What threatens vocal cords fibroma


The larynx is a part of the respiratory system, consists of a breathing tube and vocal apparatus. The vocal cords are the muscular fold of the mucous larynx and are located in its middle part.

Fibroma of the vocal cords is the most common type of benign tumor that affects the vocal cords. It is an occupational disease in people of speech professions (singers, speakers, teachers) and occurs as a result of prolonged regular overstrain of ligaments.

Laryngeal fibroma is non-invasive, does not ulcerate, does not give metastasis. It is a fibrous connective tissue, covered with flat epithelium. It has a thin leg, sometimes it can be located on a broad base. The tumor has the shape of a ball with a size from a few millimeters to a centimeter. This is a single node located on the upper surface or the free edge of the vocal cords.

Fibroma can occur in different parts of the larynx, but is more often localized on the true vocal cords, namely, on the free edge of the anterior commissure, or between the anterior and middle thirds, rarely on the lower or upper surface of the vocal fold.

Fibroma is usually gray or pinkish, but if there are many blood vessels in its structure, it may be red or purple-blue (angiofibroma). There are two types of fibroids: soft and dense. When hyaline degeneration of the connective fibers of the tumor forms a solid fibroma. If the neoplasm contains a large amount of fluid and a small dense component, a soft edematous gelatinous fibroma, also called a polyp, is formed. It is located usually on a long leg.

Fibromas are more common in middle-aged men. They grow slowly and rarely reach large sizes, usually they are no larger than a pea. If the fibroma is located on a thin stalk, it floats during conversation and breathing, preventing normal ligament closure. This can lead to aphonia, hoarseness, diploponia, sometimes it causes coughing, and in rare cases it makes breathing difficult.

Causes of vocal cord fibroma

The main cause of vocal cord fibroma is voice overload, i.e. overvoltage of the cords. Thus, the specifics of the work sometimes leaves an imprint on teachers and singers. Significantly increase the likelihood of neoplasm of alcohol abuse, drying the larynx mucosa.

Smokers over time mucous changes, it becomes thickened and blood-filled, which contributes to the appearance of tumors. People are also susceptible to the disease, often staying for a long time in dusty rooms with dry air or with harmful vapors. This leads to the thinning of the mucous and the disruption of its glands. There is sore throat, constant dryness, cough.

Symptoms of vocal cord fibroma

The main symptoms of fibroma of the vocal cords are occasional neck pain that does not develop hoarseness in the voice. Fibroma can cause an increase in false vocal cords as they partially take over the voice function.

In such cases, the voice of a previously hoarse patient improves, but it is nevertheless rougher, lower than before and does not sound as clear as before. And since, with the participation of false vocal cords, the external auxiliary muscles of the larynx are constantly tense, the patient has a sensation of pain in the anterior part of the neck.

Difficult breathing can also signal the presence of fibroma of the vocal cords. This happens when the tumor reaches considerable size.

Diagnosis of fibroma of the vocal cords

Due to the fact that the disease can occur without any symptoms at all, it is sometimes diagnosed by chance at the next otolaryngological examination. If symptoms occur, you should visit an otolaryngologist. The doctor will hold a mirror laryngoscopy.

Usually, the full mobility of the ligament and leg of the tumor are the main difference between fibromas and malignant neoplasms. However, to fully clarify the benignity of the tumor, a histological examination of the tumor is carried out after the node has been removed.

Fibroma treatment of the vocal cords

Since the fibroma of the vocal cords can become malignant, the only method of treatment is its removal. Removal is carried out with the following tools: guttural loop, guillotine, various forceps. In this case, blood loss is negligible.

After surgery for several days you can not take hot food and drink. Also during the week you can not raise your voice, and for people of speech professions, the period is increased to two or three weeks. After removal of the tumor, the voice immediately becomes clear. The prognosis is favorable.

Expert Editor: Pavel Alexandrovich Mochalov | D.M.N. general practitioner

Education: Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - “Medicine” in 1991, in 1993 “Occupational diseases”, in 1996 “Therapy”.

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Fibroma is a benign skin tumor formation, usually solid or light pink in color, with clear boundaries. It consists of connective or fibrous tissue and usually rises above the surface of the skin, located on a broad base or on the leg. Does not cause pain to the person.

Fibroma in medicine is called a benign neoplasm consisting of coarse-fibered bundles of connective tissue and fibroblasts. Most often it is not dangerous for a person’s life, but there are cases when the fibroma grows uncontrollably, causing various problems. A tumor can develop in various places, including bones, feet, and uterine walls.

There are two types of fibroma. The first one is hard skin fibroma. In most cases, this neoplasm is located on a broad basis, but sometimes solid skin fibroma has a leg. To the touch it is dense, limitedly mobile. This type of fibroma can be formed both on the skin and.

Most women with uterine fibroma do not experience any symptoms and only 25% of women have clinical symptoms that depend on the location of the tumor relative to the pelvic organs, its size, the number and direction of growth of fibroma nodes. A characteristic symptom of fibroids is prolonged menstruation, passing into.

A benign tumor is a pathological neoplasm with a slow or absent rate of development. Timely treatment gives positive predictions - in most cases, the patient completely gets rid of the disease, there is almost no recurrence. The danger for a person is a tumor that covertly develops in the body.

Types of benign neoplasms

  • A tumor localized in the larynx can develop from different anatomical structures:
  • nerve endings
  • vessels
  • cartilage tissue
  • glandular components of the mucosa.

Most often affect the larynx such tumors as:

The rare tumors of benign nature include:

Occur pathological process may for several reasons. In the case of congenital pathology, the reasons for its occurrence may be:

  • genetic predisposition
  • the impact of negative factors on a pregnant woman, for example, past infectious diseases, smoking, radiation exposure,
  • reception during pregnancy of illegal drugs.

