Is therapeutic gymnastics useful for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis?

Proper breathing in the treatment of tuberculosis is very important, as in the treatment of any other disease. At first glance, it may seem strange to an ordinary person that along with food and all the rest, it is possible to replenish the body’s powers with the help of a special breathing technique. These are exercises from yoga based on concentration of consciousness, deep breaths and full exhalations.

During proper deep and concentrated breathing, the flow of vital energy into the lungs (prana) increases. Having accumulated the required amount of energy, with the help of will power, this energy can be redirected to the desired part of the body and, thus, begin healing. The main storage of energy in the human body is the solar plexus, it is involved in most of the health breathing exercises.

How to breathe correctly?

Inhale as slowly as possible. Breath start with the abdomen. When the stomach is already full, inhale the middle ribs. And then you need to exhale as sharply as possible with the stomach and inhale by the breast, as if redirecting air from the stomach to the lungs. These are not three separate movements, as it may seem at first glance, but one complete yoga breathing. In fact, this is how a person should breathe constantly.

Now that you have filled the air, hold your breath for exactly half the time during which you breathed. That is, if you breathed in for eight seconds, then the delay should be four seconds. To hold your breath after a very deep breath is necessary in order to avoid hyperventilation of the lungs! After also exhale slowly.

Duration Those who have just begun to practice breathing exercises should take 10 breaths in each session. If you already have the practice of breathing exercises, the number of breaths in and out in your cycle can be increased to 32 or even more.

Deep breathing technique

Accept the position most comfortable for you, sitting or standing, the main thing is to keep your feet closed and relax. Start breathing deeply and rhythmically, imagining in your mind how the energy that enters the body when inhaled enters the solar plexus. Ask yourself something like a program: while inhaling, send prana to the solar plexus area, and as you exhale - to the places you need in your body, or when you exhale, imagine how you throw away all that is harmful and unnecessary from your body.

Also imagine how, when you inhale from the bottom up, there are waves of energy through you, and on the exhale - on the contrary, from the top down. You can help yourself with your hands and close your eyes for better concentration.

Feelings: Most likely, you will hardly feel anything except a surge of strength and vigor. However, physical sensations in the form of goosebumps throughout the body, warmth, chill, or mild dizziness are also likely.

Effect: The main beneficial result will be a surge of vitality and good mood. Fatigue and pain will disappear, working capacity will increase and active recovery from tuberculosis will begin.

Expert Editor: Pavel Alexandrovich Mochalov | D.M.N. general practitioner

Education: Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - “Medicine” in 1991, in 1993 “Occupational diseases”, in 1996 “Therapy”.

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Features of the disease

With tuberculosis, however, as with other diseases of the respiratory system, respiratory function is impaired. The inhale-exhale function changes, resulting in shallow breathing. Due to this, the ventilation and pulmonary gas exchange are disturbed. Because of this, the partial pressure, which must be in the lungs at a certain value, falls. There is not enough oxygen in the blood. Then oxygen deficiency develops.

Also contribute to this:

  • sedentary lifestyle,
  • insufficient sputum discharge,
  • weakened movement of the diaphragm,
  • poor lung muscle performance.

In the end, arterial hypoxemia can be expected. This term is called limiting the flow of oxygen into the blood. To avoid this, and need physical therapy for tuberculosis. Thanks to specially selected exercises, breathing becomes normal, blood flow improves.

At rest, a person uses only 25% of the lungs. The main task of exercise therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis is to establish the function of inhalation and exhalation, to improve the discharge of sputum.

Breathing depends on the position of the body. For example, in a horizontal position on the back, exhalation is difficult, and when inhaling, the volume of the lungs is equal to inhaled air. When a person is lying on his stomach, the lower ribs move, on the side the free side of the chest moves, and the other remains fixed. If a person is sitting, his lower side breathing is connected. And if you raise your hands up or behind your head, the lower part of the chest is activated. If you put your hands on your belt, your upper breathing will increase.

All this should be considered in the preparation of complex exercise therapy. The combination of respiratory gymnastics with tuberculosis, along with special physical exercises will help speedy recovery of the patient. At the same time ventilation of the lungs will improve, formation of pus and mucous traffic jams will decrease.

Before that, you should consult with a specialist and make a plan of physical and breathing exercises. All this should be combined with the use of drugs prescribed by the doctor.

