The causative agent is bovine tapeworm (Latin Taenia saginata. The old name is Taeniarhynchus saginatus). Helminth reaches a length of 7-10 m.
The puberty bovine chain of parasites in the upper part of the small intestine of a person - the final host. Intermediate hosts of bovine tapeworm are cows, less often buffaloes, zebu, yaks, in which larvae develop in the muscular tissue — cysticercus (Finns), and also reindeer, in which cysticercus develop in the brain. A man sick with teniarinhoz releases into the environment mature helminth segments containing eggs (segments begin to stand out 2.5–4 months after human infection). Selection of segments occurs not only with feces, they can actively crawl out of the anus and crawl through the patient's body. Each segment contains tens of thousands of eggs that are released when it is destroyed.
A person becomes infected with teniarinhoz by eating infected meat: raw, insufficiently thermally treated, or slightly salty or dried.
Bullish Man (man teniarinhoz)
Teniarinhoz is a parasitic disease belonging to the group of biohelminthoses. The causative agent of teniarinhoz in a person is a bovine tapeworm, which is parasitic in the small intestine. Teniarinhoz often has a chronic course and manifests itself in disorders of the digestive system, as well as in toxic-allergic reactions.
Bullseed is widespread throughout the world, but most of all people affected by this helminthic invasion live in Central and Southern Africa, in Asia, in South America, in China, in Mongolia, and in Australia. This is due to the widespread development of cattle breeding. As for Russia, cases of teniarinhoz are registered in Dagestan, Tuva, the Republic of Sakha and in Buryatia. There is evidence of the contamination of humans with a bull chain in the Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Tyumen regions. Patients with a similar diagnosis are admitted to hospitals in Perm, Altai and Krasnoyarsk Krai.
The parasite spreads by foci, most often the disease is recorded among rural residents. The population suffers mainly, which eats either raw or poorly thermally processed meat of cows. The danger is salted and dried meat containing cysticercus worm.
The maximum number of cases of teniarinhoz is recorded during periods of mass slaughter - this is winter and autumn. If we consider the statistics on sex and age, then adults are sick more often than children, the overwhelming number of patients are men. At the same time, workers of livestock farms and meat processing plants predominate.
Who is the bullish tapeworm?
Bovine tapeworm is a helminth parasitizing in the small intestine of a person. It belongs to the class of tapeworms, to the type of tapeworms. This worm is also called the unarmed chain. His body has a flat ribbon-like shape, consists of the neck, scolex (head) and the strobilus. On the scolex there is a rudimentary proboscis and four suckers without hooks. The neck of the worm is short and crosses the strobilus. The strobila itself may consist of 2,000 (or less) proglottids (segments).
The bovine tapeworm is a very large worm, which can be more than 10 m long. This helminth is a hermaphrodite, and the male and female reproductive system is well developed. Genital organs are located in the middle third of the strobila.
The uterus in a bull chain is closed, the eggs mature and accumulate inside it. In the process of increasing the number of eggs, the uterus begins to stretch, after which protrusions appear on its sides (from 18 to 32 pieces on each side). Other organs atrophy. Eggs do not ripen evenly, therefore in the final segments there can be from 50 to 150 thousand larvae ready for invasion. They do not need ripening in the environment.
The eggs of a bull chain are round, with a thin transparent shell on the outside. Inside the mature egg there is an oncosphere - an embryo equipped with 3 hooks.
Segments located in the terminal part of the strobila begin to stretch and contract, and then reject from the strobila, moving forward. After separation from the strobila, the segments move along the human intestine and exit to the external environment through the anus together with feces. Interestingly, some segments passively move along the intestine along with digested food, and some can independently, and rather actively make their way to the anus of a person. Every day the patient can allocate from 1 to 23 segments. In this case, the worm itself does not become shorter, as new segments constantly grow from the neck. They gradually develop, mature and move to the tail part of the worm, from which they subsequently detach.
The final owner of the bull chain is man, and the intermediate owner is cattle. Already 2-4 months after the invasion, the patient begins to release the eggs of the worm into the environment. This may continue for 15 years or more.
