Pathology such as conjunctivitis of the eye is accompanied by acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane. The disease occurs in 30% of patients in ophthalmic clinics. The high incidence of inflammatory processes due to the presence of a large number of irritating exogenous and endogenous factors.
Eye disease can occur in patients of all ages. Conjunctivitis often occurs in a complicated form and is combined with inflammation of the eyelids and cornea. Both eyes can be affected simultaneously.
Classification and symptoms
Conjunctivitis can occur in various forms, depending on the cause of the lesion. Among the common signs characteristic of all types of etiological inflammatory disease, there is a reddening of the white of the eye and abundant tearing.
If the pathology proceeds in an acute form, copious mucous-purulent or serous-bleeding discharge, pain in the eyes, corneal ulcers, minor hemorrhages are noted. Chronic conjunctivitis is associated with recurrent itching, a sensation of sand in the eyes, and increased fatigue.
Infectious form of eye disease. Pathology is often associated with poor hygiene. You can distinguish the bacterial form of conjunctivitis by the following symptoms:
- Viscous, opaque discharge of a grayish or yellowish hue. Causes bonding of the eyelids in the morning.
- The feeling of a foreign body in the eye.
- Dry mucous membranes.
The occurrence of allergic conjunctivitis is accompanied by severe itching and swelling of the eyelids. The cause of the exacerbation may be house dust, pollen of plants, taking certain groups of medicines, wearing contact lenses, pet hair, feathers of decorative birds, household solutions, perfume and cosmetic products, food.
Patients with allergic conjunctivitis complain of discomfort, severe itching, burning, runny nose, photophobia and increased watery eyes. The severity of symptoms depends on the concentration of a foreign allergen. With a strong effect of the agent, the first manifestations can be seen half an hour after the lesion. If the dose of the allergen was small, then signs of inflammation may appear 1-2 days after contact.
This form of the disease is contagious. It usually occurs with adenovirus or herpes infection. The disease is often regarded as a complication of a cold. The severity of symptoms of viral conjunctivitis depends largely on the age of the patient and the state of immune protection.
Often the disease spreads to both eyes, moving from one affected area to the other. As characteristic signs of pathology, oculists note vascular redness, photophobia, scant non-purulent discharge, the appearance of follicles or films.
Failure of personal hygiene, congenital anatomical disorder, overwork, the action of chemicals, reduced immunity can cause eye disease. Often meets in patients at an early age. Among the causes of purulent conjunctivitis in newborn children are:
- Intrauterine infection from a mother who suffers from sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea and chlamydia).
- Non-compliance with the smelting hygiene personnel of the maternity ward.
- Poor disinfection of cesarean section medical equipment.
- Congenital anatomical defects.
- Low immunological reactivity, weakening of the mucosal barrier function.
- Improper care for a newborn baby.
Purulent conjunctivitis is manifested by such symptoms as pain, increased tearing, sensitivity to ultraviolet rays, swelling and redness of the eyelids, serous discharge, dry crusts on the eyelids, fever, reduced visual acuity.
In ophthalmology, a system of causes entailing the development of inflammatory changes in the conjunctiva is distinguished. The direct causative agents of the disease are:
- Bacteria (pneumococcus, diphtheria, diplobacillus, gonokok, mycobacterium tuberculosis, syphilis).
- Viruses (herpes, molluscum contagiosum, adenovirus).
- Fungi (candidiasis, sporotrichosis, actinomycosis).
- Allergens. Serve as a catalyst for an allergic reaction can pollen, drugs, wool.
- Autoimmune disorders (pemphigus, eczema, gout, psoriasis).
Become a reason for infection of the organs of vision can:
- Thermal and chemical traumatic lesions of the organs of vision.
- Violation of the rules of hygiene, the use of someone else's towels and cosmetics.
- Contact with an infected person suffering from bacterial or viral forms of ocular conjunctivitis.
- Infection of newborns from mothers with infectious diseases of the urogenital system.
- Metabolic disorders, lack of vitamins, weakening of the body's immune defense.
- Smoking, staying in smoky rooms.
Comprehensive medical diagnosis of conjunctivitis is performed by an oculist and includes:
- Survey with a history of the disease. The doctor analyzes the patient's complaints and the clinical manifestations of the inflammatory process. It turns out the presence of negative hereditary factors, facts of contact with infected persons, allergens.
- External examination of the eyelids. There is an assessment of the conjunctiva, the eyeball. The doctor determines the presence, amount and nature of discharge.
- Bacteriological smear test.
- Instillation test with fluorescein.
- Immunoassay and cytology.
- Skin-allergic, hypoglossal, conjunctival, nasal tests.
Additional consultations with an allergist, a dermatovenerologist, an otolaryngologist or a phthisiologist may be required to provide an accurate diagnosis to a medical professional.
How to treat different types of conjunctivitis
The main goal of therapeutic care provided to patients with conjunctivitis is to get rid of the cause of the inflammatory lesion. Ophthalmologists use symptomatic treatment. Among the most effective methods of conservative treatment can be identified:
- Treatment of the affected areas with antiseptics (potassium permanganate, brilliant green, hydrocyanate, furatsillin).
- Appointment of local drugs that relieve pain and stabilize the condition of the mucous membranes.
- Taking antibiotics, antivirals and antihistamines.
- Strict adherence to personal hygiene.
Before the appointment of specific drugs, an ophthalmologist must establish the type and stage of conjunctivitis.