The goals of physical therapy for this disease are:

  • increase immunity
  • normalization of the breathing process,
  • prevention of dysfunction of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

Exercises and rules for their implementation

Therapeutic gymnastics has the following contraindications:

  • arterial hypertension,
  • bleeding or the risk of their occurrence,
  • the risk of blood clots or their presence,
  • malignant neoplasms,
  • increased body temperature.
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Approximate set of exercises

It has already been said that the order of the exercises should be agreed with the doctor. But we will give examples of some exercises for this disease:

  1. Stand up straight. Put the right hand on the chest, the left - on the stomach. The legs are a little apart. Taking a breath, turn the shoulders around, bend back a little and inflate the stomach. While exhaling, inhale the stomach and bend forward a little. Perform a quiet pace 7 times.
  2. Standing straight, hands put on the bottom of the chest. Taking a breath, try to stretch the ribs to the sides. Making the exhale, on the contrary, squeeze the chest slightly with his hands and bend slightly. Exhale to do a longer breath. Repeat 5 times.
  3. Standing, arms bent, elbows apart. Inhale - raise your arms up, bend over. Exhale - lower your arms and press to the body. Do it at a leisurely pace 7 times.
  4. Sitting on the edge of a chair, hands put on the waist. Inhale During exhalation, turn the body, spreading his arms to the sides. Taking a breath, return to the original position. Repeat the same with a turn in the other direction. As you exhale, fold your lips. Repeat 7 times.
  5. In the same position. Legs apart. Inhale On the exhale, retracting the stomach, bend the leg at the knee and pull it up to the stomach. Taking a breath, return to the starting position. Do the same with the other leg.
  6. Stand straight, take a glass of water in your right hand. In the left - the tube. Put it in a glass. Inhale. Exhale the air should be in a tube. Repeat 7 times with a gap of half a minute to normalize breathing.
  7. Take a paper sheet in your right hand. Bring it to face. Inhale. Then fold the lips with a tube and exhale on the sheet. Do 4 times with a 20-second gap.
  8. Standing, put your hands on your belt. Inhale, then exhale, bend over and touch the socks with your fingers. Straighten - breath.
  9. Walk around. In 3 steps, inhale, 5-6 steps - exhale.
  10. Sit on a chair. Bend and straighten the fingers. Then rotate the brushes. Then completely relax your hands.
  11. Perform sitting deeply inhaling / exhaling the diaphragm.
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The necessary conditions

Movement is life. But, nevertheless, caution should be exercised with such a serious disease. All types of physiotherapy are performed only outside the acute phase.

Patients in strict bed rest are allowed to perform breathing exercises only in the prone position.

For example, inhaling to draw the belly in as much as possible, on the inhale to relax. Repeat several times, as you exhale, folding your lips with a straw. Then roll over to a healthy side, inhaling, raise your hand up, exhale, lower it, pressing it to your chest, slightly squeezing your chest. After that, it is recommended to massage the back, rubbing the arms and legs for 15 minutes.

If the mode is half-sleeping, exercises of medium difficulty can be started on about the 7th day. At this time, the goals of exercise therapy:

  • adjust breathing functions
  • get sputum out
  • eliminate respiratory failure
  • to establish the activity of the cardiovascular system
  • improve overall body tone.

Positions to do the exercises: lying on your back, on your side and sitting.

Around the 12th day of treatment, you can begin to exercise, described in more detail above. It is better to do the complex twice a day. At the same time it is necessary to control blood pressure and pulse. If the pulse rate is increased by 15 beats and higher, the load must be reduced.

The same goes for blood pressure. If the figures are more than 15 mm higher than before the exercise, the load should be reduced.

Exercises should be carried out in a pre-ventilated room. Contrasting shower is useful for convalescent patients.

Occupational therapy is also used in sanatoriums. In this case, a person should not overwork. The nature of the work should be feasible and regular.

The essence of the problem

Symptoms of pathology at the earliest stage practically do not appear. An infected person does not look sick and practically does not notice changes in his state of health. Much later, signs such as: weakness, drowsiness, constant sweating and an increase in body temperature to 37-37.5 ° C appear. In addition, the patient begins to lose weight dramatically, his appetite decreases, and his performance deteriorates. This happens because the causative agent of the disease, penetrating into the human body, depending on the state of its defenses and immunity, either dies, is isolated from the tissues by a sufficiently dense capsule, or, on the contrary, is activated and distributed throughout all organs with blood flow. As a result, the whole body is poisoned by the decay products of a pathogenic microorganism and specific symptoms inherent in this disease appear: sudden weight loss (up to 10 kg), weakness and sweating, especially at night, lack of appetite and a significant decrease in efficiency.