The reasons for the development of an acquired tumor in children and adults are:

A benign lesion, such as laryngeal fibroma, is localized in the region of the vocal cords. The cause of this pathology often becomes a systematic overload of the vocal cords, mainly singers, teachers, actors suffer due to the nature of their activities. The second most common cause of fibroma is smoking. Medical proven fact that smokers over time changes the structure of the laryngeal mucosa. On it there is a seal, the blood flow is broken, which is a favorable environment for the development of fibroma.

Fibroma grows slowly, its size does not exceed the volume of the pea. Due to the fact that the localization of such a bundle on the vocal cords, it can lead to hoarseness and even aphonia, that is, complete loss of voice. By its structure, fibroma can be soft or hard.

Such nodules bring considerable discomfort to its owner. The symptoms of fibroids include:

  • failure of the vocal cords, manifested in hoarseness, hoarseness or complete loss of voice,
    fatigue during speech,
  • discomfort and pain in the larynx,
  • dry cough and tickling,
  • shortness of breath, difficulty breathing.

But the nodules do not always lead to the symptoms described, often fibroma may not manifest itself either for a long time, being in the area of ​​false vocal cords.

Diagnosis of the fibrous nodule occurs by inspection of the larynx with laryngoscopy. Fibroma treatment occurs surgically, the tumor should be removed in any case, since there is a risk of transformation into a malignant tumor. In addition, fibrous nodules lead to complications in the vocal cords. As a rule, excision of the nodule produced through the lumen of the larynx, using special forceps.

Fibroma is not a life-threatening disease, but can bring a lot of inconvenience, without timely treatment. But the main danger lies in the possible transformation into cancer, so it is better not to delay the process of removing the nodules.

Polyps of the larynx are one of the types of fibroids, they have a smooth or lobed
surface, round or oval shape. Can be located on the leg or on a wide basis. Polyps do not lead to tissue infiltration. Polyps cause a hoarse voice, but do not lead to aphonia. Polyps can affect respiratory function only in young children, adults do not have this problem. If there is a rapid growth of a polyp (within a few weeks), a biopsy will be prescribed by a doctor to rule out the malignant process. Conservative treatment measures are not able to cope with the disease, for complete restoration of the function of the vocal cords, surgical removal of polyps is required. For small polyps or solitary formations, conservative treatment may be suggested, based on voice therapy. Such measures will not completely eliminate the pathology, the symptoms will decrease, it may even disappear completely for a while, the formations will become softer and smaller in size, but with the slightest overload of the vocal cords, the clinical picture will return.

Another benign formation that affects the vocal cords is the nodules. There is a proliferation of tissue, turning into a seal, with the passage of pathology, they harden, and the nodules become similar to corns.

Nodules occur most often due to overloading of the vocal cords, usually by occupation. In addition to loads, the cause may be:

  • smoking,
  • reduced thyroid function,
  • inflammation of the upper respiratory tract (usually in children),
  • hormonal changes,
  • frequent and violent crying in children.

A characteristic difference in nodules from polyps and other formations is their symmetrical placement on the vocal cords. At the beginning of its development, the nodules are red, compacted, their surface acquires a white tint. The main symptom of the formation of nodules is hoarseness, his hoarseness.

In most cases, after voice rest, the problem disappears on its own. If infectious processes have become the cause of the development of the pathology, more often this problem occurs in children, then it is necessary to deal with the infection initially. Then the nodules disappear themselves. In the case of advanced form and severe puffiness, in addition to voice rest, medical therapy may be required. Assign glucocorticosteroid and antihistamines to relieve swelling, as well as anti-inflammatory drugs.

The need to surgically remove the nodules rarely occurs only if conservative treatment does not give the proper result. Endolaryngeal microsurgery is used to remove lesions. Cryosurgery and laser techniques can also be used.

During the recovery period after treatment of pathology, rest is recommended for the vocal cords, quitting smoking, hot and spicy foods, so as not to cause additional irritation of the mucous membrane of the larynx. Also, the room in which the patient is located should be well moistened.

Formations, such as angiomas, in the structure of all benign tumors of the larynx occur in approximately 13% of cases. Angioma is formed from lymphatic or blood vessels. Often, the symptoms are absent for a long time, with the growth of angiomas such symptoms can occur:

Angiomas are divided into:

  • hemangiomas, they grow from blood vessels, can reach large sizes. The danger of such an education is that when it is injured, severe bleeding can begin,
  • lymphangiomas arise from the lymphatic vessels, they, as a rule, grow such formations that are not large, no more than the size of a pea, are not subject to bleeding.

The main method of treatment is the excision of angiomas, followed by a rehabilitation period.

Benign neoplasms have a favorable prognosis with timely treatment. The main task of the patient and the doctor is to prevent the transformation of education into a malignant tumor, as well as to avoid serious complications in the form of, for example, aphonia. Voice rest, medication or surgery, if necessary, will relieve you of possible complications.

The tumor may be congenital or acquired. This is an occupational disease of people whose activities are related to communication.

Laryngeal fibroma can also be congenital non-malignant pathology.

What is this ailment?

Fibroma of the larynx is called a benign neoplasm, which most often affects the folds of the vocal cords. The tumor has a spherical shape and consists of connective tissue. Neoplasms do not tend to grow into surrounding tissues and are not prone to ulceration. This pathology progresses in the presence of provoking factors. The volume of fibroma increases slowly and does not exceed the size of a pea.

Connective tissue formations are soft or hard. Externally, they look like nodules of white or pinkish color. Neoplasms become red when blood vessels penetrate them thickly. Polyps are translucent tumors on a dense stem. Papillomas are round or slightly elongated neoplasms.

Benign neoplasms are divided into two types - congenital or appeared during life. Quite often among them are found:

Laryngeal fibroma may not bring painful symptoms and develop against the background of other diseases or negative environmental factors.

