Hyperglycemia - symptoms, first aid and treatment


Hyperglycemia is the main symptom of diabetes. It is characterized by a lack of insulin and an increase in blood sugar levels. An insufficient amount of insulin leads to starvation of the body cells, since glucose is poorly absorbed by them. As a result, fatty acids are not fully oxidized, the production and accumulation of ketone bodies (acetone) occurs. It disrupts the natural metabolism in the body, adversely affects the cardiovascular and nervous system. Diabetic acidosis develops, which has three stages: moderately pronounced, precomatose state, coma.

All these conditions are dangerous to humans, they must be identified in time and provide first aid. But for this you should know the main symptoms of hyperglycemia.

In the first stages of the onset of acidosis, the patient complains of weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, noise or ringing in the ears, often there is discomfort or pain in the stomach, thirst, urination becomes frequent, and smells like acetone from the mouth of a person. Blood glucose readings show its concentration close to 19 mmol / l.

Stage of diabetic predkomnogo state: a person is constantly nauseous, vomiting appears, to the general weakness is added deterioration of consciousness and vision. The patient's breath quickens and has a sharp smell of acetone, hands and feet get cold. Precomatosis can last more than a day. If you do not help a person, he will develop a diabetic coma.

It is extremely important to know what actions should be taken for first aid to a person with severe symptoms of hyperglycemia.

The first step is to measure blood sugar. If the indicator is above 14 mmol / l, insulin-dependent patients should be given an injection of insulin and provide them with abundant drinking. Measurements of sugar should be carried out every two hours and insulin injected to normalize the amount of glucose in the blood.

Patients whose blood sugar levels are not reduced should be hospitalized: breathing problems may occur due to acidosis, and an oxygen mask will need to be used.

In order to remove acetone from the body, you should wash the stomach with a solution of sodium bicarbonate (soda).

Insulin-independent people with hyperglycemic complications (precoma) should neutralize the increased acidity of the body. To do this, you need to eat a lot of vegetables and fruits, drink mineral water in large quantities. Also reduce the acidity of ordinary drinking soda, dissolved in water (a couple of teaspoons per glass).

Often with acidosis, the patient may faint. To bring him to his senses, you can use an enema with soda solution. In the precomatose state, the skin of a person becomes dry and rough. It should be rubbed with a wet towel, especially the forehead, wrists, neck, area under the knees.

Must be remembered: a dehydrated body needs to replenish fluid. But if a person has lost consciousness, it is impossible to pour water into his mouth, as he may choke.

To avoid diabetic coma, you need to carefully monitor your own condition, control diet, take time to exercise (do exercises in the morning, walk in the fresh air).

When hyperglycemia is important to follow a diet: give up the sweet and fatty foods rich in carbohydrates. Excess weight is also one of the catalysts for hyperglycemia and one of the causes of diabetes.

If the doctor has prescribed sugar-lowering medications, you need to take them strictly according to the schedule, since a missed dose may cause acidosis. These drugs are designed to produce insulin in the pancreas. They can also interfere with the production of glucose in the blood or help the body use it faster.

Traditional medicine will also be a good helper for hyperglycemia. There are a large number of medicinal plants and products that will help the patient to reduce the concentration of sugar in the blood and regain health.

Education: Diploma RSMU them. N. I. Pirogov, specialty "General Medicine" (2004). Residency at the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, diploma in "Endocrinology" (2006).

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Other pathologies

Such a symptom may occur as a result of other pathological abnormalities of the endocrine system caused by thyroid dysfunction, adrenal glands, pituitary (acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, glucagonom). Due to stress, trauma and diseases of the brain. For a short time, hyperglycemia can cause injury, surgery.