With the development of the disease, the patient appears dry, irritating cough, chest pain and hemoptysis. The disease can sometimes take a wavy character: periods of sharp exacerbation and deterioration alternate with the relatively calm course of the disease.

If a person asks how to determine tuberculosis at home, the answer is unequivocal - it is almost impossible to do so. Special methods of research are used to diagnose pathology - chest x-ray and intradermal tests (Mantoux test). In the case of positive results, the patient is assigned an additional examination.

As a rule, adults and children often undergo standard medical examinations. With this approach, it is possible to determine the development of the disease even at an early stage of development, i.e., the question of how to be tested for tuberculosis disappears by itself.

And yet, with the appearance of even minor symptoms of pathology, you should consult a doctor, because not only his life, but also the well-being and health of others depend on the patient's consciousness. If the definition of the diagnosis confirmed the presence of pathology, you should not think about whether it is possible to treat tuberculosis. The key to successful treatment and recovery is early diagnosis and compliance with all doctor's instructions.

Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in unconventional ways

Most often, such an insidious and rather dangerous disease is treated with special medicinal drugs, but folk recipes are a good help with mandatory therapy. In medicine, there are examples when nontraditional medicine managed to cope with the disease even in very difficult and serious cases, when official medicine completely abandoned the patient. Consider how and how to treat tuberculosis at home.

Previously, tuberculosis was practically not treated, since only folk remedies can hardly be called adequate therapy today. Up to 20 in. the disease was popularly called consumption, which was considered very contagious. In addition, the pathology was almost incurable. Only in 1919 the first vaccine (strain) was created, with the help of which it was possible to significantly reduce infection and mortality in tuberculosis of the lungs. Since the mid 1930s. tuberculosis vaccination has become a mandatory procedure to prevent the development of the disease. Such prevention has passed the test of time.

Home treatment of tuberculosis is carried out with the use of certain products of animal and vegetable origin. The choice of a particular raw material is carried out taking into account the body's response to it: an allergic reaction may occur to a person who is weakened by the disease, which significantly complicates treatment and recovery. The use of any methods of treatment and the use of unconventional methods must necessarily be under the control of the attending pulmonologist.

Use of animal products

For the treatment of the disease, cow milk, chicken eggs, bear, badger or dog fat have been used for a long time. Naturally, before using all products must undergo laboratory testing to eliminate the risk of developing new diseases, which only aggravate the situation.

Few people know about how to cure tuberculosis with fat, although this tool has been used for a very long time. Any fat (badger, dog or bear) is used for both external and internal use. You can rub the chest and back of the patient, especially at night, and you can take it inside: you can even mix the fat with honey. Since honey and fat contain a lot of macro and micronutrients, organic acids and vitamins, which have anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects. When this is activated, the protective system of the human body, which significantly speeds up recovery and improves the quality of treatment.

In addition to animal fats, plant materials are also used to treat tuberculosis. Plants with antibacterial properties are used - aloe, garlic, beetroot, carrot. Of course, the list of medicinal plants is more diverse.

From tuberculosis, there are many time-tested and effective recipes, from simple to fairly complex:

  1. Pour a few crushed garlic cloves with a glass of water and leave for 24 hours. In the morning, on an empty stomach drink this infusion. The course of treatment is continued for 2-3 months.
  2. A somewhat unusual, but very effective recipe: mix a glass of beetroot, carrot and black radish with the same amount of honey. Pour all ingredients into the bottle and bury in the ground. After 2 weeks, the infusion to get and take 30 g 3 times a day before meals. The fluid must be constantly shaken.
  3. Add 3-4 finely chopped large aloe stalks to a bottle of red wine. Insist for several days and then take 1 tsp. 3 times a day.
  4. Moss (reindeer or Icelandic) is very effective against tuberculosis. Moss poured boiling water and insist for several hours in a warm place. The infusion will be bitter enough, so it should be seized with honey. It is bitterness and promotes healing, so the mixture should always be kept closed. This tool helps not only with tuberculosis, but also perfectly treats asthma. It is recommended to drink the infusion 2-4 times daily before meals, until complete recovery.
  5. It is useful in any pulmonary pathologies of a certain type to drink fresh milk. You can add brandy to it. Some time after the start of such treatment, the patient develops an appetite, the body’s strength recovers and the healing process begins.

In addition to using the so-called anti-tuberculosis recipes, the patient needs to adjust the diet a little: eat foods that contain a lot of gluten, avoid pickles and smoked foods, eat more boiled and raw vegetables. Goat and sheep milk, as well as boiled soft-boiled eggs, help well for hemoptysis and sore throat.