  • fibroma is a single formation that includes connective tissue,
  • a polyp is a type of fibroma,
  • papilloma is a hollow single outgrowth of a mushroom shape,
  • Angioma - a congenital tumor of vascular origin.

The appearance of congenital neoplasms is due to a hereditary factor, infectious diseases transferred during pregnancy (HIV, syphilis, rubella), uncontrolled medication, and radioactive radiation. The causes of acquired neoplasms are often associated with:

  • long load on the vocal cords,
  • reduction of body defenses,
  • viral diseases (measles, flu),
  • chronic inflammatory diseases of the throat (pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis),
  • endocrine disruption,
  • adverse working conditions (smoke, dust, toxic production),
  • bad habits
  • climate change
  • prolonged breathing through the mouth (adenoiditis),
  • diseases of the digestive tract.

People who often speak in their field of work are at risk of getting fibroids in the larynx. Back to table of contents

Risk group

  • speakers
  • singers
  • teachers of schools and universities,
  • TV and radio hosts
  • guides and guides.

Representatives of the above professions should regularly perform a set of exercises aimed at relaxing the muscular system of the larynx. These categories of people should be especially careful to monitor their state of health - avoid hypothermia, if possible not be subjected to an abrupt change in climatic conditions, and lead a healthy lifestyle. It would not be superfluous to regularly visit an otolaryngologist for preventive purposes. An experienced specialist of a narrow profile will be able to notice in time adverse changes occurring in the larynx, and, if necessary, prescribe the removal of a neoplasm.

Symptomatology

Among the main symptoms that indicate the defeat of the structures of the vocal cords, the most common:

  • hoarseness and hoarseness,
  • pain in the neck,
  • difficulty breathing
  • feeling of "lump" in the throat,
  • aphonia (sudden loss of voice)
  • rapid fatigue of the vocal cords (during a conversation, the speech becomes quieter),
  • an obsessive cough, sometimes even with bloody discharge,
  • dyspnea,
  • in severe cases, asphyxia.

Back to table of contents

Complications

  • aphonia (loss of voice)
  • hoarseness and hoarseness,
  • diplophony (the formation of two tones of different heights during the pronunciation of one sound),
  • difficulty breathing
  • cough

To determine the extent of lesion of the larynx fibroma will need to undergo a hardware examination on the recommendation of a doctor. Back to table of contents

Diagnostic procedures

After a thorough visual inspection and anamnesis, the doctor proceeds to an instrumental examination of the patient's larynx. If a fibroma is suspected, an examination is performed with a laryngoscope. If the doctor considers it necessary, then use an endoscope. A benign neoplasm of the larynx can be detected accidentally during the examination of the trachea or bronchi. To determine the localization and nature of the neoplasm, stroboscopy (determination of fixed parts of the vocal cords), x-ray methods, MRI, CT and ultrasound are used. To clarify the histology of the tumor, prescribe a biopsy.

Treatment of the disease

It is possible to get rid of a fibroid of a throat exclusively in the operational way. In modern medicine there is no single standard method of treatment, but in any case, complex therapy is used. In addition to surgical methods, doctors practice the use of electrical destruction, cryo-laser, and radiation therapy. Even if the procedure is performed qualitatively and in a timely manner, this is not a guarantee that the fibroma is not formed again.

Conservative therapy is impractical due to the possible intensive growth of a benign neoplasm and the risk of it becoming malignant. Therefore, the only treatment is radical removal of the tumor. During the rehabilitation period, you must observe the diet, do not eat too hot or spicy foods, alcohol and smoking are contraindicated, and raising your voice is prohibited for more than 14 days.

Treatment of fibroma of the larynx, as a rule, is carried out in conjunction with the operation and drug therapy.

During the recovery period, the use of folk methods is allowed, but only with the permission of the doctor. Traditional medicine recommends during this period to use a solution of honey, propolis and aloe juice in the form of a triple rinse. Also as a means for rinsing apply the infusion of Hypericum. Pinch dried plants pour 1 cup of boiling water for 30 minutes. Gargle every two hours.

Laryngeal fibroma surgery

If the patient has established and confirmed the diagnosis of vocal cord fibroma, then therapy will be radical and operative. The removal of fibroids with small sizes is carried out using endoscopic methods using various medical instruments. Tumors of small size are excised together with the sheath. Most often, adults are operated on under local anesthesia, but general anesthesia is also possible. In the case of fibroids of large size or with difficult access to it, the tumor is removed through an incision in the neck. If the tumor is significant in size, it is first punctured, the contents are aspirated, and then the tumor walls are removed. For the prevention of recurrence of fibroids, throat cryotreatment is performed.

To eliminate laryngeal fibroma, drug therapy is not used. During surgery for excision of a neoplasm of an insignificant size, a 10% solution of lidocaine can be used as a local anesthetic in the form of a spray. Drugs needed during the postoperative period are prescribed by a doctor taking into account the volume of surgical intervention. With the preventive purpose and to strengthen the body's defenses during rehabilitation, doctors recommend immunomodulators and antiviral drugs.

Prevention and prognosis

  1. rejection of harmful habits (smoking and systematic use of alcoholic beverages),
  2. timely treatment of diseases affecting the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract,
  3. If possible, spare the vocal cords,
  4. ensure that the air in the room is humid
  5. use personal protective equipment when working with toxic fumes or in a dusty room.

The benign neoplasm of the larynx of a small size does not pose a threat to human life. But if the visit to the doctor is postponed for a long time, the fibroma causes a number of problems associated with loss of voice, reduced lumen of the larynx and shortness of breath. It must be remembered that a laryngeal tumor, like many benign tumors, is prone to malignancy, regardless of location. In the event of the first disturbing symptoms, it is necessary to consult a specialist in the near future.

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Fibroma of the vocal cords

Benign neoplasms of laryngeal tissue are a group of neoplastic diseases that do not have a tendency to spread to neighboring structures and form metastases. The most common pathology in this area is the vocal cords fibroma. Such a tumor consists of fibrous connective cells.