Medication intake

The cause may also be the intake of certain drugs used in particular in cardiovascular, autoimmune, neurological diseases. Hyperglycemia can occur in patients with corticosteroids, octreotide, beta-blockers, epinephrine (adrenaline), tazid diuretics, nacin pentamidine, protease inhibitors, L-asparaginase, and some antipsychotic agents. The use of psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, leads to hyperglycemia, but their long-term use leads to the development of hypoglycemia (low glucose level). Some of the new psychotropic drugs, such as Zirpex (Olanzapine) and Simbalia (duloxetine), can also lead to significant hyperglycemia.

Acute stress

People with acute stress, such as stroke or myocardial infarction, can develop hyperglycemia even in the absence of diabetes, although diabetes can also be diagnosed. Studies of humans and animals show that an increase in blood glucose for such a reason is a bad sign, as it is associated with a high risk of death.

Hyperglycemia is a serious condition that requires medical attention. In order to prevent critical consequences, it is important to recognize a carbon disruption at an early stage.

The main signs of hyperglycemia:

  1. Great thirst and dry mouth. The patient drinks a lot of water, while the thirst can not quench. Typically, the volume of consumed daily fluid of about 5-6 liters, and in severe cases - up to 9-10 liters.
  2. Polyuria (frequent urination). Due to excessive drinking of water, the patient has frequent urges to urinate.
  3. The smell of acetone from the mouth. This is the most characteristic symptom of hypoglycemia. However, this factor may mean other diseases.
  4. General weakness, fatigue, even after a minor exercise, drowsiness, excessive sweating.
  5. Increased appetite, and in the case of an acute condition, on the contrary, a decrease, then even aversion from food.
  6. Weight loss.
  7. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
  8. Blurred vision (clouding).
  9. Dry skin, itching.
  10. Cardiac arrhythmia.
  11. In men, erectile dysfunction.
  12. Tingling in the legs.
  13. Long tightening of cuts and other wounds.

Consequences and complications

Most often, patients with diabetes mellitus of the first type will experience severe hyperglycemia. In diabetes of the second type, an acute increase in blood sugar is also possible, but this is less common and, as a rule, a stroke or myocardial infarction becomes a cause.

ComplicationShort description
PolyuriaFrequent urination. Together with the urine salts are eliminated from the body, which are necessary for the normal maintenance of water-salt balance.
GlycosuriaSugar in the urine (normally it should not be). With an increase in blood glucose, the kidneys are trying to remove the predominant element through the urine. Sugar is only excreted in dissolved form, so the body gives up all free fluid, which leads to general dehydration.
KetoacidosisAccumulation of ketone bodies in the body, as a result of metabolic fatty acids and carbohydrates. This condition is regarded as a precoma.
Ketonuria (acitonuria)Conclusion of ketone bodies with urine.
Ketoacidotic comaRepeated vomiting occurs without relief. Acute abdominal pain, lethargy, apathy, disorientation in time. If the patient is not helped at this stage, then heart failure, breath holding, loss of consciousness, and convulsive syndrome will occur.

Treatment of hyperglycemia requires treatment of the disease itself that causes it. Acute hyperglycemia in most cases can be treated by direct insulin administration. In chronic severe form, oral hypoglycemic therapy is used, in which occasionally you need to drink "diabetes pills."

When a patient is hyperglycemic, an endocrinologist observes. Also, once every 6 months, it is necessary to be examined by a cardiologist, nephrologist, ophthalmologist and neuropathologist.

With elevated sugar to begin with, non-drug therapy is recommended, which consists in following a special diet. Thus, it is necessary to eat as little carbohydrate food (flour and sweet products) as possible. Today, many supermarkets have departments that sell special food for people with diabetes.

Diet with a tendency to manifestations of hyperglycemia implies the mandatory use of cabbage, tomatoes, spinach, green peas, cucumbers, soy. Low-fat cottage cheese, oatmeal, semolina or corn porridge, meat, fish is also recommended. To replenish the vitamin reserve, you can eat sour fruits and citrus fruits.