Interestingly, patients with tuberculosis need to increase the amount of consumed salt, it helps to alleviate the condition in case of pulmonary bleeding. The main rule of the diet for this disease is split meals: you need to eat small meals, 5-7 times a day. At the same time you should drink a lot of liquid: water, tea and natural fruit and vegetable juices.

Special exercises

In addition to traditional antibiotic treatment, the use of popular councils and adherence to proper diet, there are other methods of treating this disease. The therapeutic scheme of the attending physician may include physical therapy - exercise therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis.

The complex of such exercises brings great benefits to the patient, even at home. Naturally, respiratory gymnastics with tuberculosis helps to restore proper breathing and normalizes natural ventilation of the lungs, providing the patient with the body's need for oxygen.

The antitubercular complex of physical culture and respiratory exercises is made individually for each patient. In addition to exercise therapy, the patient is recommended to have long walks on flat terrain, during which he is regularly monitored and his breath monitored. It should also be noted that the practice of medical gymnastics should be temporarily stopped when the patient's state of health worsens.

Preventive actions

Today, due to the ongoing comprehensive treatment in the hospital and at home, in most cases, pulmonary tuberculosis is curable. In addition to therapy, it is necessary to observe the complex of preventive measures:

  1. Complete abandonment of alcohol abuse, smoking and use of narcotic drugs.
  2. Maintaining an active and healthy lifestyle, hardening and sports.
  3. Visiting special sanatoriums and seaside resorts, especially to people who have already faced the disease.

If all measures are taken, the state of health of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis is almost completely restored, and the use of prescriptions for traditional medicine, exercise therapy and other alternative methods also help to avoid complications.

Exercises breathing exercises with pulmonary tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is one of the most famous diseases in the world. Fifty - seventy years ago, this diagnosis was actually a sentence for the patient, because no effective methods of treatment were developed yet. But medicine does not stand still. To date, there is not only a number of medical therapeutic courses for the treatment of this disease, but also special therapeutic exercises. It is used as an additional measure to the main therapeutic course and is aimed at improving the passage of air through the respiratory tract and lung parenchyma (the parenchyma includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveoli, interstitium (fiber system, peculiar lung skeleton) and lung vasculature).

Exercise description

To achieve positive dynamics in the fight against the disease, it is necessary to carefully select a set of exercises. It is important that classes take place in a well-ventilated area or in the open air. It is necessary to pay attention to the following recommendations:

  1. The course of physiotherapy exercises should begin with simple exercises that exclude repeated repetition of the same movements.
  2. The first exercises are performed exclusively in the prone position.
  3. A sufficient course is five to six exercises with twenty repetitions.

Examples of the most common simple breathing exercises:

  1. Unhurried, gradually accelerating breathing alternately through one, then through the other nostril.
  2. Rhythmic breathing, subject to a certain beat (can be done under rhythmic music, accompanied by simple movements or simple dances).
  3. The pronunciation of some sounds when you exhale.

It should be emphasized once again that only a specialist can foresee all possible consequences of the use of a particular medical complex. Before you begin to exercise, you need to consult with the pulmonologist or phthisiologist, who prescribe a variety of complexes of therapeutic and respiratory gymnastics. In case of their ineffectiveness of classes, as prescribed by a doctor, they are replaced by others.

The Strelnikova respiratory gymnastics are becoming increasingly popular (this system should not be carried away much, but it is good for strengthening the respiratory muscles). Its meaning is reduced to a short sharp breath through the nose, which are accompanied by compression of the chest. In the process of doing the exercises all parts of the body are involved. This leads to an increase in the body's required oxygen level, which leads to active gas exchange in all its cellular structures. The gymnastics needs to be repeated twice a day for one and a half thousand breathing movements in one session.

Regardless of the prescribed complex of physical therapy, the therapeutic effect becomes noticeable in the second or third month of treatment. The total duration of the exercise should be at least six months. This will minimize the negative manifestations of tuberculosis.

Contraindications

Like any treatment, gymnastics has a number of contraindications. These include:

  • arterial hypertension,
  • hemorrhages (hemorrhages) or the risk of their occurrence,
  • thrombosis or the danger of its formation,
  • oncology,
  • increased body temperature.

To date, tuberculosis is still quite a dangerous disease. For a speedy recovery you need to start treating the disease in time, an important element of the treatment is breathing exercises. It allows you to restore a normal respiratory process, as well as the stable operation of the entire respiratory system of the body.