Symptoms of a bull chain
Symptoms of a bovine chain may be absent altogether, but may appear brightly, causing serious violations of human health. Sometimes for many years the only symptom of infection is the presence in the fecal masses of the segments of the worm, or their independent creeping out of the anus. This process is always accompanied by unpleasant sensations and leads to the development of neurotic disorders in the patient. Patients compare what is happening with crawling in the anus of foreign bodies, which cause severe itching.
The clinical picture of teniarinhoz may look as follows:
Impaired motility and excretory function of the gastrointestinal tract as a whole.
Catarrhal inflammation of the intestine, which occurs against the background of the traumatic effects of the parasite on the mucous membrane of the small intestine.
Sensation of heaviness and pain in the epigastric region.
The presence of heartburn and belching, not associated with eating.
Constant feeling of nausea, periodic urge to vomit.
Abdominal pain that is not associated with any diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Pain does not have a clear localization. When the worm progresses through the flap connecting the small and large intestines, the pain becomes cramping.
Unstable chair, in which constipations are replaced by diarrhea, flatulence.
Often against the background of teniarinhosis, the patient develops a duodenal ulcer or biliary colic.
Intestinal obstruction occurs when the worm is knocked together and prevents the advancement of fecal masses.
Insufficient absorption of minerals and vitamins due to the presence of a parasitic worm in the intestine leads to the fact that the patient's condition of the nails and hair deteriorates, the skin becomes dry and prone to inflammation. The whole body suffers.
A person infected with a bull chain, has a constant feeling of hunger, he always wants to eat. However, despite the increased appetite, weight does not increase. Moreover, prolonged parasitization of the worm in the intestine leads to loss of body weight.
In the course of its life, the chain releases toxic substances. They poison the human body, causing increased allergic reactions and eosinophilia.
Often, patients note worsening of night rest, increased irritability and fatigue, occasional dizziness, headaches and weakness in the limbs. Naturally, a person does not associate these symptoms with parasitic invasion. Meanwhile, such an asthenovegetative complex is the result of intoxication of the organism with waste products of a bovine chain. In rare cases, epileptiform convulsive seizures may develop.
On the part of the cardiovascular system may increase heart rate, lower blood pressure. Sometimes in the region of the heart there are painful sensations, tachycardia is noted, in such moments there is a noise in the ears, there may be flies before the eyes. Rarely develop nosebleeds.
Cases where moving segments got into airways and into the middle ear through the Eustachian tube are described. Perhaps their detection in vomit.
A number of patients have cracks in the tongue, its pain, as well as an increase in language in size.
In debilitated patients, urticar exanthema may appear when a rash covered with crusts appears on the body.
Carrying the bovine tapeworm during pregnancy is dangerous, as this can lead to the onset of premature labor, miscarriage and severe toxicosis. In addition, people with bovine tapeworm often suffer from anemia.
It should be noted that the symptoms in full appear rarely. They tend to increase, depending on how long the parasite lives in the human body.
Thus, in the chronic stage of the disease, 4 major symptom complexes of bovine tapeworm in humans are noted:
Asthenovegetative (weakness, asthenia),
Abdominal (abdominal pain),
Dyspeptic (disorders of the digestive tract),
Food (increased appetite).
Ways to infect a person with a bull chain
The parasite transmission mechanism is fecal-oral, and the main route of infection is food. After the sick person begins to release the helminth eggs into the environment, they fall into the water, the soil, grass, etc. After a certain time, the egg finds its intermediate host, cattle. The larva lives in his body for 4-5 months, during this period it becomes ready for invasion of the human body.
It should be noted that a person carrying a bull chain does not pose a threat to another person in terms of immediate infection. The larva of the worm immediately after leaving the body of its main host can not infect another person. In order to prepare, it needs an intermediate host organism.
The main ways of infecting a person with a bull chain are:
Eating poorly cooked or roasted beef.
Non-compliance with domestic and sanitary hygienic skills when working with raw meat, while performing economic activities.
Sample removal from raw minced meat. In this way, housewives are often infected.