Features of the fibroma of the vocal cords

By its internal structure, the fibroma of the vocal cords is hard or soft. Fibrotic lesion of the larynx in the overwhelming number of cases develops in people whose work is connected with the overstrain of the vocal apparatus (teachers, announcers, actors). The disease is limited, thereby excluding the infiltration of nearby tissues. The shape of the pathological focus resembles a ball, covered from the outside with a flat epithelium. Fibroma ligaments, predominantly formed in men of middle age category.

This formation, not exceeding the size of a pea, is placed on a thin base. It can cause hoarseness, loss of voice, chronic cough and difficulty in respiratory function.

Causes of the disease

The disease can occur both after birth and at a more mature age. The true root causes of pathology to date, experts have not established.

The occurrence of congenital benign tumors of the ligamentous apparatus is affected by:

  • Infectious diseases of a pregnant woman.
  • Radiation exposure of the fetus.
  • The use of illicit pharmaceutical preparations.

Acquired anomalies of the structure of the pharyngeal tissues are accompanied by the following somatic conditions:

  • decreased activity of the immune system,
  • chronic viral lesions,
  • inflammation of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract,
  • hormonal imbalance.

In oncological practice, it is customary to distinguish between the following risk factors for the development of vocal cord fibroma:

  1. Harmful working conditions when production facilities are supersaturated with steam or toxic substances.
  2. Permanent tobacco smoking and abuse of strong alcoholic beverages.
  3. Long fixation of the breathing tube.
  4. Genetic predisposition.
  5. Abnormal mouth breathing.
  6. Adverse climatic conditions.
  7. Chronic pathology of the gastrointestinal tract.

Structural features of fibroma

Fibroma is a benign neoplasm of a nodular shape that germinates from the connective tissue. A tumor covered with an epithelial membrane is more often attached to the mucous membrane of the larynx by means of a thin leg, or, less commonly, a broad base. The size of the tumor does not exceed 10 mm, but the number of formations grows to several centimeters.

Depending on the volume of fluid that accumulates inside the fibroma, the neoplasms have a soft or dense texture. A tumor is characterized by clear boundaries. As the fibromas develop, they do not metastasize and do not grow into neighboring structures.

Fibroids are divided into congenital and acquired. The first type of tumor arises due to hereditary predisposition and is detected in children in the first year of life.

Fibromas also develop in newborns due to the influence of infectious pathologies transferred by the mother during pregnancy, or prolonged use of certain drugs by a woman.

  • viral pathologies
  • inflammatory nasopharyngeal processes,
  • strong intoxication organism,
  • dysfunction endocrine systems that
  • gastric diseases,
  • hormonal imbalance.

Fibromas of the vocal cords often appear in patients who have previously been injected into the larynx with a breathing tube. In addition, tumors arise in the oral cavity due to weakened immunity. The likelihood of developing a tumor on the vocal cords increases if the person breathes mainly through the mouth.

The course of the tumor process in the oral cavity is usually accompanied by pain, which radiates to the neck. The patient has difficulty breathing. The appearance of fibroids is also associated with changes in the tone of voice (hoarseness appears). A sick person during the development of a tumor cannot talk for a long time. Over time, a complete loss of voice is possible.

In rare cases, the patient is worried about coughing up blood. With large neoplasms, frequent shortness of breath. Running tumors cause asphyxiation.

How to treat fibroids of the vocal cords?

Stages of surgery:

  1. Allergic test, which is necessary to clarify the body's response to the anesthetic. The lack of patient hypersensitivity is considered to be the tolerance for the next stage.
  2. Local anesthesia. Anesthesia is carried out by applying a 10% solution of “Lidocaine” (- a) on the surface of the mucous membrane in the form of a spray.
  3. Directly removing the fibroma of the vocal cords. An otolaryngologist uses special forceps to cure the tumor-like body from the laryngeal area. During the surgical procedure, the specialist captures the tumor with the working part of the instrument and gently pulls oncoforming. For successful therapy, a high qualification and experience of a doctor is necessary so that it does not damage the mucosa nearby.

Immediately after surgery, the patient's voice is restored and there is an improvement in overall well-being. In the first ten days, doctors recommend:

  1. Refrain from overloading the vocal cords. The patient should talk as little as possible.
  2. Strict bed rest.
  3. Exclude hot or excessively cold foods from the daily diet.
  4. Do not drink carbonated or alcoholic beverages.
  5. Refrain from bad habits.

Also, oncologists consider it necessary to undergo a preventive medical examination later. Diagnostic visit to the ENT department operated operated every six months.

Laryngeal fibroma

The larynx is one of the parts of the respiratory system, representing the vocal apparatus with a breathing tube. In the middle of the larynx passes the muscle fold - vocal cords.

To present at least a schematic anatomical structure of an organ is needed in order to understand which symptoms speak of problems.

The vocal cords are affected by laryngeal fibroma, especially for people whose professional activity is related to the tension of the ligaments - these are singers, toasts, speakers, teachers, etc. The tumor is considered benign, does not give metastasis and ulcers.

Education consists of fibers of connective tissue in the shell of the squamous epithelium. The tumor is attached on a thin stalk, sometimes on the base. Fibroma grows from a couple of millimeters to a centimeter. A single tumor nodule is located on the vocal cord above or attached to the free edge. Less commonly, a tumor is detected in other parts of the larynx.

Fibromas are divided into dense and soft varieties, the color can vary from gray to pink, with a large accumulation of blood vessels, the color of the tumor becomes dark red, down to blue.

Often laryngeal fibromas are detected in middle-aged men. Tumors do not grow larger than a pea. When the fibroma is attached to the larynx with a thin leg, during a conversation or breathing it interferes with the normal closure of the ligaments, which leads to coughing, difficulty breathing, hoarseness and loss of voice.