If the diet does not bring the proper result and the blood sugar is not normalized, then the doctor prescribes drugs that help the pancreas to reproduce the hormone insulin, which is sufficient for the breakdown of sugar.

Applying insulin, you must constantly monitor blood sugar levels. In milder forms of diabetes, the drug is injected under the skin in the morning 30 minutes before eating (dosage is 10-20 U). If the disease is more complicated, then the recommended dose in the morning is 20-30 U, and in the evening, before taking the last portion of food, 10-15 IU. With a complex form of diabetes mellitus, the dosage increases significantly: during the day, the patient must inject three injections of 20-30 U in the abdomen.

Diabetes mellitus, which most often acts as the primary cause of glycemia, is an “inconvenient” disease, because a person becomes dependent on artificial insulin. Also, the patient is faced with various comorbidities that can adversely affect many organs. In order to prevent the development of diabetes, it is necessary to maintain an active lifestyle and monitor their diet. If a direct relative suffers from this disease, then there is a high risk of transmission, therefore, it is recommended for early detection of carbohydrate disorders once every three months to be screened for blood glucose levels. But even though diabetes is not treated today, glycemic control allows you to lead a full life.

The use of medical drugs

If a patient has insulin-dependent diabetes, the introduction of fast-acting insulin under the skin will help reduce the concentration of sugar in the blood. It is important not to be mistaken with the dosage, so that the patient does not have hypoglycemia, which can have no less serious consequences.

Therapeutic measures for the "sugar" coma are aimed at eliminating the lack of insulin, as well as the restoration of water-salt metabolism. The patient should be removed from the coma as soon as possible (no more than 6 hours) in order to avoid irreversible changes in the cerebral cortex, as well as in other vital organs.

In a serious condition, the first recommended dose is 100-200 U of insulin, with half of the dose being injected subcutaneously, and the second half - intravenously. Every 2-3 hours (subject to sugar falling), 30 U is injected. As a result, the daily dose should be approximately 300-600 IU.

If a few hours after the first “shock” injection, the glucose concentration has decreased by no more than 25%, then half of the initial dose (50-100 IU) is administered.

Additional methods

Many experts recommend soda treatment at high blood glucose levels, before the drug based on bicarbonate was even administered intravenously. You can prepare a solution for drinking - two teaspoons diluted in a glass of warm water. In severe cases, doing a gastric lavage, as well as a cleansing enema (0.5 tablespoons of soda per liter of water). This helps to balance the acid-base balance.

To neutralize the acidity in the body, the patient must offer to eat fruits and fresh vegetables. You should also give plenty of drink, necessarily including mineral water with the addition of natural salts, such as carbonate, sodium, potassium (Borjomi, Narzan, Essentuki).

Low deviations from the norm can be normalized through exercise. For dry skin, wiping with a wet towel is recommended.

If the measures taken did not give a result, the patient feels bad, faints, then it is necessary to call for urgent help.

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia is a technical term, as well as a symptom that indicates an increase in blood glucose levels above the upper limit of normal, which is an empty stomach of 3.4–5.5 mmol / l (60–99 mg / dl). The danger is that often the symptoms can go unnoticed or ignored, sometimes they begin to appear already at a level of 15-20 mmol / l, while damage to organs begins after 7 mmol / l.

You can meet other numbers. For example, according to the book "Clinical Diabetology" (1998) referred to by the Russian-language Wikipedia, hyperglycemia is conventionally divided into three types (in parentheses glucose indicator):

  • light - 6.7-8.3 mmol / l,
  • moderate - 8.4-11 mmol / l,
  • heavy - 11-16 mmol / l.

It also indicates the state of precoma (16.5 mmol / l and more) and coma (55 mmol / l or more).

The American Diabetic Association for hyperglycemia takes the level of glucose in the blood from 5.6 and -7 mmol / L (100-126 mg / dL), above which diabetes is usually diagnosed. Prolonged excess of 7 mmol / l can cause damage to the tissues of organs.

