Colpitis: symptoms, treatment, diagnosis, causes, prevention

Kolpity (vaginitis) include a whole group of diseases in which inflammation occurs in the vaginal mucosa.

Vaginitis manifests itself in modern women very often. According to medical statistics, about 70% of all women who lead an active sex life, at one time were sick or continue to hurt bacterial colpitiswhile the number of such patients is constantly increasing. Such a wide spread of this disease can be explained, first of all, by the frequent manifestation of various sexually transmitted infections, as well as by ignoring the basic standards of personal hygiene, environmental problems and massive deterioration immunity.

Sometimes the consequence of vaginitis, in which inflammation spreads to the vaginal mucosa, is vulvovaginitis. For this disease is characterized by involvement in the inflammatory process and the external genital organs of a woman.

Types of colpitis

There are several different classifications of colpitis used by specialists in the process of diagnosis and subsequent treatment of patients. According to the duration and nature of the inflammatory process, types of colpitis are divided into sharp, subacute and chronic form. Given the type of pathogen, is determined non-specific and specificvaginitis.

In the process of classification also take into account the age of patients: in this case, distinguish vaginitis girls, women in the reproductive and menopausal period. In addition, the nature of the discharge is taken into account (it can be a question of serous vaginitis, purulent vaginitis), factors that preceded the development of the disease (postpartum, post-abortion form of the disease).

Pathogens colpitis

Specific and non-specific colpitis develops as a result of exposure to different types of bacteria. Specific colpitis provoke those bacteria that should not be found in the vaginal mucosa in a healthy woman. In this case we are talking about gonococcusdue to the impact that develops gonorrheal vaginitis, Trichomonas colpitis provokes trichomonas, chlamydia cause chlamydial vaginitis, under influence Treponema pallidum develops syphilitic vaginitis, mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculous vaginitis, mycoplasma and ureaplasma provokes mycoplasma or ureaplasmavaginitis.

Sometimes in the female vagina there is a mixed nature of the pathogenic flora, that is, viruses, fungi or other bacteria are also present. But if they are combined with the pathogens described above, we are still talking about a specific vaginitis.

The development of nonspecific vaginitis is the result of exposure to the so-called conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. Under normal health conditions of a woman, such microorganisms are part of the normal microflora of the vagina. However, under the influence of certain conditions such bacteria become pathogenic.

Depending on the nature of the pathogen, nonspecific vaginitis is divided into bacterial vaginitis(they are provoked by streptococcus, protei, E. coli, Staphylococcus, Gardnerella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), fungal vaginitis, viral vaginitis (they are provoked by the herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus), mixed vaginitis.

It should be noted that if a woman develops non-specific vaginitis, its symptoms are similar to specific vaginitis. However, the treatment tactics are different, since with a specific form of the disease it is very important to examine and treat all of its sexual partners.

In addition to the described forms of the disease, it also stands out separately atrophic vaginitis, which is a peculiar complex of symptoms in elderly women, as well as in those patients who underwent certain surgical operations that caused premature menopause.

Features of chronic vaginitis

If timely treatment of colpitis was not ensured or ineffective therapy was used, the inflammation of the vagina gradually becomes chronic. If we estimate the general structure of the incidence of vaginitis, then approximately 40% of women have chronic colpitis. Doctors explain this situation, first of all, by the fact that during vaginitis the clinical picture is not always completely clear. Accordingly, the patient may not consult a doctor for a long time. Indeed, with the development of certain forms of colpitis, the patient does not have any marked symptoms, and it is possible to detect the presence of the disease only in the process of gynecological examination and examination for genital infections. To some extent, some ethical component is important: not every woman can speak openly about such intimate problems.

The course of chronic vaginitis is protracted: it may well continue for several years, while delivering anxiety to the patient only in some cases, for example, subsequently severe hypothermia, on menstruation days or during of pregnancy.

But at the same time, a woman must necessarily be disturbed by the fact that with chronic vaginitis the risk of manifestation of an ascending infection increases significantly, which, in turn, causes inflammatory diseases of the fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus. With such serious ailments, a woman may develop over time. infertility.