By reason of
Types of the disease, depending on the cause of inflammation:
- Bacterial - caused by pathogens (streptococci, gonococci, diphtheria sticks, and the like).
- Chlamydia - occurs when hit in the conjunctival sac of chlamydia.
- Angular - develops under the influence of diplobacillus. It is also called angular conjunctivitis.
- Fungal - manifested as a result of reproduction of pathogenic fungi.
- Viral - caused by a variety of viruses (herpes virus, adenovirus).
- Allergic Conjunctivitis - develops under the influence of an allergic factor.
- Dystrophic - occurs under the action of aggressive for mucous eyes substances (paintwork material, chemical reagents).
Symptoms of conjunctivitis
The following manifestations are evidence of the onset of the disease:
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- Increased tearing.
- Burning sensation, itching.
- Cut in the eyes, photophobia.
- Puffiness of the eyelids.
- Redness sclera.
The main cause of the pathology is bacteria entering from dirty hands. But other causes are not excluded, including a decrease in immunity. The risk group consists of the following categories:
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- Elderly people.
- Patients with established diabetes.
- Adults who are undergoing hormone therapy.
- Men and women who practice wearing contact lenses regularly.
Be alert when you need a viral infection. Often, it becomes the trigger mechanism of conjunctivitis.
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Types of disease
One of the options is the classification by the nature of the provoking factor:
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- Infection process as a result of the vital activity of pathogenic microorganisms - bacteria, viruses, fungi.
- Non-infectious lesion on the background of exposure to an allergen, chemical, injury.
Symptoms in adults in different situations are as follows:
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- When a viral process eyes are affected alternately, lymph nodes are enlarged. Not excluded spasm of the eyelids.
- Complicated bacterial form accompanied by the release of gray or yellow exudate, cilia sticking together after sleep, persistent sensation of a foreign object in the eye, cracking of the corners, dry mucous membrane.
- In the toxic variant As a result of aggressive chemistry, pain and cramps become unbearable when the apples move. Eyes very tired.
- If the disease is caused by gonococci, a purulent ulcer may develop, vision decreases to blindness. A characteristic feature is a short incubation period (not longer than 2 days).
- When exposed to an allergen, there is strong burning and itching, pain.
The course of the disease is acute and chronic.. In the first case, there are pronounced symptoms, their retention is noted for a maximum of 7 days, and a fever may occur. About the chronicle say, when there is a constant burning sensation in the eyes. Such a state often develops if, by the nature of the activity, it is necessary to stay for a long time in a room with excessive dustiness, smoke, and insufficient lighting. Other causes include antritis, helminthic invasions, digestive problems.
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It is possible to properly treat conjunctivitis in an adult if the morphology of the eyeball shell is taken into account. According to this criterion, the following classification of inflammation is provided:
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- Catarrhal - the formation of abundant mucus.
- Purulent - allocation of the corresponding whitish or yellowish secret.
- Papillary - formation of granular seals in the upper part of the eyelids.
- Follicular - the formation of hollow oval structures.
- Hemorrhagic - pronounced hemorrhage.
- Filmy - a feeling of tightening the eyes with a veil. As a rule, a similar phenomenon is observed after transferred ARVI.
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Confirmation of the diagnosis
The doctor prescribes medications for treatment based on the results of the following diagnosis:
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- Examination of the ophthalmologist, the history of the study.
- Cytology smear imprint.
- Counting antibody titer to determine the causative agent.
- Bacteriological examination of the content taken from the conjunctiva.
Depending on the evidence, consultations of the ENT, venereologist, phthisiatrist, infectiologist, and gastroenterologist are appointed.
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How to treat conjunctivitis, drugs
You can improve your condition even before your visit to the doctor, using first aid methods:
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- Instillation of the lower eyelid 2 drops of albucide. Treatment is subject to a healthy eye for preventive purposes.
- The use of sunglasses with a negative reaction to bright or daylight.
In the early days, symptomatic therapy is practiced by applying locally acting drugs to the mucosa. With severe pain, both adults and children are shown drops with anesthetic. To accelerate recovery, hygiene of the lower eyelids is enhanced by washing them with solutions of Dimexidum, Furacilin, manganese, which have antiseptic effect. In this case, it is strictly forbidden to apply eye patch. In cramped conditions and high humidity, microorganisms will actively proliferate, which is fraught with complications and relapses.
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If the spasm is arrested or absent as such, treatment is to eliminate the cause. In this case, determined with a group of medicines:
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- Medicines affecting the pathogenic flora.
Conjunctival recovery after illness
High-quality treatment of eye pathology is a drug regimen and a properly organized recovery period. If one of these components is not taken into account, there is a risk of serious visual impairment due to damage to the mucous membrane.
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Reparants are used for fast and complete tissue regeneration. Maximum efficiency is provided by Solcoseryl Gel, which includes calf blood plasma. The drug starts the regenerative processes at the cellular level, contributes to the activation of local metabolism, enhancing nutrition. The result of systematic treatments for 2 or 3 weeks is the normalization of visual function, the full recovery of the eye mucosa. It is impossible to prescribe a drug on its own, it is necessary to consult an ophthalmologist.
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If conjunctivitis is mild and not associated with serious illnesses, natural remedies or products can be considered as an alternative to medicines.
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- Freshly brewed tea. Both green and black variety will do. Use washing liquid, lotions, treating the eyes 3-4 times a day.
- Chamomile infusion. In a glass of boiling water insist a teaspoon of herbs, filter and use as in the previous version.