The word "hyperglycemia" itself comes from Greek: έπέρ - the prefix "hyper", γλυκός glycos - "sweet wine" or "must", αἷμα Haima - "blood", ία, -εια -ia - the suffix for feminine abstract nouns.

Classification

Increased blood sugar levels can occur for various reasons. But in any case, it should be understood that such a state is very dangerous and requires immediate adjustment.

This pathology is classified according to etiological factors into the following types of hyperglycemia:

  1. Chronic hyperglycemia. It can develop as a result of hereditary factors, as well as due to acquired diseases of the pancreas. Pathology of this species occurs in type 1 diabetes mellitus, a characteristic feature of which is low insulin levels, or in type 2 diabetes mellitus, when insulin is produced in sufficient quantities, but does not properly interact with cells.
  2. Alimentary hyperglycemia. It occurs after eating. This form does not apply to pathological conditions and develops against the background of the intake of large amounts of carbohydrates. In this case, hyperglycemia does not require adjustment or treatment, since the level of sugar within a short period of time is reduced independently to acceptable values.
  3. Emotional or stressful hyperglycemia.This pathology manifests itself as a reaction to psycho-emotional shock. Violations are associated with the fact that, against the background of psychoemotional stress in the human body, hormones begin to be produced, which stop the process of glycogenesis, which ensures the conversion of glucose into glycogen. On the other hand, the processes of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis associated with the breakdown of glycogen into glucose are intensifying. Due to this imbalance, the blood sugar level rises.
  4. Hormonal hyperglycemia. Pathology develops on the background of hormonal disorders. Hyperglycemic hormones, such as glucocorticoids, catecholamines, glucagon, increase blood sugar levels. Failure in the hormonal system occurs against the background of some diseases of the endocrine system.

Hyperglycemic syndrome is divided by degrees of severity:

  • The mild form develops when the level of sugar in the blood is not higher than 10 mmol / l.
  • The moderate form is diagnosed with blood glucose values ​​of 10–16 mmol / l.
  • The severe form is characterized by a sharp rise in the level of glucose in the blood, above 16 mmol / l.
  • When the glucose indicator exceeds the value of 16.5 mmol / l, it threatens with the development of precoma and even the fact that a person can fall into a state of coma.

For people with diabetes, hyperglycemic syndrome is classified into the following two types:

  • Hyperglycemia on an empty stomach. In this case, the level of glucose in the blood increases to 7 mmol / l, when the interval between meals is more than 8 hours. This form is also known as thin-tooth hyperglycemia.
  • Postprandial hyperglycemia. In this case, the level of glucose in the blood exceeds 10 mmol / l immediately after eating.

Causes

Hyperglycemic state develops under the influence of the following factors:

  • propensity to overeating,
  • unbalanced diet with a predominance of foods high in carbohydrates,
  • prolonged stress and anxiety,
  • lack of vitamin B1 and C,
  • gestation period
  • injuries with significant blood loss
  • adrenaline flow into the blood as a result of intense pain,
  • adrenal dysfunction,
  • chronic or infectious diseases
  • low or excessive exercise.

Chronic diseases of the endocrine system also contribute to an increase in blood sugar. Against the background of diabetes, pathological changes occur in the pancreatic cells, resulting in a decrease in the amount of insulin produced.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus causes cells to lose insulin sensitivity and the hormone cannot neutralize excess glucose.

A dangerous symptom can also occur in diseases such as:

  • Cushing's syndrome
  • severe liver and kidney disease
  • inflammatory processes in the pancreas,
  • malignant neoplasms in the pancreas,
  • thyrotoxicosis,
  • stroke,
  • injuries and surgeries.

If symptoms of hyperglycemia are detected on time, this will help avoid the development of severe consequences. Constant thirst is the first sign that must attract attention. When the sugar level rises, the person constantly wants to drink. At the same time he can drink per day up to 6 liters of fluid.

