Thrush - what is it? Who and how does this disease appear? What are the signs of thrush in girls and how to treat it? These questions concern many young girls, and most of them are left alone with the problem. Thrush (vaginal candidiasis) is a common disease caused by a yeast-like fungus of the genus Candida. It exists in the body of any healthy person: in the mouth, intestines, genital tract.
Causes of thrush
This disease is manifested in representatives of different social groups of the population: women, men, young girls and even children. But girls have thrush more often.
Most of the diseases that are sexually transmitted (for example, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea) are accompanied by the same symptoms and manifestations. Thrush is not a sexually transmitted disease, but it is considered in conjunction with other possible infections due to a similar clinical picture. Although infection with thrush is possible during sexual intercourse, more often it does not have a connection with this way of transmission.
The main reason for the appearance of thrush in girls is the creation of a favorable environment for the reproduction of the fungus, which occurs against the background of the following conditions and diseases:
- hormonal imbalance after taking various medications, pregnancy, etc.
- decreased immunity as a result of prolonged protracted diseases or frequent stresses
- treatment of any disease with antibiotics
- intestinal dysbiosis
- thyroid dysfunction
- violation of personal hygiene
There is a misconception that cramped and synthetic underwear that does not allow air well can also cause thrush. This opinion has nothing to do with the occurrence of the disease.
The first signs of thrush in girls
Thrush in girls has its own distinctive features.
The first sign is external reddening of the mucous membrane, irritation and swelling in the genital area (vagina). Often in girls with these manifestations of thrush there is an increased sensitivity of the skin even in contact with underwear.
The second sign is the appearance of burning or itching pain in the vaginal area. Especially this feeling may increase after hygiene procedures and at night. If a girl observes such signs, she urgently needs an appointment with an experienced doctor, to pass urine and blood for an examination.
And the third obvious sign by which a girl can independently detect thrush is the presence of white (cheesy) vaginal discharge, which can be accompanied by an unpleasant sourish smell and severe itching.
How is thrush manifested
The manifestation of this unpleasant disease in girls usually begins one week before the start of the menstrual cycle. The health of girls prone to allergic reactions deteriorates the most. With the active development of thrush, they experience discomfort due to burning pain, especially when urine comes in contact with mucous tissues and after evening washing.
How to identify the disease?
With an independent external examination, a girl can detect external signs of the disease: the presence of white patina, which is localized in the vulva and vagina, and an increased amount of white discharge. But the determination of the exact diagnosis of the disease is possible only after taking a smear for analysis in the gynecological office.
In its advanced form, the treatment of thrush lasts several months, due to the risk of complications. As a result of late treatment, the following signs and diseases can be observed:
- temperature rise
- lesion of the cervix and ovarian appendages
- inflammation of the bladder and urethra, due to the development of microorganisms mycoplasmosis
How to treat thrush?
All methods of treatment of thrush are aimed at eliminating the symptoms and the possibility of further development of the disease, if it is a urogenital type of fungal infection. The effect of the treatment is achieved by the use of topical medications and systemic oral medication. For local elimination of signs of thrush in girls, creams, ointments, suppositories, vaginal tablets, etc. are used. Tablets and capsules are prescribed as systemic agents.
Local drugs will help to remove the unpleasant symptoms of thrush, but no more. Taking systemic medications will help consolidate the effect and prevent relapse.
Do not neglect the recommendations of doctors, because the further development of thrush and its relapse (up to 3-4 times within a year) is fraught with complications in the future life of a woman and mother.
Popular remedies are antibacterial drugs:
- nystatin (contained in "Poliginakse", "Cerzhinan")
- clotrimazole (in the composition of "Kanesten", "Candibene", "Candizol")
- Natamycin ("Pimafucin")
- ketoconazole (in the composition of "Nizoral", "Mikozorala", "Livarola")
With a mild course of the disease or an initial stage of redness of the mucous membrane, one intake of fluconazole 150 mg orally is enough.