Symptoms of colpitis

The manifestation of colpitis symptoms can significantly impair a woman’s overall quality of life. First of all, the patient is worried about pronounced aesthetic discomfort due to copious whitening. This, in turn, directly affects her intimate life: the sexual activity of a woman with vaginitis decreases sharply, respectively, the level of satisfaction from sexual life worsens.

Vaginal discharge with non-specific colpitis, they have a pathological character: they may be relatively unusual, have an uncharacteristic color. The smell of discharge also changes, it is mild, but rather unpleasant. In some cases, vaginal discharge becomes thicker, having a creamy consistency. However, the discharge can also become too fluid.

Another characteristic symptom of vaginitis is persistent itching, unpleasant feelings of pressure, a feeling of constant irritation in the genital area of ​​a woman. If the disease only develops, then such symptoms can occur only periodically. Gradually, however, these signs become permanent.

During intercourse, the woman also experiences pain, which can be pronounced or relatively weak. But still, such feelings significantly affect the satisfaction of intimacy, so some women with vaginitis generally prefer to avoid sexual intercourse. Sometimes after intercourse, slight bleeding may occur.

The urination process in a female patient with vaginitis is also difficult: she may experience pain and discomfort. In this case, very often the patient, considering that she develops an inflammatory process in the bladder, begins to treat this particular disease. Accordingly, the appeal to a specialist gynecologist again delayed for a long time.

In addition to the general nonspecific signs of colpitis, there are also certain symptoms that manifest themselves in some forms of bacterial vaginitis.

Gonorrheal Vaginitis It is manifested by secretions that have a yellow-white color, thick consistency and an unpleasant unpleasant odor. For Trichomonas vaginitischaracterized by the appearance of green-yellow discharge, which may be frothy. At the same time in the abdomen sometimes there is a noticeable discomfort and pain. With bacterial coccal vaginitis discharge will be particularly abundant, white or yellowish, unpleasant smell is expressed slightly. If takes place fungal vaginal damage, discharge will be cheesy, similar to white flakes.

A strong unpleasant odor is characteristic of congestive vaginitis, while the selection will be transparent.

Acute non-specific vaginitis is also expressed by some common symptoms. The patient may feel a certain lethargy and weakness, can significantly increase body temperature. The external genitals redden, there may also be swelling, pussy plaque. In the acute phase of the disease, a woman is practically unable to have sex due to acute discomfort and pain.

In the chronic phase of the disease, the symptoms are always blurred, increasing only with exacerbation.

Diagnosis of colpitis

It is possible to determine whether the patient has colpitis when examining the cervix and vagina using a gynecological mirror. The gynecologist determines the characteristic features of the appearance of the vagina, the presence of plaque, erosion. Colposcopy allows to obtain a more accurate picture, which determines the nature of changes in the mucous membrane of the cervix and vagina. In addition, microscopic examination of smears from the vagina, cervix. In order to accurately identify microorganisms that are causative agents of the disease, bacterioscopic examination of smears is practiced, and also, if necessary, seeding is carried out. Sometimes when nonspecific colpitis is diagnosed with "colpitis of unknown etiology." Very often, when vaginitis is also associated with gynecological diseases, therefore, to determine their patient is often prescribed an ultrasound.

Treatment of colpitis

Starting treatment of colpitis, the doctor selects the method of therapy in such a way as to achieve several different goals as a result. First of all, it is important to eliminate those factors that have the development of colpitis. We are talking about overweight, wrong approach to catering, availability hormonal imbalance, chronic foci of infection.

Next, apply methods aimed at the actual treatment of vaginitis. In order to choose the right tactics of therapy, one should definitely know which vaginitis - specific or nonspecific - takes place in a patient. In addition, it is important to determine whether treatment with antimicrobials is necessary.

The most difficult treatment is a non-specific bacterial vaginitis, which has a chronic form. The illness, as a rule, becomes aggravated after the woman has transferred a viral infection, or the chronic infection has become aggravated. Thus, exacerbation can pyelonephritis, chronic sinusitis, caries and other diseases. In this case, it is very important to apply the correct approach to the treatment of a concomitant illness.