As a result, the number of daily urination increases several times. Rising to 10 mmol / l and above, glucose is excreted in the urine, so the technician will immediately find it in the analyzes of the patient.

But besides a large amount of fluid from the body, a lot of useful salt ions are excreted. This, in turn, is fraught with:

  • constant, with nothing connected fatigue and weakness,
  • dry mouth
  • prolonged headaches
  • severe itching
  • significant weight loss (up to several kilograms),
  • fainting
  • chilliness of hands and feet,
  • decrease in the sensitivity of the skin,
  • deterioration of visual acuity.

In addition, there may be alternating disorders of the digestive system, such as diarrhea and constipation.

If during the process of hyperglycemia large accumulations of ketone bodies occur in the body, diabetic ketoacidosis and ketonuria occur. Both of these conditions can cause ketoacid coma.

Diagnostics

There are various types of blood tests to determine hyperglycemia. These include:

  1. Random blood glucose level: this analysis shows the blood sugar level at a given point in time. Normal values ​​are usually from 70 to 125 mg / dl, as already mentioned.
  2. Fasting sugar level: determining the level of blood glucose in the morning before eating and drinking. A normal fasting glucose level is less than 100 mg / dL. If the level of 100-125 mg / dl can be assumed prediabetes, and 126 mg / dl and above - is already regarded as diabetes.
  3. Oral glucose tolerance test: a test that determines the level of glucose in the blood several times during a certain time after drinking sugar. Most often used to diagnose gestational diabetes.
  4. Glycosylated hemoglobin: this is a measurement of glucose associated with red blood cells, an indicator of glucose levels in the last 2-3 months.

Help with hyperglycemia

Diabetes mellitus, and, as a result, hyperglycemia, is spreading around the world at an incredible speed, it is even called a pandemic of the 21st century. That is why it is necessary to know how to properly and effectively assist with hyperglycemia. So, in the case of an attack:

  1. To neutralize the increased acidity in the stomach, you need to eat a lot of fruits and vegetables, drink large quantities of alkaline mineral water with sodium, calcium, but absolutely not give chlorine-containing mineral water. A solution of 1-2 teaspoons of soda per glass of water orally or enema will help.
  2. In order to remove acetone from the body, it is necessary to wash the stomach with a solution of soda,
  3. Constantly wipe the skin with a wet towel, especially in the wrists, under the knees, neck and forehead. The body is dehydrated, and it needs fluid replenishment,
  4. Insulin-dependent patients should measure sugar, and if this indicator is higher than 14 mmol / l, immediately make an insulin injection and ensure abundant drinking. Then carry out such a measurement every two hours and make insulin injections to normalize blood sugar.

Having received first aid for hyperglycemia, the patient for any outcome should contact the medical institution, make a set of tests and get personal treatment.

Complications and possible consequences

Hyperglycemia is a disease that always leaves consequences. They are especially dangerous for patients with diabetes. With the development of this pathology, all systems in the body are weakened, because of which the consequences become more serious. Long-term neglect of hyperglycemia leads to the development of heart failure, stroke, thrombosis, heart attack, ischemia and other serious diseases.

The complications of hyperglycemia are as follows:

  1. Polyuria - kidney damage, in which there is a strong outflow of urine. Because of this, the concentration of electrolytes in the body decreases, which violates the water-salt balance.
  2. Glucosuria is a phenomenon in which a certain amount of glucose enters the blood. It adversely affects the kidneys.
  3. Ketoacidosis is a phenomenon in which ketone bodies appear in the body. They enter the urine and blood.
  4. Ketonuria is a condition in which ketone bodies are eliminated from the body through urine.
  5. Ketoacidotic coma is a pathological condition of the body caused by a serious jump in the level of ketone bodies in the body. You can recognize it by vomiting, abdominal pain, fever. May lead to breathlessness, convulsions, loss of consciousness and heart failure.

What diet should be followed?