The use of candles and ointments containing substances aimed at the destruction of broad-spectrum bacteria, has a suppressive effect on the vaginal flora. Therefore, a course of treatment is prescribed with the content of immunostimulating drugs that must be taken strictly following the instructions.
Treatment of thrush folk methods
Invaluable advice of folk healers in the treatment of thrush are very popular. But the experience of past generations serves only as an adjunct therapy in the fight against this disease and is not able to get rid of the exacerbation of chronic thrush.
To relieve inflammation in the affected areas will help regular internal and external treatment of the genital organs with the help of funds or the use of special hygiene items that can be made with your own hands:
- herbal infusions
The best herbs for phytotherapy of thrush in girls are St. John's wort, juniper cones, yarrow, celandine, chamomile, calendula, oak bark, birch buds.
For douching: take 1 part of oak bark and the same amount of chamomile, 3 parts of nettle, knotweed grass 5 parts. From the resulting mixture of herbs, take 2 tablespoons and pour 1 liter of hot water, bring to a boil, and boil for 5 minutes. Ready to cool the broth and apply as intended.
Infusions: equal parts of chamomile flowers, calendula, sage, birch buds, juniper buds, yarrow. Pour 2 tablespoons of the collection with 1 cup of boiling water and boil in a water bath for about 10 minutes. Insist 1 hour, strain and drink ¼ cup before meals 3 times a day.
For methods of preparing other medicines to eliminate thrush, see video.
The effectiveness of folk remedies in the fight against thrush has been proven as part of general therapy. A good option to support and strengthen the immune system will be taking a course of vitamins and fortifying drugs. Leave your comments on the use of certain means in the fight against thrush in the comments. Go
What is thrush in women?
Thrush in women is a disease of the vagina called candidiasis in science. Associations with milk among the population have arisen due to the fact that women have white discharge on their genitals, similar in texture to cottage cheese.
The causative agent of the disease is Candida albicans fungus. Scientists estimate that this microorganism is present in the body in 80% of people as its own microflora, without causing any problems. The woman's vagina is normally not sterile. Microorganisms are present on its epithelium, including this fungus. He is involved in maintaining the normal pH of the vagina, which is very important for the epithelium itself, the process of fertilization.
In addition, the vaginal flora competes with other undesirable microorganisms and reduces the likelihood of developing infectious diseases. At the same time, the immunity of the female body strictly monitors the state of affairs and, if necessary, inhibits the reproduction of "their" bacteria. If for some reason this does not happen or conditions are created for their active reproduction, then the likelihood of developing thrush increases.
Symptoms of thrush in women
The disease has quite specific manifestations, which allows physicians to quickly make the correct diagnosis. Often, women themselves, even before visiting the doctor, understand that they have an illness and begin to make their own attempts at treatment, which is unacceptable.
So, for thrush characteristic:
Cheesy discharge from the vulva. They are especially noticeable on dark underwear. They are mucus with a lot of white lumps.
Feeling of itching and burning in the vagina. In no case should one try to scratch the affected area strongly, since this can damage the tender, inflamed epithelium and create conditions for the penetration of pathogens into the depth of the tissues. Also, when combing, secretions spread to a large surface and cause additional inflammation.
Pain and discomfort when urinating - due to a decrease in the protective properties of vaginal mucus and urethra. The epithelium is defenseless against such an aggressive fluid as urine, and inflammation increases the sensitivity of the receptors.
The pain and burning sensation during sexual intercourse is only one of the reasons why it is worth refusing to conduct sex until the disease recedes.
Smell - you should talk about it separately. It is not very pronounced and has a sour tint ("kefir"). In most cases, it feels only a woman, but for her it is a very big problem. Patients believe that all her interlocutors will certainly be able to catch it. Many sexually transmitted diseases and bacterial vaginosis are accompanied by a really unpleasant odor, but it has practically nothing to do with thrush.