In parallel, general and local treatment of colpitis is prescribed. As procedures aimed at local therapy, the vaginal lavage is performed using antiseptic preparations (dioxidine, nitrofural, miramistin). Also inserted into the vagina sticks containing antibioticscandles with hexicon. Without fail, the patient is prescribed drugs that contain cultures of bacteria that form the normal microflora of the vagina. Also in the treatment of vaginitis must be assigned immunomodulators (in particular, candles containing interferon), drugs with antihistamine effects. The course of basic therapy lasts from ten to fifteen days and is performed outside the hospital.

This is followed by general measures, due to which a woman should clearly understand all the rules of intimate hygiene, as well as take measures to strengthen the body's immune system. If a woman has a specific colpitis, then systemic antibacterial therapy is required, as well as a mandatory examination of all sexual partners of the patient.

It is very important not to take measures for the treatment of vaginitis on their own: the doctor should appoint all the drugs after the diagnosis of the disease.

In addition to traditional methods of treatment, gynecologists often practice the use of certain folk remedies. However, it is important to understand that such methods work only in combination with traditional therapies.

Folk techniques consist of washing and douching using decoction of bird cherry, chamomile, calendula. You can take sedentary baths with broths of celandine, thyme. In the course of treatment tampons are also used, which are abundantly moistened with ginger root or oak leaf decoction. Such tampons are laid in the vagina at night. But all these methods can be applied only if the attending physician is aware of this.

Classification of colpitis

Depending on the type of pathogen that provoked the disease, colpitis is divided into specific and nonspecific. Specific vaginitis is caused by gonococci, trichomonads, fungi and other infections.

According to the localization of the initial infectious focus, colpitis is divided into:

  • primary, when the process immediately develops into the vagina,
  • secondary, in the case of ingress of infectious agents into the vagina from other places (ascending - from the surface of the vulva and descending - from the uterus).

The course of the disease causes the following forms:

  • acute colpitis
  • subacute colpitis,
  • chronic colpitis
  • sluggish vaginitis,
  • latent (hidden) vaginitis,
  • asymptomatic colpitis.

Separately distinguished senile colpitis or atrophic (age).

Vaginal microflora is normal

In a healthy woman of childbearing age, the vaginal microflora is 95–98% composed of lactobacilli or Doderlein sticks. Doderlein sticks break down glycogen, which is “obtained” from desquamated epithelial cells of the surface layer of the vaginal mucosa. With the breakdown of glycogen, lactic acid is formed, due to which the pH of the vaginal environment is shifted to the acidic side (4.5 or less). Acidic vaginal environment is a kind of protection against pathogenic microbes, as many of them are not able to grow and multiply in such conditions. Also, lactobacilli form hydrogen peroxide and a number of antibiotic-like substances, which strengthens the protection and prevents the vagina from settling with unwanted microorganisms.

In addition to lactobacilli, bifidobacteria live in the vagina, which also protects it from infection. Vital activity and the number of lactobacilli depends on the production of estrogen. Therefore, with the onset of premenopause, when estrogen production decreases, the vaginal mucosa becomes thinner and the number of lactic acid bacteria decreases, which leads to the development of age-related colpitis.

Also, under various other conditions leading to a decrease in lactic acid bacteria in a healthy and young woman, the vagina is very quickly colonized by “occupants” - pathogenic microorganisms.

In addition to lacto-and bifidobacteria, other microorganisms are also present in the vagina in a small amount:

  • streptococci
  • enterococci,
  • peptokokki,
  • staphylococcus,
  • bacteroids,
  • fungi of the genus Candida and others.

Causes of colpitis

As already noted, the disease is caused by the colonization of the vagina with pathogenic microorganisms or the activation of conditionally pathogenic pathogenic flora. Conditionally pathogenic flora is represented by microbes, which in the normal state of immunity are in equilibrium with the usual flora, but the balance is very fragile.It is necessary to weaken the immune system, and this flora becomes pathogenic. The following types of microorganisms can serve as causative agents of vaginitis:

  • Trichomonas,
  • Fungi of the genus Candida,
  • cytomegalovirus,
  • myco-and ureaplasmas
  • numerous intestinal flora,
  • Proteus,
  • staphylococcus,
  • streptococci
  • Corinobacteria,
  • gonococci
  • chlamydia
  • tubercle bacillus and others.

In girls, vaginitis may be caused by pathogens of childhood infections that enter the vagina with a blood stream (secondary vaginitis). It can be causative agents of measles, diphtheria, scarlet fever and others.