Diet is one of the components of the treatment of hyperglucose. The basis of the diet is to limit the consumption of carbohydrates and high-calorie foods, daily accounting of their quantity. The diet excludes potatoes, spaghetti, white bread, muffin, rice porridge should not be abused. It is forbidden to consume sugar, honey, jam, confectionery. Sweets are allowed only before the upcoming exercise. When the body requires sweets, the introduction of glucose as a sweetener is recommended.

The diet should include dietary meat, fish. It is important to introduce carbohydrates in the form of vegetables. The daily diet may consist of the following products:

  • black bread - 240 g,
  • vegetable or cream oil - 15 g,
  • apples or carrots - 200 g,
  • croup - 100 g,
  • milk - 300 g,
  • egg - 2 pieces,
  • cheese - 20 g,
  • baked or boiled meat or fish.

Folk remedies

Following all the recommendations of the doctor, you can additionally refer to the means of traditional medicine. Some medicinal plants contain insulin-like alkaloids and are able to lower the concentration of glucose:

  1. A spoonful of chopped dandelion root insist 30 minutes in 1 tbsp. boiling water and drink 50 ml 4 times a day. Very useful salad of dandelion leaves and greens. Leaves soak in water beforehand. Dress the salad with sour cream or butter.
  2. Topinambur tubers boil 15 minutes and drink the broth in the form of heat.
  3. Boil a glass of oat grains for 60 minutes in a liter of boiling water, cool and drink without restrictions.
  4. 10 leaves of laurel insist during the day in 250 ml of boiled water. Drink warm 50 ml before meals for 7 days.
  5. Effectively reduces fresh blueberry sugar. You can use her leaves. Boil the leaves with boiling water, infuse for two hours and drink 250 ml three times a day for six months.

An effective means can be decoctions of burdock root, bean pods, juniper and eucalyptus. But before using any means you should consult with your doctor.

What to do for prevention?

To prevent hyperglycemia, diabetics must adhere to medical recommendations - do not forget to take medications, add moderate but regular physical activity to their lives, restructure their meals so that carbohydrates can be ingested in limited quantities and at regular intervals.

If, under the observance of these conditions, hyperglycemia has occurred several times in a row, a doctor should be visited to adjust therapy. Consultations of the endocrinologist are also necessary in the case of planned surgical interventions, severe infections, extensive inflammations, and pregnancy.

Preventing the onset of hyperglycemia for healthy people consists in physical exertion without strong tension, avoiding stress, maintaining weight in a normal, healthy diet. It would not be superfluous to exclude fast rises in blood glucose, for this you need to eat sweets a little during the day, and not a one-time large portion.

Etiology of the condition

The normal range of glucose concentrations in the bloodstream is 3.3-5.5 mmol / l. Insulin hormone secreted by the pancreas is responsible for the normalization of blood sugar concentration. When the level of insulin in the blood falls due to the insufficiency of the gland, the glucose concentration can reach 7 mmol / l and higher. This condition is called hyperglycemia.

Hyperglycemia can be short-term or long-lasting - and both of them are dangerous to a person’s life and require immediate medical attention. In this case, you need to provide assistance to the person and call emergency medical assistance.

Causes of disease

A decrease in the level of insulin in the blood and an increase in the concentration of glucose is the direct cause of hyperglycemia. Such a sharp jump can be triggered by the following reasons:

  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Intoxication of the body,
  • Severe pain, which provokes the release of adrenaline and thyroxine, which is especially dangerous for patients with thyrotoxicosis,
  • Being pregnant
  • Strong emotional shock
  • Blood loss
  • Hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex,
  • Hypovitaminosis, especially when there is a shortage of ascorbic acid and B vitamins.

The main reason remains a sharp fluctuation in hormonal levels and failure of the endocrine-nervous regulation, which is responsible for carbohydrate metabolism. The condition is normalized by the introduction of the missing hormone into the blood.