Separately, it is worth noting culinary preferences of a particular nation. For example, people often become infected by eating kebab and sliced meat. It is established that when cooking kebabs, the mass of pieces of which is 50 g or more, with the standard method of cooking, most cysticucerus remain viable.
The natural susceptibility of people to infection with bovine chain is high.
What is dangerous bullish tapeworm?
In addition, the bovine tapeworm causes damage to health in general, the development of the following complications that threaten life are possible:
Mechanical intestinal obstruction. This happens when there are several worms in the intestine, or in the event that a single individual becomes entangled and knocks.
Cholecystitis and cholangitis. The worm can penetrate the biliary tract, blocking the natural outflow of bile, which leads to the development of these complications. In medicine, a case of bovine chain blockage of the bile duct with the subsequent development of fatty pancreatic necrosis is described.
Pancreatitis. It is possible the introduction of a helminth in the pancreatic tissue.
Peritoneal abscess. The complication develops during perforation of the intestinal wall and when the worm enters the abdominal cavity.
The life cycle of the development of the bull chain
The life cycle of the development of the bull chain is quite complicated. It includes a shift of two owners. The intermediate owner is cattle, and the permanent owner is man. In addition to livestock, the larvae of the chain can choose wild yaks, buffaloes, and deer as victims.
In humans, the worm can live and parasitize in the small intestine for over 20 years. All this time, a person will be a carrier of the chain, as well as a source of environmental contamination, releasing into it, along with the feces, the chain of eggs containing oncospheres. End segments go out of the anus of a person, falling further into the soil, into water, pastures, and grass during watering. In external conditions, helminth eggs can exist for a month.
Cattle consume contaminated water, grass, hay and are infected with bovine chains. After entering the gastrointestinal tract, the larvae of the worm are absorbed into the bloodstream and spread through the body of the animal. They settle in the muscle tissue, can be found in connective tissue elements (in the heart, in the tongue), where they remain to mature. After 4-5 months, they turn into Finns and cysticercus, which contain the proto-skolex (head of the larval form teniid) of an adult bovine tapeworm. In cattle muscles, larvae can exist for 1-3 years.
When a person eats beef with invasive larvae in food, they enter his stomach and further into the intestine. There, under the action of gastric juice and bile, the proto-scolex is released from the Finns, sucked by suckers against the intestinal wall, and begins to grow.
Adult bovine tapeworm will form in the human body after 2.5-3 months. Most often, one worm is found in the patient's intestine.
Diagnosis of bovine tapeworm
Diagnosing bovine tapeworm presents certain difficulties. The fact is that the disease has few specific symptoms by which one could suspect the presence of a parasite in the body.
In this regard, of particular importance is the delicate questioning of the patient in order to establish the fact that his cysticercus crawled out of his anus. It is this symptom that is most important in terms of determining invasion. Very often, patients also notice segments in feces after an act of defecation.
If it is not possible to find segments, a provocation of their output is possible: the use of pumpkin seeds, garlic or salt laxative.
If there is a suspicion of a parasitic disease, then an analysis of feces in the eggs and fragments of strobila worms. This analysis is called "coproovoscopy".
Additional survey methods are:
Thick smear method (Kato method).
Enrichment method (Fulleborn precipitation method and Kalantaryan flotation method).
Imprint on sticky tape.
Since the above methods of examination do not allow to clarify which particular chain of parasites in the human body: swine or bovine, it is necessary to carefully study the mature segments. Thus, the lateral branches in the uterus of the bovine tapeworm are in the amount of from 18 to 32 pieces. While in the uterus of the pork tapeworm side branches on one side will be from 8 to 12 pieces.
Sometimes a worm can be detected during contrast radiography of the small intestine. It has the appearance of light stripes.
As for the general blood test, it can be found an increase in the number of eosinophils, leukopenia and anemia. However, these indicators are passing.
Treatment of bovine tapeworm
Treatment of bovine tapeworm is reduced to taking anti-parasitic drugs. Sometimes it is carried out in a hospital, although outpatient therapy for teniarinhose is not excluded. It is mandatory to carry out parasitological monitoring of the effectiveness of the therapeutic scheme.