But in order for the disease to begin to develop, certain conditions or predisposing factors are required:

  • non-compliance or, on the contrary, excessive enthusiasm for intimate hygiene,
  • hidden genital infections
  • promiscuous sex life
  • endocrine pathology (thyroid disease, diabetes),
  • genital trauma (gross sex, deprivation of virginity),
  • cramped synthetic
  • pregnancy and menstruation (changes in hormonal levels and weakened immunity),
  • menopausal age
  • oncological diseases and their treatment (chemotherapy, radiation),
  • acquired and congenital immunodeficiency states,
  • lack of vitamins
  • allergic reactions
  • antibiotic treatment, especially uncontrolled,
  • hormones,
  • anomalies of the genital organs (gaping genital slit or omission of the vaginal walls),
  • damage to the mucous during childbirth,
  • hypofunction of the ovaries,
  • use of intrauterine device,
  • improper and poor nutrition,
  • diseases of the digestive tract,
  • spontaneous and artificial termination of pregnancy,
  • scraping the uterus.

Clinical picture

The clinical picture of the disease is quite diverse and is largely determined by the type of pathogen and the form of the course. The main signs of vaginitis are:

  • burning, itching in the vagina,
  • the number of vaginal secretions increases significantly, the nature of which is different (cheesy, pussy, homogeneous milk, foaming, blood or mixed with blood),
  • discharge has an unpleasant smell
  • redness and swelling of the genital lips are possible,
  • aching or nagging pain in the lower abdomen,
  • pain during coitus,
  • dysuric disorders (frequent and painful urination),
  • temperature rise.

In the case of acute obesity, all the manifestations are pronounced: burning and itching are significant, heaviness in the lower abdomen suggests problems with internal organs, and abundant discharge. In severe cases of the disease, a significant rise in temperature is possible, up to 38 degrees or more. As a rule, such a picture is characteristic of a specific colpitis (gonorrheal or trichomonas).

In chronic coleitis, the picture is less bright, the symptoms are erased. The disease flows for a long time, with periodic exacerbations. Discharge becomes moderate, serous or serous-purulent.

When viewed in a chair in the mirrors, edema, hyperemia and "looseness" of the vaginal mucosa are detected. Petechial and point hemorrhages are noticeable on the mucosa, reddish nodules (infiltrates) and erosive sites may appear. In advanced cases, the cervix is ​​involved in the inflammatory process, which leads to cervicitis or pseudo-erosion.

Trichomonas colpit

This form of the disease is caused by Trichomonas, which are transmitted sexually. The household way of infection with Trichomonas, as some patients prefer to think, is impossible, because the pathogen quickly dies in the external environment. Symptoms of Trichomonas colpitis so severe that the diagnosis is not difficult. Characterized by significant whites, wearing a very unpleasant smell. Discharges are usually foamy and have a yellowish tint. In case of attachment of non-specific microflora, the secretions turn green. The infection spreads very quickly, affecting the cervix, uterus and urethra, which manifests itself in dysuric disorders and abdominal pain. Sexual acts are unpleasant and even painful, accompanied by bleeding.

Atrophic colpitis

With atrophic vaginitis, the symptoms are practically absent. The disease is sluggish, patients may or may not complain. Most often worried about burning and itching, feeling of "tightness" in the vagina and its dryness. Sexual intercourse is painful, after it there is discharge with blood or even minor bleeding occurs. Due to the decrease in the number of lactobacilli that perform a protective function, conditionally pathogenic microorganisms actively reproduce in the vagina, which provoke local inflammatory processes and increased secretions. Such secretions are watery, there is blood in them after some procedures (washing and douching of the vagina, gynecological examination). When viewed in the mirrors revealed a pale pink thinned mucous membrane with a lot of pin hemorrhages. In many cases, due to the dryness of the vagina, the introduction of gynecological mirrors is difficult.

General recommendations

For the period of illness the patient is recommended to observe sexual rest. Sexual intercourse not only aggravates the discomfort, but also contributes to the rise of infection and reinfection. It is also necessary to adhere to a certain diet. It is necessary to refuse spicy and salty food (in case of candidal vaginitis and sweets), alcohol is prohibited. In the diet should prevail fresh vegetables and fruits, and lactic acid products.