Hormonal hyperglycemia

The disease develops against the background of an increase in the concentration of certain hormones in the blood in case of a disease of the organs of the endocrine system. Not only insulin, but also hormones such as glucagon, catecholamines, glucocorticoids and T3, T4 - thyroid-stimulating hormones of the thyroid gland can affect the blood glucose level.

Catecholamines, which increase the level of sugar, include adrenaline and norepinephrine, released into the blood during stress and severe pain syndrome. That is why, with emotional upheaval, glucose levels increase dramatically.

Thyroid-stimulating hormones are produced in excess in thyrotoxicosis or thyroid nodal diseases, and it is believed that this is a purely female disease.

Emotional

Stress and a surge of emotion cause adrenaline to be released into the bloodstream. The work of the hormone is to expand the pupils, increase blood pressure, activate intestinal motility and muscle fibers work. Since the work of the muscles requires glucose, the sympathetic and thyroid systems of the body are connected, aimed at increasing the concentration of sugar in the blood and its transport to the muscle fibers.

Alimentary

By eating large amounts of carbohydrates, the level of glucose in the blood increases within an hour after the meal. In the normal state of a healthy body, this level is reduced by insulin release. If a person is sick with diabetes, then not only is the adjustment of the glucose level after a meal and insulin injection, but also the adjustment of nutrition, which should be excluded:

  • Bakery products,
  • Confectionery products
  • Sugar, honey,
  • Pasta,
  • Potatoes,
  • Bananas.

This minimal list of high-carb foods can be added to by the attending endocrinologist.

Chronic

This form of the disease develops on the background of type 2 diabetes. The decrease in insulin production in the blood is the first reason for the development of this condition. The reason for the decrease are either hereditary factors or damage to the pancreatic cells.

Chronic form can be toscal and postprandial. The first develops when the patient is fasting for eight hours or longer. The second, on the contrary, appears after eating, regardless of the quality content of the meal.

Chronic form can be severe, moderate and mild. Light is characterized by a sugar concentration in the range of 6.7-8.1 mmol / l. The average characterizes the concentration of glucose in the range of 8.3-11 mmol / l. Severe hyperglycemia develops at 11.1 mmol / l and above, threatening hyperglycemic coma and death.

For first aid it is necessary, first of all, to recognize the increase in blood glucose. If there is a blood glucose meter for this, assistance will be most accurate. In the absence of a home glucometer, you should focus on the following symptoms:

  • Emotional incontinence, irritability,
  • Severe thirst - up to 3-5 liters per day,
  • Chills, fever, numb lips,
  • Strong appetite, feeling of hunger,
  • Cutting headache
  • Increased sweating and salivation,
  • Absent concentration
  • Severe fatigue
  • Dry, flaky skin,
  • The smell of acetone when breathing,
  • Frequent urge to empty the bladder.

The scent of acetone, frequent urination, and thirst are the surest signs of high sugar. Acetone is formed by the breakdown of fat cells, which the body uses to power other cells of the body instead of glucose.

It would seem that even glucose is too much to feed the cells, but the latter use glucose only after splitting it with insulin. Sugar circulating in the blood is unsuitable for nutrition, because cells use lipids, the cleavage of which produces ketones and acetone in particular.

Thirst is caused by a violation of water-salt metabolism and frequent urination - as the body tries to get rid of excess glucose, removing it with urine.

Pediatric hyperglycemia

In children, the concentration ranges at which hyperglycemia can be diagnosed are somewhat different. Elevated values ​​are in the range 5.5-6.5 mmol / l. In some cases, children tolerate hyperglycemia asymptomatically, but this does not mean that the asymptomatic course does not give complications.

Most often, an increase in blood glucose in older children and infants develops against the background of postponed sepsis, meningitis, encephalitis, and other serious diseases. If the child has suffered them, and hyperglycemia has been diagnosed earlier, you need to have a blood glucose meter at home to monitor your blood glucose every day and avoid dangerous conditions.