In case of erased (atypical) flow of thrush and mild symptoms of women, only one of the indicated signs can disturb. Learning about the disease in such cases is impossible without professional help. Candidiasis often accompanies many gynecological diseases, including hidden and dangerous sexually transmitted infections. Only a qualified doctor is able to analyze the symptoms and prescribe the correct treatment. Self-diagnosis in severe cases of disease manifestation is useless, and self-treatment is dangerous.
Comparative table of characteristic symptoms for thrush, bacterial vaginitis and trichomoniasis can be seen in the table. Consider it as an aid in diagnosis is not worth it. The diagnosis is made by the doctor based on the tests, examination and complaints of the patient. Even in such cases, it is possible the presence of other genital infections associated with thrush. Self-medication is unacceptable. All appointments must be made by the attending physician.
Discharges: Homogeneous, thick milky color, resembling cottage cheese
Discomfort: Burning, itching, pain during intercourse and urination
Smell: Unpleasant fishy smell
Discharge: Abundant, purulent, frothy yellowish-green hue
Discomfort: Intensive increasing itching (external and internal), impaired urination, redness (irritation) of the vaginal mucosa.
Smell: Smell of fish (characteristic of discharge)
Discharge: Abundant and liquid gray-white, sometimes frothy
Discomfort: Vaginal itching, burning, irritation of the mucous.
The first signs of thrush in women
The first signs of the development of thrush that make a woman wary are:
Acute burning and itching in the region of the external genital organs,
Hyperemia (redness) of the vulva and vagina,
The appearance of abundant white vaginal discharge,
Soreness during intercourse.
As a rule, the first symptoms appear a week before the onset of menstruation. Burning and itching significantly worse in a warm environment, especially after a bath, often interfere with sleep. And the appearance of white discharge removes all suspicions of a woman about the disease and makes it necessary to consult a doctor.
Consequences of thrush in women
In the case of thrush, you need to consider several scenarios:
The patient began to treat acute thrush in a timely manner. With the right behavior of a woman and compliance with all the recommendations of experts, you can quickly get rid of thrush completely. Modern drugs are characterized by high efficiency and a small number of side effects.
Acute thrush was treated incorrectly and out of time. Constant postponement of the visit to the doctor and failure to subsequently comply with his recommendations determine the likelihood of the disease becoming chronic. In this case, it is much more difficult to treat the disease, and the complications are much more serious.
Complications of chronic thrush
According to statistics, in almost 70% of cases the chronic course of the disease leads to the development of any complication:
Adhesions of the pelvic organs,
Obstruction of the fallopian tubes due to the development of adhesions,
Infertility is a consequence of the development of obstruction of the tubes or damage to the ovaries,
Reduced immunity of the body, which leads to the frequent development of infections,
If a woman is pregnant, then the fungi can still infect the fetus in utero,
The transition of the disease to other organs of the pelvis - the bladder rectum,
The pathogen enters the blood - candidal sepsis.
Is thrush transmitted to men?
Normally, the male body is constantly faced with the same fungi as the female one. Since they are contained in the vagina of most women, the partner’s genitals are in any case in contact with the causative agent of thrush. A man may also develop candidiasis of the genital organs, which has approximately the same manifestations and causes as the female one. Therefore, if a man has lowered immunity, there is diabetes mellitus or other prerequisites, then he can easily become infected with thrush. Moreover, the sexual partner can bring a large amount of fungus into the woman’s body, which will trigger the development of the disease.
Thus, the thrush is transmitted to a man only if he has the prerequisites for her development, and he does not follow the elementary rules of personal hygiene. In the end, it is much easier for a man to remove all pathogens from the surface of the penis, simply by washing it thoroughly, unlike a woman. Yes, and sexual intercourse in the presence of candidiasis is an act of thoughtless, contrary to the recommendations of doctors and is unlikely to give pleasure
Diagnosis of thrush
For an accurate diagnosis and a complete clinical picture, the doctor must have not only test results, but also draw conclusions based on the inspection data. Going to an appointment with a gynecologist, a woman will have to answer a number of questions. To this we must be prepared and, if possible, provide the most complete and reliable information that will help the doctor.