Causes of tumor formation

The main factor causing the formation of fibroma, is the tension of the ligaments for a long time. As mentioned above, the actors and singers, teachers are subject to the disease.

Other reasons provoking the appearance of benign tumors on the vocal cords are:

  • long stay in the room with hot dry air,
  • smoking,
  • alcohol abuse
  • nasal breathing problems
  • heredity,
  • injuries of the vocal cords and larynx,
  • chronic laryngitis,
  • frequent colds and viral infections in the throat.

Signs of fibroma in the throat

Fibroma can be determined by hoarse voice, which remains so for a long time. Also cause to go to the doctor will be a pain in the neck, a change in the sound of the voice. The picture may appear brighter and disappear for a while. In addition, patients complain of the following symptoms:

  • dry cough, with blood particles interspersed,
  • feeling of coma in the throat,
  • fatigue of the vocal cords, the person begins to speak in a whisper,
  • if you strain your voice, the larynx will hurt,
  • breathing is impaired, even choking.

Sometimes the disease proceeds without signs, the fibroma is hidden behind the ligaments, appearing during coughing or when a person takes a deep breath.

If the disease does not manifest itself, it is possible to identify it during a preventive physical examination. In order to prevent complications, it is not advisable to visit an otolaryngologist once a year so that he examines the state of the respiratory and hearing organs. The doctor during the inspection draws attention to areas that cause discomfort to the patient.

Mirror laryngoscopy along with endoscopy are used to assess the condition of the larynx. A tumor may be noticed as a result of a survey of the bronchi and trachea, then a biopsy is performed to determine the nature of the neoplasm. In benign fibromas, in contrast to malignant tumors, there is a high mobility and the presence of legs.

Whatever the preliminary diagnosis regarding the nature of the tumor, after removal, it is sent to the laboratory for examination.

Treatment of fibroma of the larynx

Conservative methods for detecting fibroids on the vocal cords do not help, delaying treatment can lead to an increase in education and the risk of degeneration into a malignant tumor. In order to prevent the development of events, the patient is prescribed a surgical intervention.

Through the larynx, the fibroma is removed in an endoscopic manner, the doctor tries not to leave fragments, they can give a relapse. If the doctor cannot get to the tumor through the throat (when it is large or hidden behind the vocal cords), an incision is made in the neck. The fibroma itself is removed with forceps or a special loop. Also, laser, radiation therapy, ultrasound, cryodestruction are used to remove tumors.

If the operation is successful, a clear voice will return to the patient, without wheezing. True, you need to carefully use the bundles, without straining them for about 3 weeks. Especially careful to be in the first few days after the removal of fibroids - smoking and alcohol are prohibited, and food and beverages should be comfortable (warm) temperature. It is advisable to eat pureed food - mashed potatoes, cereals, which will not injure the throat.

In addition to traditional medicine, the doctor may recommend some recipes from medicinal herbs - these are ointments and decoctions that will relieve inflammation and slow the growth of pathological formations. Usually after the operation, plantain, birch leaves and buds, bay leaves are prescribed.

Rinse throat should be regularly birch sap, you can use propolis tincture. The doctor will prescribe the exact dosage and duration of medication, based on the patient's age and health condition, the degree of damage to the ligaments, etc. Herbs alone will not get rid of the disease, but will allow faster recovery.

As a prevention, you need to stop smoking and stay close to smokers, because passive smoking is fraught with inhalation of toxins. It is necessary not to abuse alcohol, time to cure diseases of the throat and respiratory tract, to moisten the air in the premises. Attention to health will minimize the risk of getting sick.

Why does laryngeal fibroma occur?

What is laryngeal fibroma? Fibroma of the throat can most often form, according to statistics, in almost 60% of cases. You can find it on such sites:

  • free edge of the vocal cords,
  • border, separating the front and middle third.

Fibroma of the vocal cords looks like this: fibrous connective tissue, the surface of which is covered with epithelium. Depending on how many vessels she has, depends on the intensity of staining in red shades. The tumor is very mobile, has a narrow leg. This type of tumor can be dense or soft, this factor depends on the relationship between its base and cells. When happens

hyalinization of fibers, the tumor is becoming more dense. If the oral cavity fibroma contains less dense parts than parts of the edematous fluid, then this disease is attributed to polyps of the larynx. If it contains many blood vessels, then it is angiofibroma. If the fibroid leg is too large, the tumor because of this infinitely changes position. When a person inhales, the tumor may be lower than the glottis; during the pronunciation of sounds, it may be found between the vocal cords or be located directly on them. Often a person changes the timbre of his voice, the sonorousness disappears, in medicine such a manifestation is called an aphonia.

Causes of disease

Most often, oral fibroma is directly related to the profession of a person, that is, it occurs when the vocal cords have a strong load and are in constant tension. These are teachers, actors, singers, speakers. But most often such a tumor is found in middle-aged men.

The growth of fibroids is not very fast, and it usually does not grow too much, having a diameter of about 1 cm, which, fortunately, does not make breathing more difficult. If fibroma appears on the vocal cords, then it can be determined without a doctor, but by changes in the voice, which becomes hoarse, then there is a frequent cough, then the voice forks, which is called diploophony in medicine.

Malignant tumors differ from fibroids in that they have no legs, and the mobility of the vocal cords is not preserved.

What are the causes of the disease? It is noticed that there are tumors of benign nature, congenital or acquired during life. Congenital tumors occur most often during the pregnancy of the mother, if at that time she was ill with rubella, hepatitis, syphilis, was taking complex drugs, was irradiated. Heredity can also cause the appearance of a tumor of the oral cavity. Acquired disease manifests itself in such cases:

  • disrupted the immune, hormonal and endocrine systems,
  • after long loads of vocal cords,
  • after a viral infection,
  • there was a chronic inflammation of the mucous,
  • the body is affected by harmful substances, most often associated with chemical production,
  • permanent stay in a dry, dusty or smoky room,
  • a person does not know the measures in the use of alcoholic beverages and smoking,
  • installed as needed breathing tube,
  • breathing is impaired when the nose is constantly blocked.