If you identify a specific pathogen (for example, Trichomonas, gonococci), treatment is also prescribed for the sexual partner. In severe cases of the disease (significant fever and marked discomfort in the vagina), sexual rest is prescribed.

Be sure to respect intimate hygiene. It is necessary to wash away at least twice a day, in the case of menstruation after each replacement of the gasket. When vaginitis occurs in a girl, they wash it off after each use of the toilet.

Vaginal douching

Vaginal douche or douching is prescribed for a period of 3 to 4 days, so a longer course of procedures promotes desquamation of the epithelial cells of the surface layer of the mucous membrane and disrupts the healing process. For douching use antiseptic solutions:

  • a solution of potassium permanganate in the ratio 1/5000 - 1/8000,
  • 0.5% solution of rivanol,
  • decoction of sage or chamomile,
  • solution hlorfillipta,
  • soda solution (dilute 2 teaspoons per liter of boiled water) is effective with viscous purulent lechas.

Douching is carried out three times a day. In parallel, sessile baths are given with decoctions of healing herbs or antiseptics.

Non-specific vaginitis

  • Polygynax (composed of polymyxin, neomycin and nystatin) - has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal effects, is prescribed a course of 7-14 days twice a day,
  • serzhinan (composition: ternidazole, neomycin, nystatin and prednisolone) - a similar effect, the course of treatment is 10 days, injected 1 candle per day,
  • Vokadin (composition: Devin-Iodine) a course of therapy for 1 - 2 weeks, 1 suppository is administered per day,
  • mikozhinaks (composition: metronidazole, chloramphenicol, nystatin and dexamethasone) - appointed for 1 - 2 weeks for 1 - 2 suppositories per day.

Gardnerellosis

  • Dalatsin ointment (consists of tinidazole, synestrol, vitamin C and lactic acid) - a course of treatment for 7–10 days, tampons with ointment are administered in the morning and before going to bed in the vagina,
  • ginalgin (consists of metronidazole and chlorochinaldol) - the duration of therapy is 10 days, 1 suppository per day,
  • Klion-D (composition: metronidazole and miconazole) - an antimicrobial and antifungal effect, is administered 1 vaginal tablet once a day for 10 days.

Trichomonas vaginitis

  • metronidazole in the form of vaginal suppositories (ginalgin and klion, flagil and trichopol) - a course of treatment for 10 days, 1 candle daily,
  • tinidazole (active substance fazizhin) - a similar treatment,
  • Hexicon - candles are introduced 3 times a day for 7–20 days,
  • neo-penotran (consists of metronidazole and miconazole) - a course of 1 - 2 weeks, 1 suppository twice a day.

Courses of treatment of trichomoniasis are carried out three times, after each menstruation.

Candida vaginitis

  • nystatin - in the form of suppositories for 1 to 2 weeks,
  • clotrimazole - a vaginal tablet is administered daily for 6 days,
  • Kanesten (0.5 g.) - a single injection of the tablet into the vagina,
  • Pimafucin (Natamycin) 1 suppository twice a day for a week,
  • Pimafukort (composition: natamycin, neomycin and hydrocortisone) - is administered as an ointment on tampons into the vagina twice a day for 2 weeks.

Genital herpes

  • acyclovir (analogues: zovirax, herpevir) - vaginal swabs with cream are administered up to 4-5 times a day, a course of about 10 days,
  • 0.5% bonafton ointment - duration of treatment 10 days, applied on tampons and injected intravaginally 4-6 times a day,
  • Viferon - suppositories are administered intravaginally in the morning and evening, the course is 5 - 7 days,
  • a-interferon - suppositories are administered twice a day, a course of 1 week.

Systemic therapy

In case of severe course of coleitis or in case of chronicity of the process, agents for treatment, administered orally or intramuscularly are prescribed. In the case of specific colpitis caused by gonococci, intramuscular administration of cephalosporins antibiotics (ceftriaxone, cefixime) or the tetracycline series is indicated. With vaginitis, which caused Trichomonas, nitroimidazoles (trichopol, tinidazole, metronidazole) are prescribed. Severe nonspecific colpitis requires the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics - amoxiclav (penicillins) or azithromycin (macrolides). In the treatment of colpitis of fungal origin, drugs are used: fluconazole, orungal, pimafucin, ketoconazole, and others.