When treating pulmonary tuberculosis, climate may play an important role. If the air is dry, saturated with resin of coniferous trees, such as pine resin, or sea salts, the treatment will be more effective. A favorable climate for lung diseases is in California, Egypt, on the southern coast of the Crimea. If you can not visit the warm seaside resort, you can relax in the mountains among coniferous forests where spruce and pine trees grow.

Physical therapy classes with the patient, who are on strict bed rest

For patients who comply with bed rest, special exercises are shown. They are prescribed on the fifth day of stay in stationary conditions with a persistent decrease in body temperature, a decrease in the number of heart contractions and leukocytosis.

Objectives of physical therapy (exercise therapy) :

- it is necessary to normalize the mechanisms of respiration, i.e., to make it more productive,

- reduce the lack of breathing,

- accelerate the resorption of inflammation in the lung,

- to improve the overall performance of external respiration and the activity of the cardiovascular, nervous and other body systems.

Occupations LFK spend individually.

1. Patients who are on strict bed rest are first given static breathing exercises. To do this, with the help of a doctor or an instructor in exercise therapy, the patient takes a deep maximum inhale, and then a long exhalation through the lips, which are folded into a tube. This exercise must be performed 2-3 times.

2. Then the doctor puts his hand on his stomach in the area of ​​the diaphragm and asks the patient to inhale the stomach as much as possible while inhaling.

3. Then during the day the patient performs these exercises independently. They help improve lung ventilation, increase the depth of breathing and decrease its frequency. This also increases the mobility of the diaphragm. To increase the ventilation of the patient's lung, the doctor turns the patient onto a healthy side and asks him to take a deep breath. During inhalation, the doctor helps the patient raise his hand up, and during exhalation, lower it onto the side surface of the chest with some pressure on it. The same exercise is carried out in the supine position.

4. Elderly people or strongly weakened patients are recommended to massage the back after the first exercise cycle in order to avoid pulmonary complications.

5. After that, perform physical exercises for small and medium-sized muscle groups of the arms and legs. These exercises are repeated 3-4 times. When the patient lies on the patient's side, he is given a back massage. Then, exercises for large groups of muscles of the extremities are performed with the help of an exercise therapy doctor and these exercises are repeated 3-4 times. Severely ill and elderly people are recommended to massage the arms, legs and chest in the prone position on a healthy side or on the back. Massage spend about 15 minutes.

Physical therapy classes with patients who are in half-bed mode

Patients who are on the half-bed mode are recommended to start physical therapy classes on the 5-9th day.

The tasks of physical therapy during this period are:

further normalization of respiratory mechanisms,

elimination of respiratory failure,

increase the overall tone of the central nervous system,

resorption of exudate, if there is pleuropneumonia,

further restoration of the functions of many body systems, including cardiovascular.

Therapeutic gymnastics begins with static exercises that are performed on the back, side or half-sitting. If the inflammatory process does not pass for a long time, then a chest massage on the affected side is possible. Exercises for arms and legs are carried out simultaneously with breathing, in the ratio 3: 1. Each exercise must be repeated 4 times. A set of exercises is recommended to perform in the prone position or sitting, legs down. After a few days, dynamic breathing exercises are added to this complex, which contribute to the elimination of sputum, an increase in the mobility of the diaphragm and the strength of the respiratory muscles. Blood circulation is also improved, and some external respiration rates are improved.

Physical therapy classes with patients who do not need to follow a strict regimen

Patients who do not need to follow a strict regimen (approximately the 12th day of hospital stay) also have their own set of exercises.

Tasks of Medicalphysical education:

- restoration of respiratory function,

- restoration of the structure of the respiratory apparatus in order to avoid recurrence of pneumonia,

- restoration of the functions of the cardiovascular system and other systems,

- adaptation of patients to physical exertion,

- preparation of patients for work and life.

Usually conduct classes in hospital wards in subgroups. Patients sit or stand. Exercises are carried out already with the burden. For these purposes, use a gymnastic stick, dumbbells or other objects. At the end of the gymnastics walk. According to medical indications, some patients massage the chest on the affected side when the patient is sitting on a chair resting on his back. In addition to dynamic breathing exercises, during this period it is necessary to perform exercises for the upper and lower extremities, the belt and the body. Breathing exercises are combined with strengthening in the ratio of 3: 1. Exercises are repeated 5-6 times. Lesson time is increased to 30 minutes.