- Dill juice. It should only be fresh. Application - as a lotion. Sessions are repeated at least 4 times a day. If a purulent process is diagnosed, an infusion of plant seeds can be prepared.
- Rose hip tea. Pre-chopped fruits in the amount of 2 teaspoons pour 200 ml of water and boil for 5 minutes. After complete cooling of the tool is filtered and make compresses using cotton pads.
- Potatoes. The product for treatment is only suitable raw. Peeled tuber rubbed on a grater, add the protein of one chicken egg, mix well and put the finished mixture on gauze. The duration of the lotion is no more than 20 minutes.
- Infusion of blue cornflower and black elderberry. Each component is taken in an amount of 5 grams, placed in a glass of boiling water and left to infuse for 2 hours. After filtering, tincture of the fruit of the dope is introduced into the product (15 drops) and the medicine is used for washing and instillation. The result is guaranteed even with purulent inflammation, developing cataracts.
- Honey. Bee product is recommended as a substitute for drops, but only in diluted form (1: 5 ratio with water).
- Warm milk. Ideally, it is recommended to use the pair goat product due to its bactericidal properties. Variants of the procedure - washing, instillation.
- Yarrow decoction. Treatment solution is prepared at the rate of a teaspoon of raw material per cup of boiling water.
- Aloe. The plant is used to treat the eyes for allergic conjunctivitis in adults and children. If there is a viral form, the priority is chamomile or soda, which has antiseptic properties.
To prevent ocular pathology, it is enough to adhere to the following recommendations:
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- For washing use only clean water.
- Monitor hand hygiene.
- If there is a tendency to allergies, take antihistamines, as much as possible to eliminate contact with hazardous substances.
- For prophylactic purposes, visit the otolaryngologist, dentist every six months.
If conjunctivitis is still not avoided, you need to remember about the easy transmission of the disease by contact. To protect loved ones from infection, use individual towels, they are often changed, monitor hand hygiene. When all the doctor's prescriptions are met, the treatment takes a minimum of time, relapses are excluded and the eyes shine with health again.
By type of morphology changes
Classification according to the type of changes in the morphology of the mucous membrane of the eyes:
- Catarrhal - mucus secretion.
- Purulent - the formation of pus.
- Papillary - The appearance of seals in the upper eyelid.
- Hemorrhagic - the appearance of hemorrhages.
- Follicular - the appearance of follicles.
- Filmy - appears on the background of a cold.
Each type of conjunctivitis manifests itself in its own way and has symptoms characteristic of a particular form of the disease.
What is eye conjunctivitis?
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye (conjunctiva) caused by allergies, bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other pathogenic factors. Manifestations of this disease can lead to redness and swelling of the eyelids, mucus or pus, tearing, burning and itching, etc. Conjunctivitis is the most common eye disease - they account for about 30% of the entire ocular pathology.
What is conjunctiva? This is the mucous membrane of the eye, covering the back surface of the eyelids and the front surface of the eyeball up to the cornea. It performs quite important functions that ensure the normal functioning of the organ of vision.
- Usually it is transparent, smooth and even shiny.
- Its color depends on the underlying tissues.
- She takes over the daily tear production. The tear it produces is enough to moisturize and protect the eye. And only when we cry the main big lacrimal gland joins in work.
Conjunctivitis, in addition to spoiling the appearance of redness of the eyes and permanent involuntary tearing, causes a number of extremely unpleasant symptoms, with which it is impossible to continue to live in a normal rhythm.
Acute conjunctivitis of the eye
Acute conjunctivitis is characterized by the rapid development of the disease, with severe symptoms. Most often, this variant of the development of the disease is noted in case of defeat by an infectious pathogen. Patients do not notice any precursors, since the main symptoms increase almost immediately.
This type of inflammatory process in the conjunctiva of the eye takes a long time, and a person presents numerous subjective complaints, the severity of which does not correlate with the degree of objective changes in the mucous membrane.
Due to inflammation, the following types of conjunctivitis are distinguished:
- Bacterial - pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, gonococci, diphtheria and pseudo-purulent bacillus) are a provoking factor,
- Viral - provoke herpes viruses, adenoviruses, etc.,
- Fungal - occurs as a manifestation of systemic infections (aspergillosis, candidosiscosis, actinomycosis, spirochrichillosis), or is provoked by pathogenic fungi,
- Chlamydial conjunctivitis - arises from chlamydia on the mucous membrane,
- Allergic - occurs after the introduction into the body of an allergen or irritant to the mucous membrane of the eyes (dust, wool, lint, paint, acetone, etc.),
- Dystrophic conjunctivitis - develops due to the damaging effects of occupational hazards (chemicals, paint, varnish, gasoline vapors and other substances, gases).
Depending on the nature of inflammation and changes in the mucous membrane of the eye, conjunctivitis is divided into the following types:
- Purulent conjunctivitis, which proceeds with the formation of pus,
- Catarrhal conjunctivitis, which flows without the formation of pus, but with abundant mucous discharge,
- Papillary develops on the background of an allergic reaction to eye medications and is the formation of small grains and seals on the mucous membrane of the eye in the upper eyelid,
- Follicular develops according to the first type of allergic reaction and represents the formation of follicles on the mucous membrane of the eye,
- Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is characterized by numerous hemorrhages in the mucous membrane of the eye,
- Membranous develops in children against the background of acute viral respiratory diseases.
Regardless of what caused the onset of the disease, it is important to quickly and competently begin treatment. It can be both drug and folk. The choice is made based on the degree of ocular inflammation and the condition of the patient.