Restoration of vaginal microflora

Restoration of the natural vaginal flora refers to the second stage of the treatment of vaginitis:

  • Bifidumbacterin - intravaginal 5 - 6 doses, which are diluted with boiled water and administered daily or 1 suppository twice a day - a course of treatment for 10 days,
  • bifikol - intravaginal administration of 5 doses daily for up to 7 days,
  • Lactobacterin - intravaginal administration of 5 doses in a course of 10 days,
  • acylact - 1 suppository daily for 10 days.

In parallel, multivitamins and immunomodulators are prescribed.

Folk methods

Do not lose their relevance in the treatment of diseases and folk remedies. Folk methods are used as an addition to the main (drug) treatment of colpitis. For douching use decoctions and tinctures of medicinal herbs:

  • chamomile (2 tablespoons boil in 1 liter of water for 15 minutes, filter the broth and cool),
  • coltsfoot (leaves), stinging nettle, St. John's wort, thyme, buckthorn bark - take equal amounts of all herbs, mix and 2 tablespoons of the mixture pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, leave for 2 hours, drain and cool,
  • decoction of yarrow, sage, rosemary and oak bark,
  • infusion of calendula,
  • infusion of eucalyptus leaves,
  • the infusion of the series
  • juniper decoction and others.

Prevention

To prevent the development of the disease, you should follow a number of rules:

  • do not forget about condoms during random sexual intercourse,
  • observe intimate hygiene (wash twice a day),
  • give up narrow and tight underwear, as well as underwear made of synthetics,
  • lead a healthy lifestyle (giving up bad habits, playing sports, multivitamins, especially in the winter-spring period),
  • control weight (preventing obesity and excessive weight loss),
  • apply pads and tampons without fragrances,
  • do not get involved in douching,
  • use intimate hygiene products with a neutral environment and without fragrances,
  • strengthen the immune system
  • the presence of one permanent sexual partner.

Question answer

Answer: Yes, UHF and UV are widely used to treat the disease. In chronic vaginitis, zinc electrophoresis is prescribed in parallel with electrolyte cauterization and CMB therapy in the vaginal area.

Answer: First, an untreated acute colpitis can turn into chronic. Secondly, there is a high risk of ascending infection with the development of endometritis and adnexitis, which can later lead to infertility. Also, vaginitis provokes the occurrence of cervicitis, cervical pseudo-erosion, and in children, labia synechiae. Possible damage to the urethra and bladder (cystitis and urethritis).

Answer: Yes, the spermicides that make up the gels and creams affect the natural microflora of the vagina, which provokes the activation of conditionally pathogenic microbes. Therefore, this type of contraception should not be major.

Answer: Yes, when fungi are detected and there are complaints, the diagnosis of candidal vaginitis is made and its treatment is mandatory prescribed.

Causes of colpitis

Normally, the natural vaginal microflora is represented predominantly by lactic acid bacteria. The acidic reaction of the secret protects the genitals from the penetration and reproduction of foreign microorganisms. Factors that adversely affect the microflora, reduce the local immunity of the mucous genital organs and the body's resistance to the whole, provoke an increased growth of opportunistic microorganisms and the development of inflammation.

Factors that increase the risk of developing nonspecific vaginitis include:

  • acute and chronic diseases of internal organs leading to a decrease in the body’s immune responses (including inflammation in the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes),
  • infections with sexual transmission (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis),
  • endocrine disruption (obesity, diabetes, ovarian hypofunction),
  • excessive use of drugs, including long-term courses of antibiotic treatment,
  • allergic reactions to hygiene and contraceptives (tampons, condoms, candles, etc.),
  • chemical, mechanical or thermal injuries of the mucous membranes of the genitals (during medical manipulations: a mini-abortion, a medabort, the introduction of intrauterine devices, douching, etc.),
  • anatomical changes of the vagina (decrease in tone and omission of its walls, gaping of the genital slit),
  • eating disorders and atrophic processes in the vaginal mucosa with vascular disorders and during menopause,
  • non-compliance with personal hygiene.