On the 12th day of hospital stay, patients can independently perform the whole complex of exercises up to 2 times a day. It is recommended to begin exercises from a prone position, and it is necessary to finish the complex with walking. One lesson physician should exercise in the gym physical therapy using sports equipment.

When conducting a complex of physical and breathing exercises, strict control over the body's response to tension and stress arising is necessary. It is necessary to constantly measure the pulse, blood pressure, the number of breaths per minute. With a correctly chosen load, the pulse should not exceed the initial figures by more than 15 beats per minute, the blood pressure should rise by no more than 15 mm Hg. Art., and the respiratory rate - increase by 2-3 breaths per minute or decrease by 1-2 breaths by increasing the depth of breathing. 10 minutes after the load, all indicators should return to their original values. If some indicators are above the norm, then the load should be reduced or increased pauses for rest.

After discharge from the hospital, patients should continue to exercise physical therapy in the clinic and at home. They carry out the same exercises as at the end of the treatment, including exercises with dumbbells and on the wall. For such activities, it is recommended to purchase back massagers, expanders, elastic bandages that contribute to the development of various muscle groups, improve spinal mobility, etc. Additionally, you can go swimming, skiing (at temperatures up to -18 ° C) and skating , jogging, etc.

At the same time, physical therapy helps to increase blood circulation and lymph circulation, to restore the drainage functions of the bronchi, to prevent pneumonia and bronchitis, to increase the resistance of the bronchial tree and the general body resistance to colds.

Initially, patients are advised to perform only static breathing exercises, then dynamic breathing exercises. Gradually, physical strengthening exercises are added to them. For the prevention of acute bronchitis, the body is hardened when a person drenches water with a gradual decrease in its temperature to 16–13 ° C, use cross-country skiing, skating, swimming and jogging outdoors. All these tempering activities can be started about a month after the disease.

Therapeutic exercise in bronchial asthma

In case of bronchial asthma, the following are tasks:

- remove spasm of the bronchi,

- to increase the strength of the respiratory muscles,

- make normal mechanisms of inhalation and exhalation,

- increase the mobility of the chest

- prevent the development of emphysema.

Physical therapy exercises help to normalize external respiration, increase the tone of the nervous system, strengthen the vascular nervous system and increase the body's resistance to environmental influences.

Contraindicated Physical therapy for heart and respiratory failure, when there is decompensation of these systems. Classes are built on an individual plan, taking into account the age of the patient, the severity of the disease and its course.

The course of physical therapy in the hospital

In a hospital, the course of physical therapy is different.

Usually it is divided into preparatory and training periods. AT preparation period There is an acquaintance with a case history, a condition of the patient and its functionality. This is usually enough for 3-4 days, after which they proceed directly to the course of physical therapy - training period. In the classroom, the starting position is sitting, leaning on the headboard and relaxing, and lying on the bed, the head end of which is slightly elevated. These positions contribute to the free movement of the chest and significantly facilitate exhalation.

The course of physical therapy after the onset of improvement

After the patient begins to improve, additionally include a large number of exercises for movement. The movements of the arms, legs, and torso are used in combination with breathing exercises. First, an overwhelming number of exercises are done sitting or lying down. Gradually introduced exercises with the original standing position. Particular attention is paid to walking and exercise during it. Sports equipment and shells are used. All exercises with a load (body slopes, throws of objects) are carried out on the exhale, after which you need complete relaxation. This contributes to the adaptation to physical exertion, which contributes to the preservation of health.

A set of exercises with the pronunciation of vowels and consonants must be conducted at the beginning of classes. Then you need to move on to exercise on physical exertion, which can be done in the fresh air.

Classes should be held at least 3 times a day, and twice - independently.

Duration of classes should be individualized: you should start from 5-7 minutes and gradually increase their time to 30 minutes. Overwork can not be allowed: if the patient feels his signs, you must go to the sound exercises that contribute to relaxation. You can also use massage and lungs - gymnastic exercises. For example, flexion and extension of the extremities, abduction of them to the sides, rotation by them, extension of the body, bending forward and to the sides.

First of all, the patient must learn to breathe superficially, since deep breaths can trigger an asthma attack. When spasm of the bronchi is additionally recommended massage chest, massage the abdomen, shoulders, neck, etc.

After the main indicators of respiratory function have returned to normal, the classes include general developmental exercises. They are aimed at increasing the stamina of the arms, legs, back. After such exercises it is necessary to conduct relaxation exercises. If the set of exercises is chosen correctly, then the patient reduces the number of seizures, normalizes blood pressure.