Recognize that this is oral fibroma can be on the following grounds:

  • numerous changes in voice
  • change in breathing, shortness of breath,
  • instant fatigue during a conversation. The voice is getting quieter, it may suddenly disappear completely, and if the vocal cords are tense, pain appears,
  • there is constant discomfort in the throat,
  • if there is a cough, then with blood,
  • there is pain in the neck.

Often, oral cavity fibroma does not have too obvious signs, however, with a very intense exhalation or a strong cough, it can be found that a person has developed a vocal cord fibroma.

How to treat the disease?

How is the disease treated? An otolaryngologist will be able to detect fibroma using mirror laryngoscopy. Then a histological examination is carried out, since in very rare cases, sarcoma or cancer may also have a pedicle. Doctors, in order to get rid of the tumor, not only of the larynx, but also when another fibroma is found in the mouth, only surgical intervention is offered. The operation is performed through the larynx, but if the tumor is large in size, a neck is incised in a certain place. To determine exactly where fibroma is located, mucosal studies are performed using x-rays, ultrasound, MRI and other diagnostics. For a better study, apply stroboscopy, checking the movement of the vocal cords to detect those areas that have lost mobility. A biopsy is also performed to reveal the nature of the tumor. Carry out the treatment of the larynx and oral mucosa with ultrasound, laser or radiation therapy.

Period after surgery

After the operation, it is desirable to remain silent for several days, and then not to raise the voice for about a month. Too hot and cold foods and drinks are prohibited in the first week. Do not smoke or drink alcoholic beverages. If a cough occurs after surgery, the doctor has the right to prescribe narcotic drugs. Then it is necessary to be checked constantly in the hospital, since all the tumors located in the mouth, on the mucous membrane, can suddenly turn into dangerous tumors.

Fibroma may appear on the cheek, lips, tongue, gums. And at the same time it looks like small dense nodules or resembles branched polyps. Most often, the fibroma of the gums, cheeks, lips occurs in the younger generation - from 6 to 15 years. Such a fibroma is treated surgically.

Benign tumors of the larynx are neoplasms localized in the larynx, not prone to malignant growth and not having metastases.

Microscopic examination of benign tumors, you can determine from which cells it was formed, with a malignancy of the tumor, such a study is not informative. In many cases, benign laryngeal tumors are characterized by a long, asymptomatic course. Sometimes a manifestation of a benign tumor may be hoarseness or hoarseness of the voice, respiratory failure, cough.

Forecast of benign laryngeal tumors

With timely diagnosis of tumors and the implementation of adequate therapy, the prognosis is favorable, the patient recovers completely.

Some types of neoplasms (laryngeal papillomatosis) are prone to relapses, their treatment is difficult, since often surgical interventions need to be repeated, which entails repeated postoperative rehabilitation of the patient and the risk of postoperative complications (infection, bleeding).

With the late diagnosis of certain types of tumors (chondroma) in the patient's body, the process of malignancy starts and the tumor becomes malignant, which greatly complicates the treatment and increases the risk of complications. In this case, along with standard surgical treatment, patients are prescribed courses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. A positive result of treatment depends on the timeliness of the pathology and the size of the tumor, as well as on the presence of concomitant diseases.

Recommendations after the removal of the vocal cord fibroma

Immediately after surgery, the patient's voice is restored and there is an improvement in overall well-being. In the first ten days, doctors recommend:

  1. Refrain from overloading the vocal cords. The patient should talk as little as possible.
  2. Strict bed rest.
  3. Exclude hot or excessively cold foods from the daily diet.
  4. Do not drink carbonated or alcoholic beverages.
  5. Refrain from bad habits.

Also, oncologists consider it necessary to undergo a preventive medical examination later. Diagnostic visit to the ENT department operated operated every six months.

The causes of fibroma

It is important to know! The main cause of this type of tumor is the overload of the vocal cords.

Significantly increases the risk of fibroma alcohol abuse, which is able to dry the mucous membrane of the larynx. The chances of the appearance of this type of tumor increase, if you recently put a breathing tube, heredity can also affect the cause of fibroma.

Also, the mucous membrane suffers in people who smoke, over time it becomes blood-filled and thickened, which is favorable conditions for the occurrence of tumors. The risk is higher for those people who are in dusty or polluted premises for a long time, the mucous membrane dries out, coughing and constant dry mouth appear.

The reason for the occurrence of this disease can serve as a hormonal disorder, it is extremely difficult to understand the cause of fibroma. Sometimes there is none at all.

It is important to know! The main symptoms of fibroma can be considered pain in the neck, persistent hoarseness.

In addition, this type of tumor can cause false ligaments, as they take over their function. In this case, the patient's voice improves, but it sounds lower and less clear. And if we take into account the fact that with the participation of false vocal cords muscles or muscles of the larynx tense, the patient has pain in front of the larynx.

Fibroma is not always noticeable, sometimes there are no manifestations of symptoms of a tumor, and sometimes it is diagnosed by chance during a medical examination. If you have found this disease, we recommend that you contact an otolaryngologist, who will perform a mirror laryngoscopy.

The main difference between fibroma and malignancy is its high mobility of the ligament and the leg of the tumor. But just in case, after removing the node, a medical specialist conducts a histological study.

Causes of benign laryngeal tumors

A feature of all neoplasms of the human body is that it is rather difficult to determine the reliable reason for their appearance, and sometimes it is completely impossible. Studies in the field of benign laryngeal tumors have shown that this type of neoplasm may be congenital or acquired.