The specialist may ask:
What symptoms bother you? It is necessary to describe in detail.
When were the first manifestations of the disease seen?
Have the symptoms of the disease changed since its inception? If so, how.
What is the nature of the selection? Color, smell, profusion, consistency, all the details are important.
What triggers symptoms? If the condition worsened, how was it provoked? When and for what reasons does relief come?
Have symptoms been observed before?
Have you ever been treated for sexually transmitted diseases?
How active is your sex life? How many sexual partners?
How are you protected?
Have any of the partner seen a discharge from the penis?
What drugs have been taking lately? If antibiotics were prescribed, which ones?
How many days do menstruation last? What is their regularity?
Has syringing ever been used or not?
Are there any chronic diseases? If there were in the past, which ones?
After collecting the necessary information, the doctor makes an examination of the patient. Take a smear of the cervix and vaginal mucosa. Microscopic examination of the smear can reveal fungal mycelium. This method of examination is considered more informative, since it is impossible to recognize the type of fungal infection that caused the thrush.
Find out what kind of fungus provoked the disease, allows bacterial seeding smear on nutrient special environment. The sensitivity of the identified colonies, their susceptibility to antifungal drugs. The quantitative factor is also very important. A small number of colonies is considered the norm for healthy vaginal microflora.
All ongoing research experts indicate the fact of communication of thrush with other sexually transmitted infections. In most cases, candidiasis occurs in a complex, with the symptoms of thrush masked by hidden infections. There is a tendency of their growth and wide distribution in recent decades. That is why doctors recommend a differential method of diagnosing thrush. This will reveal the presence of diseases such as gardnerellosis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, genital herpes, ureaplasmosis. A visit to the venereologist and the delivery of the necessary tests provide an opportunity to confirm or exclude the presence of dangerous infections and draw up the correct treatment plan for thrush.
Comprehensive examination of the chronic form of candidiasis helps to identify diabetes. The first symptom of this serious illness is thrush. If tests show an excess of blood sugar, a woman is recommended to contact an endocrinologist and follow his recommendations.
It is important and the participation of a gastroenterologist. For effective treatment of candidiasis, an abdominal ultrasound may be necessary. Most likely, you will need to pass the feces and check the intestines. If indicated, FGS and other diagnostic measures are prescribed.
If thrush becomes the cause of complications in the urinary system, you must visit a urologist, undergo an examination and pass the necessary tests (ultrasound of the bladder and kidneys, Zimnitsky urine, smear from the urethra).
When should I go to a gynecologist?
Relapse of candidiasis occurs more often 4 times a year.
Treatment for a week does not give results and does not relieve the symptoms.
If after taking the prescribed drugs irritation occurs in the genitals.
In cases when the temperature rises with thrush, weakness is felt, pain in the lower abdomen begins to disturb.
When relapse of candidiasis after treatment.
If during treatment blood and purulent discharges appear. Especially dangerous is the discharge of a brown shade in the middle of a therapeutic cycle.
How to treat thrush in women?
If the disease has a mild course and the woman promptly asked for help, then doctors try to do with local preparations. These are tablets, creams or suppositories that are inserted into the vagina. There they quickly get to their destination and begin to act.
Most commonly used:
These are the international names of medicines. Different companies call their funds in different ways and now in any pharmacy will offer several options at once.
Choose the appropriate treatment method:
It is important to initially treat only antifungal drugs, since broad-spectrum substances can provoke the development of other infectious diseases due to the complete destruction of the flora.
