior preparation. After they have been applied, it is recommended to apply anti-inflammatory, healing, antibacterial or antiseptic ointments to the treated areas of the foot, which will help prevent bacterial complications and speedy tissue regeneration.

The duration of the rehabilitation period after hardware techniques is usually up to two weeks. During this time, a crust forms at the site of the former core, which then disappears, leaving healthy skin underneath. Independent removal of the crust is unacceptable, as it can lead to hyperpigmentation, the formation of an ugly scar or infection.

Means of vodka, glycerin and lemon juice

Composition:
Vodka - 1 tsp.
Glycerin - 1 tsp.
Freshly squeezed lemon juice - 1 tsp.

Application:
Mix all specified ingredients. Spread the resulting solution previously steamed corns. Wait until the product dries and apply it again. Repeat at least 3 times. A day later, steam your feet and treat problem areas with pumice. To completely get rid of keratinous skin and core, the procedure will have to be performed several times.

Acetic Essence

In the patch, cut a small piece with a notch for corn and stick it on the problem area. A cotton swab or a piece of bandage is impregnated with undiluted vinegar, applied to the place of the corn and fixed, while the previously pasted adhesive will protect healthy tissue. Leave on for 24 hours, then brush off the softened skin. Repeat the procedure 3-4 times to completely get rid of the corn.

When used for the treatment of corns with vinegar, care must be taken not to accidentally burn healthy skin.

Compress of propolis and fat

Composition:
Propolis solid - 1 tsp.
Lard or pork fat - 10 g

Application:
Propolis and lard are melted together. The resulting mass is allowed to cool slightly and make a small ball out of it, giving it the shape of a pancake, approximately corresponding in size to the corn.Apply to the previously steamed problem area and fix with a plaster. Leave for 12 hours. The most convenient way to carry out this procedure before going to bed at night, and in the morning to remove the compress.

Surgical excision of corns

Scalpel and scissors are very rarely used to remove corns if they cannot be eliminated by other methods. Under local anesthesia, the doctor excised the horny skin, and then the corn rod itself. The wound is filled with antibacterial ointment.

The disadvantages of the procedure include its high invasiveness, the likelihood of infection, the risk of bleeding and a long recovery period with the possible formation of scars and scars.

Predictive corns prognosis

The sooner the treatment is started, the sooner it will be possible to get rid of the corn. At the initial stages of its development, skin growth can be removed with the help of conservative treatment methods. When the corn is old, you will need the help of a professional. If you do not remove the corns, then after a while it will appear again.

Education: Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - “Medicine” in 1991, in 1993 “Occupational diseases”, in 1996 “Therapy”.

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Corn is a protective function of the skin with prolonged and intense friction. Oddly enough, but the corn in some cases, even useful. It is impossible to imagine how the tips of the fingers of a professional guitarist or the palm of a gymnast looked like if there were no corns. Alone wounds, of course, would not have cost.

Corns are often formed on the legs due to prolonged friction of the skin, or due to increased stress on the foot. Externally, they look like skin seals with a thickening in the center. Although corns are not contagious, they are able to deliver both physical and.

Modern rhythm of life requires from people a long stay on their feet. Constant vanity is not reflected in the condition of the lower extremities. Calluses become one of the problems. They appear due to wearing uncomfortable shoes made of hard materials.

Corn is a damaged area of ​​the dermis. Callus appears due to prolonged friction of the skin or excessive pressure on the same area. On the lower limbs, corns are most often formed due to the fact that the person wore uncomfortable or inappropriate footwear.

Corn is a thickening of the skin on the feet. There are corns due to excessive pressure on the foot or its frequent friction. Corns can be dry and wet. Most often, dry calluses with a stem, which represent a coarsened skin area, require removal.

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