At the moment, there are many reasons for inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes and determining the factors leading to inflammation is a rather difficult task. But the success of treatment of this disease depends on the correctness of determining the causes of inflammation.
The incubation period for conjunctivitis, depending on the species, ranges from a few hours (epidemic form) to 4-8 days (viral form).
So, the most common cause of conjunctivt can be called the following:
- Being in a room where various aerosols and other chemicals of chemical origin are used
- Long stay in the zone of high pollution
- Disrupted metabolism in the body
- Diseases such as meybomit, blepharitis
- Impaired refraction - myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism
- Inflammation of the sinuses
- Too bright sun, wind, too dry air
If conjunctivitis has developed on a professional basis, then it is very important to observe preventive measures to eliminate the harmful effects of irritants.
Treatment in adults
If the infection is caused by bacteria, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics in the form of eye drops, and the disease will disappear within a few days. Often, doctors recommend Floksal. It has a pronounced antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria that most often cause infectious and inflammatory eye damage.
It is important to remember that when bacterial conjunctivitis drops must be instilled 2-4 times a day until the symptoms disappear completely, but not less than 7 days in a row, even if the painful manifestations are removed almost immediately.
How to treat conjunctivitis of viral etiology?
There is currently no definitive answer on how to treat viral conjunctivitis in adults. It should be remembered that treatment should be aimed at the destruction of pathogens that can be varied.
The basis of treatment is antiviral drugs intended for general and local use. To local include drops, ointments containing tebrofen or oxolin. As well as interferon solution.
For acute use, eye drops are used tobrex, okazin up to six times a day. In case of severe edema and irritation, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drops are used: alomid, lekrolin twice a day. In acute conjunctivitis, it is forbidden to tie and glue the eyes, as the risk of corneal inflammation increases many times over.
How to treat conjunctivitis?
The basis of treatment in this case are anti-allergic drugs such as Zyrtec, Suprastin, etc. Additionally, treatment is carried out with local antihistamines (Allergoftal, Spersallerg), as well as drugs that reduce mast cell degranulation. (Alomid 1%, Lecrolin 2%, Kuzikrom 4%). They are used for a long time, entering 2 times a day.
In severe cases it is possible to use local preparations containing hormones, diphenhydramine and interferon.
When the body does not receive assistance in fighting the disease, it is likely that complications will arise, which will be much more difficult to cope with than the disease itself.
- eyelid inflammatory diseases (including chronic blepharitis),
- scarring of the cornea and eyelids,
- allergic, chemical and other conjunctivitis may be complicated by the addition of a bacterial infection.
How to treat conjunctivitis in adults
The eye can be considered healthy only when the cause of the pathology (the infectious agent) is eliminated and the painful consequences are eliminated. Therefore, the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the eye is complex.
The conjunctivitis therapy regimen is prescribed by an ophthalmologist, taking into account the pathogen, the severity of the process, the existing complications. Topical treatment of conjunctivitis requires frequent washing of the conjunctival cavity with medicinal solutions, instillation of drugs, laying of eye ointments, performing subconjunctival injections.
1. Antiseptic preparations: Pikloksidin and Albucidine 20%
2. Antibacterial (etiotropic therapy):
- staphylococcus, gonococcus, chlamydia (erythromycin ointment)
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa (tetracycline ointment and / or chloramphenicol drops)
- virus-associated conjunctivitis (use systemic immunocorrective and immunostimulating treatment, and locally use wide-spectrum antibacterial drugs to prevent secondary bacterial damage)
3. Anti-inflammatory drugs (either steroid or non-steroidal origin) are topically and systemically used for edema and hyperemia: Diclofenac, Dexamethasone, Olopatodin, Suprastin, Fenistil in drops.
If acute conjunctivitis is found, treatment is to get rid of pus:
- For these purposes, furatsilin solution (1: 500), pale pink manganese solution or solution of boric acid 2% is used.
- Rinse the eyes every 2-3 hours, after which antibacterial drops should be instilled.
- If the acute form is caused by coccal flora, the doctor prescribes antibiotics and sulfonamides.
If purulent conjunctivitis in adults has struck one eye, it will still be necessary to wash and process both.
The first of the list - hormonal agents, the latter - anti-inflammatory.
Eye drops for conjunctivitis:
Means may be used to relieve inflammation after the acute process subsides:
As already mentioned, the nature of the disease (viral, bacterial or allergic) can only be determined by an ophthalmologist during an internal examination. He prescribes the final treatment regimen (if necessary, adjust it), self-treatment can lead to the development of complications or the transition of the disease to the chronic form.
In conclusion, I would like to note the fact that conjunctivitis may be the most harmless lesion of the eye, but in some cases it can have significant consequences - even irreversible loss of vision.
Treatment of conjunctivitis folk remedies
In this disease, in addition to drug treatment, it is additionally possible to use folk remedies in adults. For example, you can use not only a solution of furatsilina for washing, but also decoctions of herbs, tea. Than rinse eyes, you can decide on the basis of the presence in the house of certain funds.
- Prepare a mixture of carrot and parsley juices in a ratio of 3: 1. Drink for the treatment of conjunctivitis 0.7 cups 3 times daily before meals.
- Chamomile has long been used as an antiseptic, and when conjunctivitis flowers are made from infusion of flowers. A distinctive feature of the plant is a sparing action that does not harm even pregnant women. 1 teaspoon of chamomile flowers is poured with 1 cup of boiling water. Insist half an hour. Moisten a gauze pad and apply to the eyes 4 times a day.