Exercise should gradually increase so that the function of external breathing adapts to them. At first, exercises are performed with shallow breathing: they turn and bend their torso, bend and unbend their legs and arms, and squat. After performing the three exercises, patients should relax as much as possible. Some exercises must be performed as you exhale.

Therapeutic exercise in the period of remission of bronchial asthma

In the period of remission of the disease, exercises with weights, on sports equipment, with sports equipment, are added to the exercises gradually, while uttering consonant sizzling and vowel sounds. It improves bronchial patency, extends exhalation and trains the bronchial musculature.

To improve the tone of the smooth muscles of the bronchi spend breathing exercisesin which combinations of certain consonants are pronounced:

1. The patient is tied up with a towel on the chest, the ends of which are in front. Slowly exhaling, the patient utters the sounds "rr", "broh", "drroh", "bruuh" (the sound "pp" pull longer than others), with a towel while squeezing the chest. Consonant sounds pull up to 7 seconds at first, then bring up to 20 seconds. If there is sputum, it should be removed by pressing on the chest while the patient is coughing,

2. The patient is half-sitting on the bed, after a weak breath, a slow exhalation occurs. On the exhale, the patient tightens the legs in turn to the chest. After each exhalation - superficial inhale. If the patient has sputum, then simultaneously with the cough, he presses against the chest wall with the help of the thigh, thereby facilitating the removal of sputum.

A month later, in the classroom enter weight training. After that, walking is added to the complex of exercises. At first, the patient is taught to control his breathing while walking: for 1-2 steps you need to inhale, and for 3-4 - exhale. Gradually the number of strokes on the exhale increase. If there are no contraindications, then such training should be performed daily. Gradually, the pace of walking increases, and the number of pauses, on the contrary, decreases.

After the end of the inpatient treatment, the patient is advised to continue to practice physical therapy at the clinic under the supervision of an instructor.

Physical therapy for tuberculosis

In pulmonary tuberculosis, the tasks of physical therapy are:

- increase the protective properties of the body,

- effects on the immune sphere,

- prevention of disorders of the respiratory and cardiovascular functions of the body, which arise during tuberculosis,

- correction of impaired functions that have arisen in the course of the disease and possible surgery.

There are several types of tuberculosis, which correspond to the various complexes of physical therapy.

Therapeutic physical training for focal, cavernous, infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis

With focal, cavernous, infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis and some other species use a wide range physical and breathing exercises. After removal of the symptoms of intoxication, active mode is recommended with a gradual increase in physical exertion, with the exception of the maximum possible.

Most common types of physical therapy are morning exercises, walking and outdoor games: volleyball, small towns, table tennis and swimming, in winter - skiing.

With signs of acute illness, exercise contraindicated. Contraindications are also cases of acute infiltrative inflammation or manifestation of drug hepatitis, myocarditis and nephritis.

Recommended for the treatment of these types of tuberculosis. occupational therapy in combination with exercise. In hospitals, work is being done to clean the territory in the open air, to clean the snow in winter, and patients work in various workshops. Labor processes should not be tedious and take more than 2.5 hours a day, but should be carried out according to plan and not be one-time and random.

Simultaneously with the appointment of physical activity spend tempering procedures. Such an optimal procedure is a douche (change of hot and cold shower). Instead of the shower, you can use contrasting. Also use cold rubdowns and washing of some parts of the body with cold water. Such tempering procedures favorably affect the general immunity of the patient.

The best place for physical exercises and tempering procedures are sanatoriums that are prepared to the maximum extent for these types of treatment.

Therapeutic exercise in disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis

In case of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis, diffuse pneumosclerosis complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis, it is recommended to practice physical therapy under the guidance of a doctor. Exercise can begin at the early stages of treatment. After removal of the symptoms of intoxication, special breathing exercises during therapeutic gymnastics. Gradually, they are complemented tonic exercisesbut without large loads. Table tennis, badminton, dosed walking are recommended.

With these types of tuberculosis contraindicated all the exercises that require tension, namely, vis, lifting weights, exercises with stops, games in campuses and volleyball are not recommended.

All exercises of therapeutic gymnastics are aimed at the formation of an active exhalation without forced inhalation. Therapeutic gymnastics is performed usually sitting on a chair or bed.

Therapeutic gymnastics for the formation of active exhalation:

1. Starting position - sitting, arms raised to the shoulders, elbows down. In this position take a breath. Slightly bending down, you need to connect your elbows and exhale.