Benign laryngeal tumors of congenital nature may develop due to malfunctions during fetal development, if the mother of the child had infectious diseases during pregnancy (viral hepatitis, rubella, measles, HIV, syphilis, mycoplasmosis, chlamydia), or took highly toxic drugs. The same negative effect on the fetus can have radiation exposure.

The emergence of acquired benign tumors of the larynx can contribute to a number of factors:

  • viral diseases (influenza, adenovirus infection, herpes infection, HPV),
  • immune system malfunction
  • prolonged exposure to harmful substances (inhalation of industrial and tobacco smoke, dust),
  • chronic inflammatory diseases (chronic laryngitis, adenoids, tonsillitis, pharyngitis),
  • increased voice load
  • dysfunctional disorders of the endocrine system.

Symptoms of benign laryngeal tumors

The main clinical manifestation of laryngeal neoplasm is a change in voice (hoarseness, hoarseness). Also, patients may complain of sore throat, discomfort in the throat and frequent coughing. The symptoms of this pathology largely depend on the type, size and location of the tumor. There are the following types of benign laryngeal tumors:

These are tumors consisting of adipose tissue, in most cases they are yellow in color and located on the pedicle.

These are benign tumors that originate from cartilage. They have a firm texture and are prone to malignancy.

Fibromas of the larynx

Formed from connective tissues. Fibromas have a spherical shape and are localized on the upper surface or on the side of the free edge of the vocal cords. These tumors can have a size of 5 to 15 mm. These tumors are located on the leg, they usually have a smooth surface of gray tint. Sometimes there are many blood vessels in the fibroma, in which case its color becomes red.The symptom of fibroma will be a change in voice, if the tumor is large in size - breathing may be impaired.

Laryngeal angiomas

They have a predominantly congenital etiology and develop from cells of the vascular tissues. The most common isolated neoplasms. A feature of tumors that develop from blood vessels (hemangiomas) is the ability to germinate in nearby tissues and frequent hemorrhages, such tumors are colored red. Tumors from lymphatic cells (lymphangiomas) are not prone to invasive growth, their color is usually yellowish.

Laryngeal papillomas

Appear in adults, represented by dense fungal processes with a broad base. Such neoplasms are often isolated. The color of papillomas varies from whitish to red, depending on the intensity of their blood supply. Sometimes papillomas are prone to spreading to the mucous membrane of the trachea. Juvenile papillomas can be observed in children, most often they appear in children from one to five years old, they are prone to self-extinction during puberty of a child. Often, children develop multiple papillomas that affect large areas of the laryngeal mucosa, a phenomenon called papillomatosis. Papilomatosis visually resembles cauliflower. Usually, the pathological process is localized on the vocal folds, but in some cases it is possible to spread it to the subcellular region, epiglottis, trachea, or scapular-shaped folds. In papillomatosis, the patient's voice becomes hoarse. In chronic form of papillomatosis there is a risk of chronic laryngeal stenosis.

One of the varieties of fibroids of the larynx are polyps. A feature of these tumors is that in their composition, in addition to connective fibers, there will be a lot of fluid and cellular elements. Laryngeal polyps can grow to the size of a pea, they are located on a thick stalk and have a less dense texture compared to fibromas. The main site of localization of these tumors is the front of one of the vocal cords. Often, polyps have the only clinical manifestation - hoarseness.

Laryngeal cysts, like angiomas, are in most cases congenital. The mechanism of cyst development is the modification of gill slits in the process of fetal embryonic development disorders. When blockage of the excretory ducts of the mucous membrane of the larynx may develop retention cysts. Retention cysts are found only in childhood. This type of benign neoplasms rarely grows large, so they are characterized by an asymptomatic course.

Diagnosis of benign laryngeal tumors

Diagnostic measures for benign laryngeal neoplasms begin with the collection of the patient’s history, special attention is paid to identifying specific complaints (voice change, breathing problems), patient’s work patterns (frequent inhalation of dust, gases or other harmful substances at work), as well as chronic diseases and harmful habits.

Laryngoscopy

Then carried out inspection (laryngoscopy). In the process of laryngoscopy, the patient's tongue is fixed, they are asked to relax and breathe calmly, with the help of a laryngeal mirror the surface of the larynx is examined, sometimes endoscopic instruments are used for examination. When a neoplasm is detected, attention is paid to its size, shape, color and location.

Stroboscopy

In order to determine the fixed parts of the vocal cords, stroboscopy is performed to the patient. This research method is carried out by intermittent illumination of the vocal folds using light waves of a certain length. To record the results of the research video stroboscopy is performed. The study of voice function is carried out using phonetography.

To clarify or confirm the diagnosis, the patient is CT scan of the larynx.

An integral part of the diagnosis of benign neoplasms of the larynx is a morphological study of the biological samples of the affected tissue, which is carried out in order to clarify the composition of the tumor, as well as to exclude the malignancy of the tumor. This study is performed using a biopsy of the tumor.

Treatment of benign laryngeal tumors

Therapeutic tactics in relation to benign neoplasms of the larynx depends on the type and size of the neoplasm, but in 90% of cases, in order to achieve a positive result, surgical intervention is necessary. The definition of the method of surgical treatment depends on the type of tumor, the age and general condition of the patient.

Endoscopic surgery

For isolated papillomas, fibromas and small single polyps, endoscopic operations are recommended, the essence of which is to remove the neoplasm with a laryngeal forceps or loop. Such surgical interventions are performed under the control of a surgical microscope. In the case of removal of cysts of the larynx, initially the aspiration of the contents of the neoplasm, and then excision of the tumor together with its sheath. In papillomatosis of the larynx, all pathologically changed areas are excised.