In childhood, the development of colpitis is promoted by: the penetration of infection into the vagina with the bloodstream (for sore throat, scarlet fever), allergic reactions of the body, and the entry of foreign objects into the vagina. Typically, inflammation is acute and is associated with infectious diseases of the body as a whole. In the elderly, a decrease in hormonal levels leads to changes in the mucous membrane of the genitals, it becomes thinner, becomes dry, microtrauma and inflammation occurs.

What is nonspecific colpit?

Nonspecific colpitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vagina, which is infectious in nature and resulting from an imbalance of the microflora of the genital organs against the background of weakening the body's defenses. In this regard, there is an increase in the activity and reproduction of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms.

Nonspecific colpitis can occur only in women, but men often act as carriers of bacteria - potential pathogens, and at the same time do not experience any unpleasant symptoms.According to statistics, women of childbearing age most often suffer from this gynecological disease, but the pathological process can be observed both in childhood and in old age. Up to 80% of all pregnant women go to the doctor with complaints about the feeling of discomfort in the genital area and the changed nature of the discharge, which is also caused by the development of nonspecific colpitis. About one third of all vulvovaginal pathologies account for this type of inflammation.

An important difference between specific and non-specific colpitis is that the former is caused by sexually transmitted infections, and the latter is caused by an increase in the activity of conditionally pathogenic microflora, which is always present in the human body.

Symptoms of non-specific colpitis

Among the symptoms of the disease are the following manifestations of it, which can be seen by a woman on her own:

Highlight. They may vary, but they will always be larger than in the normal state of the vaginal microflora. Discharges are purulent and frothy, liquid and watery, thick and with an unpleasant odor,

Burning and itching sensation in the genital area,

The emergence of feelings of heat in the lower abdomen and small pelvis. There may also be a feeling of slight pressure or heaviness,

Ulceration may be found in the vulva, especially when the disease is prolonged or chronic,

External genitalia may blush and swell. The same thing happens with the vaginal mucosa,

Some women complain of a feeling of pain, burning, or pain during urination.

As for men, in the case of regular unprotected sex with a partner suffering from nonspecific colpitis, they may experience redness of the head of the penis, itching and painful sensations during urination.

Causes of nonspecific colpitis

The impetus for the development of infection becomes an imbalance of the vaginal microflora, when pathogenic microorganisms begin to prevail over Doderlein's rods.

This can contribute to:

Injury of the mucous membrane of the vagina by mechanical, chemical or thermal means,

Diseases of an infectious nature and causing a decrease in immunity,

A course of antibiotic therapy that provokes the death of beneficial lactobacilli that inhibit the growth of pathogenic microflora,

Non-compliance with personal hygiene,

Endocrine diseases, it may be diabetes, obesity, ovarian hypofunction,

The presence of allergic reactions that can be triggered by the means of contraception or hygiene used,

The omission of the vaginal walls, the gaping of the genital gap or other age-related anatomical changes on the part of the vulva,

Vascular and atrophic processes occurring in the mucous membrane of the vagina, associated with the entry of women during menopause,

Hormonal restructuring, which often becomes the cause of nonspecific colpitis in the elderly and during pregnancy.

Diagnosis of nonspecific colpitis

The diagnosis of this disease is engaged in a gynecologist. To begin with, a standard gynecological examination is required, as a result of which the doctor will determine the presence of inflammation of the vagina: the mucous membranes are hyperemic, friable, have a bright color, and they are thickened and covered with bloom. If time does not begin treatment of colpitis, then erosion and ulcers may occur.

To clarify the diagnosis, a smear is taken for seeding and microscopy, which will make it possible to identify the cause of the inflammation and the pathogen present. Nonspecific colpitis is indicated by a significant excess of the rate of leukocytes and cells of the lowered epithelium in the smear against the background of a decrease in the number of lactobacilli. At the same time foreign microflora may appear. As additional studies, blood samples are taken for a general analysis, and also an ultrasound of the pelvic organs is performed.