- Pour 2 teaspoons of wild rose berries with 1 cup of boiling water, heat on low heat for 5 minutes and insist for 30 minutes. Make lotion in the discharge of pus.
- Dill juice is another drug for home treatment of conjunctivitis. From the stalks of dill squeeze the juice and soak them with a cotton swab. Next, the tampon is applied to the sore eye for 15 minutes. The lotion is placed 4 to 7 times a day (depending on the stage of the disease). The course of treatment is at least 6 days.
- Brewing strong black tea is cooled to room temperature. To make compresses on the inflamed eyes. The number of procedures is not limited, the more often the better. Relieves inflammation and speeds recovery.
- Agave is also widely used against allergic conjunctivitis in complex treatment, but drops are made of a plant: They squeeze juice from a large leaf. Mixed with water in a ratio of 1:10. Apply 1 time per day, 2 drops.
- How to treat conjunctivitis bay leaf? You need to take two dry bay leaves, pour boiling water for 30 minutes. Then cool the broth and make lotions based on it. If the tool is used to treat children, the decoction is used only for washing the eyes.
Conjunctivitis of the eye in adults
Conjunctivitis is an inflammatory process that has arisen on the mucous membrane of the eye. The term "conjunctivitis" can not be considered a full name of the pathology without mentioning the cause or nature of the infection, for example, "chronic conjunctivitis" or "allergic conjunctivitis." That is, the full name is used in the history of the disease.
There are several reasons for classifying a disease based on the cause or nature of the inflammation.
Types of conjunctivitis, depending on the cause of it:
Bacterial - pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, gonococci, diphtheria and pseudo-purulent bacillus) are a provoking factor,
Chlamydia - occurs because of chlamydia on the mucous membrane,
Viral - provoke herpes viruses, adenoviruses, etc.,
Fungal - occurs as a manifestation of systemic infections (aspergillosis, candidosiscosis, actinomycosis, spirochrichillosis), or is provoked by pathogenic fungi,
Allergic - occurs after the introduction into the body of an allergen or irritant to the mucous membrane of the eyes (dust, wool, lint, paint, acetone, etc.),
Dystrophic - develops due to the damaging effects of occupational hazards (chemicals, paint, varnish, gasoline vapors and other substances, gases).
Chlamydial conjunctivitis, as well as angular (angular), can be varieties of the bacterial form of the disease.
Types of conjunctivitis, depending on the type of inflammation of the mucous membrane:
Epidemic conjunctivitis (caused by Koch-Wicks stick) is a special case of an acute form of the disease.
Types of conjunctivitis, depending on the morphology of the conjunctiva and the nature of the symptomatology:
Purulent - is formed purulent discharge,
Catarrhal - profuse mucus is formed, there is no pus,
Papillary (appears as a manifestation of allergy) - seals in the form of small grains are formed on the mucous of the upper eyelid,
Follicular (develops according to type 1 of an allergic reaction) - follicles are formed on the mucous membrane of the eye,
Hemorrhagic - hemorrhages are formed on the mucous membrane of the eye,
Filmy - develops on the background of ARVI.
Any kind or form of conjunctivitis has specific signs and typical symptoms.
Symptoms of inflammation
There are several non-specific symptoms that are common to all varieties of conjunctivitis. These include:
- Swelling and redness of the eyelids.
- Swelling of the mucosa.
- Redness of the conjunctiva.
- Reaction to light.
- Rezi in the eyes.
- Feeling "mote" in the eye.
- Discharge of pus and / or mucus.
Most often, conjunctivitis is accompanied by temperature hanging, general weakness, airway catarrh, and so on.
Conjunctivitis is also manifested by specific symptoms that make it possible to diagnose a specific type of inflammation. For this you need to conduct a series of tests.
The symptoms characteristic of each species are described below.
Causes of conjunctivitis
Groups of factors causing conjunctivitis:
The introduction of pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic bacteria (gonococcus, diphtheria or pseudomonas aeruginosa, streptococcus, staphylococcus, meningococcus, etc.),
Viruses, including adenoviruses named the herpes virus,
Pathogenic fungi (aspergillus, candida, actinomycetes, spiro-brown),
Exposure to allergens (medicinal, atopic, seasonal forms of conjunctivitis, use of contact lenses),
Other factors (occupational hazards, chemicals, gases). Hit of provoking factors on the mucous membrane of the eye occurs by airborne droplets (viruses, allergens), ascending from the nasopharynx, middle ear, throat, as well as simply transferring them from dirty hands.
Symptoms of different types of conjunctivitis
Nonspecific symptoms inherent in all types of conjunctivitis:
Redness of the eyelids and conjunctiva,
Swelling of the eyelids and mucous membranes of the eyes,
Foreign body sensation in the eye,
Purulent, mucous or mucopurulent discharge.
If conjunctivitis that occurs on the background of acute respiratory viral infections is accompanied by catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, symptoms such as hyperemia, headache, signs of intoxication (muscle and joint aches, weakness and fatigue) are possible.
The specific symptoms are inherent in various types of conjunctivitis and depend on the factors causing them. Knowing the main manifestations, it is possible to make an approximate diagnosis without laboratory research.
Acute (epidemic) conjunctivitis
The full name of this form of mucosal inflammation is Koch-Weeks acute epidemic conjunctivitis. The reason for its occurrence - Koh Wicks stick. This fact gives grounds to attribute it to the bacterial types of conjunctivitis. However, the rapid spread in the human population and the defeat of a large number of people at the same time allows it to be distinguished into a special form.