Excision with subsequent processing

The optimal method of treating small hemangiomas germinating in neighboring organs is excision followed by diathermocoagulation, treatment with liquid nitrogen or laser irradiation. If the hemangioma has reached a large size and has sprouted into the walls of the larynx, sclerosis of the tumor or occlusion of the vessels that feed it is indicated. Treatment of the wound surface of a benign tumor after its removal can be carried out in order to prevent recurrence. Almost all operations are carried out using local anesthesia, except in cases where the tumor is large and sprouted into adjacent tissues. Sometimes large tumors can block breathing to the patient, in such a situation, an emergency tracheotomy is indicated.

Indications after surgery

After the operation, the patient must adhere to a gentle voice mode and a sparing diet, which excludes food intake, which can irritate the mucous membrane of the larynx (spicy, sour, salty, too hot or cold food).

For the prevention of benign larynx tumors, it is necessary to exclude the influence of harmful factors during pregnancy (smoking, alcohol), prevent infectious diseases, as well as monitor working conditions - try not to stay for a long time in smoke-filled, dusty rooms and it is important to promptly treat acute laryngeal diseases.

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Benign neoplasms of laryngeal tissue are a group of neoplastic diseases that do not have a tendency to spread to neighboring structures and form metastases. The most common pathology in this area is. Such a tumor consists of fibrous connective cells.

Treatment of benign vocal folds

  • Treatment of all types of benign vocal cords, except for the choroid, is only surgical. Tumors are removed through the larynx (endolaryngeal) using a microscope and microtools or, for large education sizes, by external access (through an incision in the neck).
  • Instead of traditional cutting tools to remove tumors of the vocal cords, laser, electrosurgical methods, ultrasound, cryodestruction (cold) are also used.
  • Vascular tumors respond well to radiation therapy. They can also be removed surgically, but the risk of bleeding is high.
  • For the treatment of papillomas (papillary growths of the mucous membrane) of the larynx, antiviral, chemo-and radiation therapy is also used.
  • At first, after surgery, voice rest is recommended.
  • In the future, they recommend rational voice loads - try not to scream, not to sing in an uncomfortable range.
  • Assign breathing and voice exercises.
  • In the early stages of “vocal nodules” or granulomas of the vocal cords (tumor-like conditions that are bumps on the surface of the vocal cords), conservative treatment is possible: observance of the voice mode, voice exercises, exclusion of irritating factors (smoking, alcohol, inhaling smoke, etc.) ), infusion of enzyme, astringent drugs into the larynx.
To prevent re-development of the tumor, the following measures are taken:
  • it is necessary to convince the patient to quit smoking, explain that with continued smoking, the likelihood of developing laryngeal cancer is quite high,
  • when working in dusty, gassed conditions, with caustic volatile substances, it is recommended to reduce contact with them, to use protective equipment (best of all, a respirator or at least gauze bandages),
  • correction of nasal breathing disorders (for example, surgical correction of a curved nasal septum),
  • timely treatment of diseases of the upper respiratory tract and stomach,
  • restriction of stay in a very hot or cold, dry, smoky, dusty atmosphere,
  • a stay in a dry sea climate has a beneficial effect
  • correction of hormonal disorders,
  • air humidification in the room.
  • Refusal of bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse).
  • Timely treatment of diseases involving a violation of nasal breathing.
  • Prevention and treatment of diseases of the stomach.
  • Avoid inhalation of irritants (corrosive or hot vapors, very dusty air).
  • Doctors avoid prolonged (more than 3-5 days) or traumatic (for example, using a too wide tube) intubation (installing a breathing tube for breathing problems or when performing operations under general anesthesia).
  • Seek medical attention at the first signs of the disease.

    Additionally

    Signs of benign laryngeal tumors:

    • in its structure, the tissue of the tumor resembles the tissue of the vocal fold,
    • the surface is usually smooth, without ulceration,
    • education is growing relatively slowly
    • does not grow into the laryngeal tissue,
    • does not violate the mobility of the larynx (does not violate the work of the joints and muscles that are necessary for the implementation of the functions of the larynx - respiratory, conversational, protective),
    • does not metastasize - tumor foci in other organs.

    The vocal cords are a muscular fold located in the middle part of the larynx. Fibroma, appearing in this zone, provokes pain and breathing difficulties. Due to the location of the tumors of this type require surgical intervention.

    Signs and effects of migrating granuloma

    • Alena Kostrova
    • May 27, 2019

    The course of the tumor process in the oral cavity is usually accompanied by pain, which radiates to the neck. The patient has difficulty breathing. The appearance of fibroids is also associated with changes in the tone of voice (hoarseness appears). A sick person during the development of a tumor cannot talk for a long time. Over time, a complete loss of voice is possible.

    In rare cases, the patient is worried about coughing up blood. With large neoplasms, frequent shortness of breath. Running tumors cause asphyxiation.

    Symptoms and danger of a tooth cyst in the maxillary sinus

    • Alexander Nikolaevich Belov
    • May 27, 2019

    Laser removal is among the minimally invasive, in which the neoplasm is burned in layers. This procedure eliminates the possibility of formation of bleeding in the oral cavity.

    Minimally invasive techniques are used mainly for small tumors. Large fibroids require radical intervention.

    After surgery, patients need to reduce the load on the vocal cords. It is recommended to eat softened food, pre-cooled to room temperature. During the rehabilitation period it is forbidden to smoke to drink alcohol. The vocal cords after surgery are restored within 10-14 days.

    If necessary, the doctor prescribes medications that prevent the accession of a secondary infection. In order to prevent complications, daily gargling with antiseptic preparations is recommended.

    Possible complications

    Complications caused by growth of the vocal cords usually occur in the postoperative period. Errors of the surgeon or non-compliance with medical recommendations lead to throat bleeding. In this case, you must consult a doctor.

    Running neoplasms are able to mutate, which leads to the appearance of fibrosarcoma, or a malignant tumor. Such transformations are extremely rare. In addition, in the absence of adequate treatment, fibroids cause loss of voice and stenosis.

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