Treatment of nonspecific colpitis

The treatment of this type of vaginitis comes down to:

Local therapy, which consists in the rehabilitation of both the vagina and external genital organs with antiseptic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Among them is a solution of potassium permanganate, rivanol, zinc sulfate, chlorophyllipt, etc. In addition, tampons, suppositories and pills with antimicrobial effect are introduced into the vagina,

General therapy, which aims to rid a woman of diseases that lead to a decrease in immunity, endocrine disruption, hormonal disruptions,

Diet, which is based mainly on the use of dairy products and the inclusion of a large amount of food of plant origin in the menu. All foods that have an irritating effect on mucous membranes, in particular spicy, salty and fried foods, are prohibited. In order to reduce puffiness, a decrease in the volume of fluid consumed can be shown.

Taking drugs aimed at normalizing the natural microflora of the vagina, for example, acylact. How to cure colpitis in a medical way?

In addition, a woman will need to abstain from sexual intercourse for the duration of treatment, and her partner will need to undergo an appropriate course of therapy. In order to exclude possible recurrence of the disease, it is recommended to carry out repeated treatment after 4 months.

Do not delay with the treatment to the doctor. It is proved that it is nonspecific colpitis that causes the formation of severe pathologies of the female genital organs, and also leads to complications during childbirth and childbirth. Among such consequences are chorioamnionitis, endometritis, premature labor, purulent infections in the mother and fetus and not only. Nonspecific colpitis can be an obstacle to conception if, against its background, a woman has developed complications. Therefore, it is not necessary to delay the diagnosis and timely and comprehensive treatment of the disease.

Education: The diploma “Obstetrics and Gynecology” was obtained at the Russian State Medical University of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development (2010). In 2013, graduate school in NIMU named after. N.I. Pirogov.

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Causes of pathology

The main cause of non-specific colpitis in a woman is imbalance of the vaginal microflora. In other words, opportunistic microorganisms begin to multiply vigorously. These include, staphylococci, streptococci, fungi of the genus Candida and other microorganisms. The following factors can provoke the growth of infectious agents:

  • immune system malfunction
  • diabetes and other diseases of the endocrine system,
  • long-term treatment with antibacterial drugs,
  • violation of the rules of intimate hygiene,
  • allergic reaction to soap or contraception,
  • hormonal changes,
  • vaginal injuries, including after surgery,
  • promiscuity,
  • taking oral hormonal contraceptives,
  • long wearing intrauterine device.

Frequent change of sexual partners and the absence of barrier contraception can lead to the colonization of alien opportunistic microorganisms. Which as a result suppress lactobacilli and provoke the development of an infectious process.

Diagnostic methods

When the first symptoms of a woman should consult a gynecologist. The doctor will conduct a gynecological examination. In acute nonspecific colpitis, differentiated diagnostics can be performed. To do this, the gynecologist makes a collection of smears and examines the woman's vagina with a kolkoskop.

Under laboratory conditions, smears are examined for the presence of leukocytes, and bacteriological culture is also performed. As a result of such studies, it is possible to identify the causative agent of the disease, as well as if it is necessary to determine its sensitivity to antibacterial drugs.

In some cases, women are prescribed ultrasound diagnostics.. Such examination is justified in case of suspected abnormal development of the pelvic organs and associated diseases of the genitourinary system.

Therapeutic measures

Treatment of nonspecific colpitis has several directions. These include:

  • General therapy In this case, treatment is aimed at getting rid of diseases that contribute to the failure of the endocrine, immune and hormonal systems.
  • Local treatment. At this stage, the vagina is treated with anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agents. For example, syringing grass decoctions, a solution of potassium permanganate, chlorhexidine. Additionally, antimicrobial and antimycotic suppositories, tampons and tablets are introduced into the vaginal cavity.
  • Restoration of the vaginal microflora. For this purpose, eubiotics are administered.
  • Special diet. The patient is recommended to include in the diet fermented milk products and eliminate sweet, fatty, spicy and salty foods. To reduce the risk of edema, a correction is made to the volume of fluid consumed.

Additionally for the entire treatment time, a woman should refuse to have sex. In this case, both partners must undergo treatment. Otherwise, there is a high risk of recurrence.

Attention, untreated nonspecific colpitis and self-medication can lead to complications such as endometritis, chorioamnionitis, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, purulent infections. That is why at the first signs of illness it is necessary to consult a gynecologist.

Watch the video: 3 common vaginal infections and their symptoms (December 2019).

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