The area of acute conjunctivitis is the Caucasus, Asian countries. It practically does not occur in the northern regions, it appears seasonally, more often in autumn and summer, in the form of outbreaks of the epidemic. Infection with Koch-Weeks wand occurs through airborne droplets through household contacts, dishes, household items, water, food.
The incubation period takes 1-2 days, followed by a quick and acute manifestation of symptoms immediately in both eyes. There is a strong swelling and redness of the mucous membrane of both eyelids, eyeball, transitional folds. The lower eyelid is most strongly affected, acquiring the shape of a roller. After a couple of days on the mucous membrane, point hemorrhages appear, pus and mucus begin to separate. The mucous membrane is not damaged, but thin brown films form on it, easily separating from the mucosa. The patient feels pain, feeling of a foreign body in the eye, there is photophobia, lacrimation. The entire surface of the eyeball turns red.
With adequate treatment, the disease ends in recovery after 5-20 days.
The onset of the disease is acute, its main symptoms are severe photophobia, accompanied by rapid redness and swelling of the mucous membrane. During the night, the eyelids are glued together with a small amount of mucopurulent discharge. The lower eyelid is most affected. The disease begins in only one eye, but with poor hygiene it applies to both eyes.
It occurs as a flash in pools and baths.
This form of conjunctivitis is called "corner", often acquires a chronic course. Its occurrence is provoked by the Morax-Axenfeld bacterium. Symptoms - pain and itching in the corners of the eyes, most felt in the evening. The skin in the corners of the eyes is reddened, cracked. A small amount of viscous mucus appears on the reddish mucous membrane of the eye. It accumulates in the corners of the eyes overnight, acquiring the appearance of a dense lump. Timely diagnosis and treatment will quickly relieve the symptoms of the disease, otherwise it will turn into a chronic process.
Observed with viral, allergic and chronic disease. Symptoms - moderate redness and swelling of the mucous membrane of the eyelids and the eyeball, mucopurulent discharge, slight photophobia. Hemorrhages, appearance of follicles and films, enlargement of papillae are not diagnosed. The course of treatment is no more than 10 days, complications do not arise.
The clinical form of allergic conjunctivitis, has a long course. Symptoms - the mucous membrane of the eye becomes uneven and rough due to an increase in the papillae on its surface, itching and burning, pain, scanty mucous discharge appear. A common cause of the appearance of this form is the wearing of contact lenses, eye prostheses, a foreign body entering the eye.
On the mucous membrane of the eye appear infiltrates in the form of papillae and follicles gray-pink color. Manifested by a strong redness, slight swelling of the eyelids and conjunctiva. A characteristic symptom is blepharospasm (closure of the eyelids) and severe tearing.
A possible cause of occurrence is a viral or bacterial lesion. The disease lasts in active form for 2-3 weeks, in a subsiding - another 1-3 weeks, just from 2 to 3 months.
Increased body temperature is not characteristic of conjunctivitis, this symptom is practically not found among the symptoms of the disease. Hyperthermia can join the manifestations of this disease if inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye proceeds against the background of acute respiratory viral infection, bronchitis, acute respiratory infections, laryngitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis.
General principles of treatment of all types of conjunctivitis
The main thing in the treatment of all forms of the disease is to eliminate the cause of the appearance of negative symptoms of the inflammatory process. Drug therapy is used for this purpose.
Symptomatic treatment, eliminating the manifestations of conjunctivitis, is the use of topical preparations. They are injected into the mucous eyes.
Pain that appears with the first signs of conjunctivitis, stop with the introduction of drops with local anesthetics (Lidocaine, Trimekain, Pyromekain). Hygienic treatment of the ciliary edge of the eyelids and the mucous membrane of the eye is carried out with antiseptic solutions (Furacillin, Dimexide, Oxyanate, potassium permanganate, brilliant green).
After the removal of pain and hygienic treatment of the eye, they start treating the cause of the disease, inject antibiotics, antihistamines, antivirals, sulfonamides into the eye. They are used depending on the factors that caused the disease. In the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis, antibiotics are used, in viral conjunctivitis - antivirals (Florenal, Keretsid), in allergic - antihistamines (Dimedrol, Dibazol).
This algorithm is followed until all clinical symptoms of conjunctivitis disappear. All this time it is forbidden to impose any dressings on the eyes in order not to create favorable conditions for bacteria and other pathogenic microorganisms, and not to cause relapses and complications.
Treatment of conjunctivitis at home
Viral conjunctivitis. For the treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis use interferon preparations that have an antiviral effect (Laferon, Interferon). They are used in the form of instillations of the drug solution on the mucous membrane.
The first 2-3 days - interferons for 6-8 p. / Day,
Until complete disappearance of symptoms - interferons for 4-5 p. / Day,
Ointment with antiviral effect (bonaftonic, tebrofen, florenalevaya) - 2-4 p. / Day,
With severe inflammation of the mucous - diclofenac 3-4 p. / Day,
For the prevention of dry eye syndrome, Vidisik, Oftagel, Sistein tear substitutes.
Herpes virus. The herpes virus is destroyed with interferon solutions prepared from the lyophilisate immediately before instillation into the eye. The first 2-3 days they are administered 6-8 times a day, then - 4-5 times. Treatment continues until the clinical symptoms disappear. In severe inflammation, itching and burning, Diclofenac is administered. For the prevention of recurrence or complications apply solution of silver nitrate or Pikloksidin 3-4 times a day.