Also elevated sugar worries children who were born with a weight of less than 1.5 kg or premature. The danger of the disease lies in the fact that its asymptomatic course leads to complications even more severe than in adult patients. For children, it threatens to damage brain cells, swelling and hemorrhage.

Symptoms can manifest themselves in tearfulness, thirst, food demand, insomnia, moodiness, sweat on the skin, increased saliva secretion. When such symptoms are detected, it is necessary to check blood sugar and immediately call an ambulance, while wiping the child’s body with a wet towel and using water.

Causes of hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemic state may be short-lived and long-lasting.

The cause of the temporary are:

  • overeating and excessive consumption of carbohydrates,
  • severe stress
  • severe pain, during which an increased amount of the hormone adrenaline and thyroxin is released,
  • carbon monoxide poisoning
  • pregnancy,
  • severe bleeding
  • lack of vitamin B1 and C,
  • hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and steroid diabetes.

Taking certain medications, in particular, some antidepressants, beta-blockers, diuretics, corticosteroids, niacin, phentamidine, and others, increases the risk of developing a hyperglycemic state.

Long-term hyperglycemia causes disruptions in the endocrine system and carbohydrate metabolism.

There are 2 types of hyperglycemia: arising on an empty stomach, when a person has not eaten more than 8 hours, and postprandial, in which the glucose level rises to 10 mmol / l after a meal.

Prevention and Diet

As you understood from the reasons that lead to the development of hyperglycemia, it is necessary first of all to exclude them.

Patients with diabetes need to take glucose-lowering drugs regularly and on time. Missed medication can lead to acidosis, medications are necessary for insulin production by the pancreas and to help the body process glucose.

The primary task of prevention is to establish their own nutrition. It is necessary to exclude from the diet all sweet, flour, potatoes, bread, rice, beans, raisins. Instead of sugar, use sweeteners.

For better digestion of fats, flavor with spices. It is useful to use onions, garlic, spinach, cauliflower, Beijing and white cabbage, broccoli, celery. Dietitians recommend drinking beetroot juice daily for a quarter cup 3-4 times a day. Instead of coffee, drink chicory, and add chicory leaves to salads.

More on nutrition in diabetes, I wrote in this article, read.

You should get rid of bad habits, such as alcohol and smoking. Move more, try to reduce your weight - in fact, patients with diabetes mellitus often suffer from increased weight.

Treatment of hyperglycemia folk remedies

Did you know that patients with diabetes should laugh more: they say that laughter contributes to a decrease in blood sugar.

Plants containing insulin-like and other hormonal substances:

  • decoction of elecampane
  • infusion of meadow clover (red),
  • infusion of nettle,
  • decoction of burdock root,
  • Radish juice contains a large percentage of insulin, therefore, when it is k = consumed, the blood sugar level decreases (it cannot be used for problems with the stomach and heart).

And these plants regulate metabolism in diabetes mellitus:

  • St. John's wort herb infusion - drink a third of a glass after each meal,
  • decoction of the shoots and leaves of blueberry - drink a tablespoon 3 times a day,
  • an infusion of dried blackberry leaves - 200 ml of infusion drink during the day in 3 divided doses,
  • dry flax seeds are consumed in the morning and evening, squeezed with milk or water or make a cold infusion (seeds are poured with cold water, left for 3 hours, stirring occasionally. Use for the night.
  • blueberries, strawberries, blueberries, blackberries are added to the dishes.

Instead of coffee, use a drink with chicory.

How to properly prepare infusions of these plants, follow the links, and there you will find the necessary information.



Dear readers, this information about hyperglycemia, its symptoms, is necessary not only for the patients themselves, but also for the closest relatives. Knowing the symptoms, you can quickly and, most importantly, in time to help a loved one.

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Watch the video: What is hypoglycemia? - DiaBiteSize (December 2019).

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