According to modern standards, the treatment of thrush (vaginal candidiasis) should be carried out in two stages. At the first stage, systemic (capsules, tablets) and / or local (vaginal suppositories, gels and tablets) antifungal drugs are used; complex drugs are often used that contain antifungal and antibacterial components to kill pathogens. The second step is to restore the local immunity and the balance of beneficial vaginal microflora of the vagina to reduce the risk of re-exacerbation. If you do not make a rapid recovery of lactoflora, activation of conditionally pathogenic or pathogenic microorganisms is possible, which may cause recurrence of thrush or bacterial infections. Frequent relapses of thrush often cause chronic inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, which subsequently lead to impaired reproductive function of women (infertility). That is why two-stage therapy is a more reasonable solution compared with regular use of antimicrobial agents only. To restore the microflora used local probiotics. Many doctors prefer the French drug Laktozhinal. This is the only tribiotic preparation registered in the Russian Federation with a direct indication “prevention of vulvovaginal candidiasis” (thrush). Lactozinal contains special lactobacilli, contributes to the normalization of beneficial vaginal microflora and pH, and also forms local immunity. An important aspect is the long-term preservation of the correct balance of microflora and reducing the risk of recurrence of the disease.
Two-stage therapy with probiotics, such as Lactoginal as the 2nd stage, has recently become the gold standard for treating conditions accompanied by pathological secretions, such as vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush) and bacterial vaginosis. Many experts believe that only such a method can provide a pronounced and long-lasting therapeutic effect and strengthen local immunity.
Treatment for thrush accelerates the intake of vitamins and minerals. This normalizes the intestinal microflora and strengthens the immune system. Doctors advise to take pribiotics and vitamin-mineral complexes at the same time.
Signs and symptoms of thrush in women
Symptoms that indicate the presence of candidiasis in a woman can be both pronounced and hidden. In addition, the thrush may not even declare anything about itself, making its victim a carrier of the disease.
Although the disease is diagnosed in both men and women, representatives of the beautiful article notice the development of the disease at earlier stages. In this case, women are concerned about the pain during emptying of the bladder and during hygiene procedures, which is accompanied by specific secretions.
In general, the signs of thrush are not small, here are the most common of them:
- soreness during sex
- burning sensation, itching,
- white bloom (you can see during a visit to the gynecologist),
- cheesy discharge,
- dilation of small vessels on the walls of the vagina, which causes swelling,
- blister rash that tends to burst and form erosion,
Although the symptoms of pathology depend on the individual characteristics of the organism, most often women complain about white cheesy discharges, which are characterized by a specific smell of acid. As a rule, these secretions are complemented by itching and frequent urging to the toilet.
Allocation for thrush can be permanent, or allocated periodically. Also their variability, density, whiteness can vary, sometimes a greenish color can appear.
When you need to immediately visit a gynecologist
You should not postpone a visit to a krach in such cases (with such symptoms):
- after the treatment of the disease, which did not end with recovery,
- when the temperature rises and signs of candidiasis,
- with irritability of the genital organs after the start of therapy,
- with purulent or bloody discharge at the treatment stage,
- with repeated and prolonged exacerbations,
- with regular manifestations of candidiasis (usually 4 relapses per year).
Since the signs of candidiasis can be confused with the manifestations of other gynecological pathologies, it is important to visit the gynecologist in a timely manner in order to avoid exacerbations and complications.
What will happen if not treated
The greatest risk in the absence of treatment is the transition of the disease to the chronic form. At the same time, there is a high probability of regular relapses, which cannot be completely cured.
The lack of treatment is fraught with the fact that over time the fungus will penetrate so deeply that no antifungal drug can cope with it. This will allow the disease to progress rapidly and infect all new organs and tissues, provoke inflammatory processes and internal bleeding.
It will be impossible to recover from such thrush. The patient will have to wait for a fatal outcome from such seemingly harmless pathology.
Changes in the composition of the vaginal microflora
Antibiotics, as everyone knows, not only rid the body of harmful microflora, but also deprive the body of beneficial bacteria. This is what accompanies the rapid spread of pathogenic fungi of the genus Candida.
Therefore, during treatment with antibiotics, it is important to maintain the microflora at the proper level, in order to avoid treatment of candidiasis.