Bacterial. For quick relief of inflammation, Diclofenac is instilled 2-4 times a day. Hygienic eye treatment is carried out with antiseptic solutions (furatsillin 1: 1000, 2% boric acid). The destruction of pathogenic bacteria is carried out with sulfonamides and antibiotics in the form of ointments and drops (Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Gentamicin ointment, Albucidum, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin). At first they are buried or laid 4-6 times a day, after 2-3 days - 2-3 times a day until the symptoms of the disease disappear. For the prevention of relapse, Piloksidin drops are used simultaneously 3 times a day.
Chlamydia. Treatment of conjunctivitis, triggered by the simplest microorganisms, is carried out with systemic drugs. Most often, it is Levofloxacin (1 tab. Daily for 7 days).
At the same time, drugs with local antibiotics are used 4-5 times a day (Lomefloxacin drops or Erythromycin ointment). They are used from 3 weeks to 3 months to complete relief of conjunctivitis symptoms. Treatment of inflammation is carried out with Diclofenac 2 times a day for a long time. With its inefficiency, Dexamethasone is used with the same frequency. Prevention of dry eye syndrome is carried out with artificial tears (Oksial, Otagel).
Purulent. In this form of conjunctivitis, it is important to promptly and thoroughly remove the purulent discharge with antiseptic solutions (Furacilin, 2% boric acid, potassium permanganate solution). To eliminate the cause of inflammation, apply 2-3 times a day Gentamicin, Erythromycin or Tetracycline ointment, Lomefloxacin drops until complete cure. Puffiness is stopped by Diclofenac.
Allergic. The treatment is carried out with local antihistamines (Allergophthal, Spersallerg), as well as with drugs that reduce mast cell degranulation. (Alomid 1%, Lecrolin 2%, Kuzikrom 4%). They are used for a long time, entering 2 times a day. With the ineffectiveness of these funds additionally use Maxidex, Diclofenac, Dexalox. In the treatment of severe allergic conjunctivitis use eye drops with corticosteroids and antibiotics (Tobradex. Maksitrol).
Chronic. Treatment of this form of conjunctivitis will be successful if timely identify the cause of the disease. Apply drops of 0.25-0.5% solution of zinc sulfate and 1% solution of resorcinol. Alternative drugs - the introduction of p-ra Protargol or Collargol 2-3 p. / Day, laying in the eyes before bedtime yellow mercury ointment.
Ointments for the treatment of conjunctivitis
Pharmacological action: antibiotic with a bacteriostatic action.
Contraindications: jaundice, liver failure, hypersensitivity to macrolide antibiotics
Side effects: itching, redness, allergies, candidiasis, tachycardia, tinnitus, gastrointestinal disorders
Dosage: at 0.2-0.3 g 4-5 p / day
Pharmacological action: antibiotic with bactericidal action
Contraindications: pregnancy, lactation, liver failure, mycoses, leukopenia, children under 8 years old
Side effects: violations of the digestive tract, itching, redness, angioedema
Dosage: 0.2-0.4 g 3-5 times a day
Pharmacological action: antibiotic with a pronounced bactericidal effect
Contraindications: viral and fungal eye damage, increased intraocular pressure, corneal epitheliopathy, hypersensitivity
Side effects: local allergic reaction, burning in the eyes
Dosage: a strip of 1 cm lay in the cavity of the century 2-3 times a day
Yellow mercury ointment
Pharmacological action: is antiseptic
Contraindications: eczema, allergies
Side effects: kidney damage, disorders of the central nervous system,
skin irritation, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract
Dosage: once for the night
Drops for conjunctivitis
Pharmacological action: antiseptic with antimicrobial action
Contraindications: lactation, pregnancy, hypersensitivity
Side effects: burning, hyperemia of the mucous
Dosage: 2-6 times a day, 1 drop for 10 days
Pharmacological action: antibacterial action with a bacteriostatic effect
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to sulfonamides
Side effects: burning, hyperemia, swelling of the mucous membrane, itching
Dosage: 2-3 drops up to 6 times a day
Pharmacological action: local antibiotic
Contraindications: pregnancy, individual intolerance, neonatal period, psoriasis, eczema, mycoses, hematopoietic oppression
Side effects: allergies
Dosage: 1 drop 3-4 p / day
Pharmacological action: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic action
Contraindications: sensitivity to NSAIDs, 3 trimester of pregnancy, children under 2 years old, keratitis, bronchial asthma
Side effects: burning, redness, swelling of the face, fever, erythema, nausea, vomiting, skin rash
Dosage: 1 drop 3-4 times a day
Pharmacological action: hormonal drug with anti-inflammatory, antiallergic action
Contraindications: trachoma, glaucoma, corneal epithelium damage, tuberculosis, viral, fungal eye damage
Side effects: increased intraocular pressure, loss of visual fields, perforation of the cornea
Dosage: 1-2 drops every 2-4 hours
Pharmacological action: antiallergic agent
Contraindications: special sensitivity to the components of the drug
Side effects: burning, pain, conjunctival hyperemia, keratitis, iritis, eyelid swelling, headache, rhinitis, taste change
Dosage: 1 drop 2 times a day
Pharmacological action: antihistamine and antiallergic
Contraindications: lactation, pregnancy, children under 6 years old, lactose intolerance, individual sensitivity
Side effects: allergies, drowsiness, headache, migraine, asthenia
Dosage: inside 1 tablet 3-4 times a day, no eye drops with this name
Pharmacological action: antihistamine drug
Contraindications: lactation, 1 trimester of pregnancy, children under 1 month, prostatic hyperplasia, bronchial asthma, angle-closure glaucoma
Side effects: anxiety, fatigue, drowsiness, gastrointestinal disorders
Dosage: adults 3-6 mg / day in 3 doses, children - from 3-10 to 15-20 drops
Pharmacological action: moisturizing drug, artificial tear
Contraindications: allergy to the components of the tool
Side effects: extremely rare allergic manifestations
Dosage: as needed or 1-2 drops 4-5 times a day
Pharmacological action: antibacterial and anti-inflammatory
Contraindications: mycoses, fungal diseases of the eyes, conditions after removal of a foreign body, viral diseases of the cornea, hypersensitivity
Side effects: itching and swelling of the eyelids, increased eye pressure, corneal ulcers
Dosage: 1-2 drops every 4-6 hours
What is restorative treatment after conjunctivitis?