2. Starting position - sitting, arms down. Take a breath. Alternately lean to the right and left: when tilted to the right, the left hand rises to the axilla, and vice versa. At each slope perform exhalation.

3. Starting position - sitting or standing, hands on the belt, legs together. Inhale, then bend over, get your hands on the toes - exhale.

4. Walking on the spot: 2-3 steps - inhale, 4-6 steps - exhale.

5. Starting position - sitting on a chair, putting your hands on your hips, - inhaling with your hands, pull your left knee to your chest - exhale, the same with your right leg.

6. Starting position - sitting, leaning on the back of a chair, his hands are on his stomach. It is necessary to relax as much as possible - diaphragmatic breathing.

Those patients who have undergone treatment and who have residual effects should continue to exercise physical therapy in outpatient settings in special groups.

Therapeutic exercise in fibro-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis

In case of fibro-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, all forms of physiotherapy exercises are contraindicated. Such patients need rest, bed rest and the so-called verandah treatment. Tempering procedures are also not recommended. The exception is patients who are sent for surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis - then they are prescribed remedial gymnastics 3 weeks before surgery. Patients learn special exercises that may be useful to them after surgery (coughing, diaphragmatic breathing, exercises for the muscles of the shoulder and limbs).

Special breathing exercises are indicated for the complication of this form of tuberculosis with bronchial asthma. To do this, it is recommended exercises that are aimed at eliminating the attacks of bronchial asthma, by limiting the volume of inhalation and breath-holding exercises on the exhale. Such regular exercises contribute to the reduction and even cessation of asthma attacks.

Occupational therapy is also contraindicated in patients with fibro-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, which requires active movements. They can be recommended knitting, assembling small parts or other types of needlework that do not require stress.

Physical therapy for cirrhotic tuberculosis

In case of cirrhotic tuberculosis, it is recommended to carry out exercise therapy individually and in subgroups. From general developmental exercises, walking at a gradually increasing pace is permitted. All exercises that require effort and increase intrathoracic pressure are contraindicated: stops, weight lifting, vises and exercises with a large load, since with these exercises the development of a chronic pulmonary heart is possible. It is necessary to exclude heavy work in the garden, cleaning the territory, cleaning the snow from the work. It is recommended to work on the backyard plot, in the greenhouse, namely planting flowers and caring for them. Not hard work in sewing and joiner's workshops with obligatory breaks for performance of industrial gymnastics are allowed.

With the development of cirrhosis of the lung at the site of the former pleurisy only a few decades later, the patient may develop a cough, shortness of breath, sputum and an overall decrease in working capacity.

In these cases, physical therapy classes are the only way to prevent and treat patients with pleuropneumosclerosis. Constant breathing exercises help to stop coughing, sputum, weaken respiratory failure and return to work.

If the patient has no bronchial spasms, then exercises to mobilize the movements of the diaphragm of the affected half of the chest are recommended. These exercises help to increase inspiratory volume. With a slightly pronounced respiratory failure recommend exercise with weights.

A set of exercises for bilateral cirrhosis of the lungs

We give an approximate set of exercises for bilateral cirrhosis of the lungs. When doing exercises, inhale through the nose and exhale through the closed lips.

1. Starting position - sitting, hands on his stomach. Perform diaphragmatic breathing: on inhalation, the abdominal wall is pushed forward, on exhalation, the abdomen is drawn in.

2. Starting position - sitting, arms raised to the shoulders, and legs - apart. Elbow lift and pull back - inhale, lower - exhale. Alternately change hands.

3. Starting position - sitting, hands lie on your knees - inhale, bend forward, with your hands to reach your toes - exhale,

4. Starting position. - sitting. The patient sits freely, leaning on the back of the chair, relaxed. The palms lie on the lower half of the chest - inhale, straighten up, slightly squeezing the chest, - exhale.

5. Starting position. - sitting, hands on their knees, legs stretched forward. Without lifting the heels from the floor, it is necessary to rotate the ankles and make the so-called walking in place.

6. Starting position - sitting, elbows pressed to the body, and arms bent. Bend and bend the fingers, rotate the hands, then completely relax the hands.

7. Starting position - sitting, hands lying on his stomach. Relax completely - diaphragmatic breathing.

If the cirrhosis of the lung is burdened by bronchial asthma, then physical therapy exercises should begin with training to limit inspiratory volume and breath-holding breaths on exhalation. Only after the disappearance of signs of shortness of breath is assigned a set of exercises.

Watch the video: Clearing Your Chest with Breathing Exercises (December 2019).

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