The consequence of conjunctivitis may be visual impairment, triggered by damage to the mucous membrane. Early treatment will help to completely eliminate the discomfort. To restore the structures of the eye and the regeneration of the mucous in ophthalmology used reparants. The most effective of these is Solcoseryl Gel, made from calf blood plasma.
Solcoseryl acts at the cellular level, quickly restoring the eye tissue, activating the metabolism. After the accelerated regeneration, the visual functions are quickly restored, the mucous membrane of the eye returns to normal. A full course of rehabilitation treatment with Solcoseryl takes from one to three weeks.
Before using the drug should consult an ophthalmologist.
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Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye that has arisen as a result of the influence of various negative factors. Adults for various reasons are more likely to suffer from this pathology than children. Often conjunctivitis is provoked by pathogenic microorganisms, viruses, fungi. Simultaneously with the appearance of conjunctivitis, the patient can transfer.
Constantly increased eye pressure leads to the development of glaucoma, and it - to a decrease in visual acuity, and subsequently to blindness. Most often, the disease develops in older people, so these patients should be especially careful when there is a pressing eye pain.
Depending on what exactly caused the itching of the eyes, irritation may affect not only the mucous membrane, but also the eyelids. In some situations, itching in the eyes is triggered by allergic components, which are located in the air. Similar substances, or.
Eye inflammation is a complex adaptive response of a compensatory nature in response to the action of factors in both the external and internal environment. It can be localized both in the eye itself and in the eye area. The severity of inflammation depends on the cause of it caused. Eye reaction to irritant.
Angular (angular) conjunctivitis
It is caused by Bacillus Morax-Axenfeld. Usually wears a chronic form. There are pains and itching at the corners of the eyes. The skin is reddened there, cracking is possible. The discharge is thick and slimy, congealed in lumps.
Without treatment, inflammation can last for many years.
Drugs for treatment
The Ministry of Health recommends using ointments and eye drops for conjunctivitis.
- Erythromycin (antibiotic),
- Tetracycline (antibiotic),
- Gentamicin (antibiotic),
- Yellow mercury (antiseptic).
- Picloxidin (antiseptic),
- Levomycetin (antiseptic),
- Albucid (antiseptic),
- Diclofenac (anti-inflammatory),
- Olopatodin (anti-inflammatory),
- Suprasin (antiallergic),
- Oksial (moisturizing) and so on.
Treatment methods folk remedies
Traditional medicine can only be an additional means of treatment.
The most effective are such methods as:
- Dill compresses. Grind dill greens to a slurry and squeeze juice from it. Moisten a clean cloth with it and apply to eyes for 20 minutes.
- Drops from honey. One part of honey to part in two parts of boiled water. Drip if necessary.
- Lotion of wild rose. 2 teaspoons of crushed rosehip pour a glass of boiling water. Insist half an hour, strain and make compresses.
- Lotions and washing with plantain extract. Pound a teaspoon of plantain seeds. Pour boiling water and insist 30 minutes.
- Compresses from dope. Fresh leaves chop and pour boiling water. Insist 30 minutes and strain.
As a result of inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, vision loss may occur. Even after long-term treatment, discomfort can sometimes be observed, but they can be eliminated with proper treatment.
Experts advise immediately after the disappearance of the unpleasant symptoms associated with conjunctivitis, to begin treatment with the help of local drugs that will quickly restore the damaged eye mucosa.
One of the most effective drugs to accelerate the recovery of the mucous is a gel based on the blood of young calves Solcoseryl.
This gel allows you to awaken metabolic reactions in the cells, as a result of the tissue of the mucous membranes are restored faster. When regeneration occurs, the functioning of the eyes is also restored. The drug allows uniform tissue formation. Treatment with Solcoseryl can take up to three weeks.
Before using this drug, be sure to get the advice of an ophthalmologist.
Diffuse clouding of the lens.
How to remove the swelling of the upper eyelids, read this article.
Conjunctivitis treatment: video
Conjunctivitis is a serious problem and requires mandatory treatment. In order not to aggravate the situation, it is necessary to follow the rules of hygiene: use individual towels, linen, wash hands, not visit public places, do not wash with water with a high content of chlorine.
Proper, carried out on time treatment will allow to cure conjunctivitis in the shortest possible time. It is imperative to visit an ophthalmologist, who will determine the form of the disease and prescribe drugs for therapy - antibacterial eye drops, antiviral or antiallergic drugs.