The patient is prescribed anthelmintic drugs, the main of which is Fenasal, and the additional one is Biltricid. Fenasal is taken either in the evening after a light dinner, or in the morning on an empty stomach.The doctor picks up the dosage, on average for an adult it is 2–3 g. Biltricid is also taken once.
After taking the drug, the parasite exits through the anus without any additional measures.
On the eve of treatment and during therapy, a sparing diet is indicated.
It is based on the following principles:
Exception fatty, fried, smoked, salty and sweet food,
The basis of the diet - low-fat soups, rice, buckwheat, dairy products, lean fish,
Drinks - kissels, compotes, teas,
The absolute ban is imposed on beets, cabbage, spinach, grapes, peaches, raspberries, gooseberries, chocolate, coffee, alcohol, apricots, legumes.
It should be eaten in small portions, at least 5 times a day.
Perhaps the addition of the main therapeutic scheme phytotherapy. To this end, the doctor prescribes capsules with an extract of male fern, pumpkin seeds. For the period of treatment is shown setting cleansing enemas, taking laxatives.
The criteria for cure are the absence of segments in the patient’s feces for 4 months after the therapeutic course. If segments are found, then therapy is repeated by the same preparations.
The prognosis for recovery is most often favorable. Doctors try to save patients from teniarinkhoz as quickly as possible and observe them for another 3-4 months. In addition, people at risk are tested with special care, for example, farm workers and livestock farms.
Prevention of bovine tapeworm
Prevention of bovine tapeworm is reduced to the implementation of the following activities:
Timely detection of infected individuals. For what, once a year, all livestock breeders (milkmaids, shepherds, calf houses, etc.) and their family members are examined. Employees of meat processing plants and slaughterhouses are subject to inspection.
Complete exclusion of the possibility of eating raw or insufficiently thermally treated cow meat.
High-quality heat treatment of meat, allowing to kill the worm larvae. To do this, you need to cook or bake in small pieces for 1-3 hours.
Timely treatment to a specialist if you find symptoms indicating a possible infection with a bull chain.
Careful inspection of meat before purchase. Sometimes the larvae of the worm can be seen even with the naked eye, especially with a massive invasion.
Identification of the disease in animals during the veterinary and sanitary examination of meat. If the Finns of the bull chain are found in the meat, then before implementation it is disinfected by careful boiling in the boilers, subject to certain standards.
Protecting the environment from pollution by bovine tapeworm eggs. To this end, the state services exercise control over the observance of sanitary and hygienic measures on livestock farms and farms. It is important that the staff have separate toilets.
No less important is educational work among the population, which is aimed at informing people about possible sources of parasitic invasion.
Education: in 2008, received a diploma in “General Medicine” (Therapeutic and Prophylactic) ”in the Russian Research Medical University named after NI Pirogov. Immediately passed internship and received a diploma of therapist.
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The fact that the parasites in the human body tend to the most invisible existence is well known. However, our body is very difficult to deceive, and it sends signals to a person that an infection has occurred. The main thing is to be able to recognize these signals and correctly interpret them.
Ascariasis is a type of helminthiasis caused by roundworms, belonging to the class of nematodes, the family Ascarididae (roundworm). They are parasitic in the intestines of humans and animals. There are several types of these parasites that infect various representatives of vertebrates: cats, dogs, birds, pigs.
The symptomatology of toxocariasis is so diverse that its manifestations can be encountered by doctors practicing in various branches of medicine - neuropathologists, ophthalmologists, hematologists, gastroenterologists, therapists. Although the researchers called the person an “ecological dead end” of toxocariasis, because he is unusual.
Anthelmintic drugs are used to treat various types of helminthiasis - parasite damage to the body. These tools can be both universal (broad-spectrum) and selectively acting on any type of helminths. The pharmaceutical industry has not recently been able to offer patients for the expulsion of parasites.
In case of infection with pinworms, all close relatives of the infected person are subjected to preventive treatment. Testing for the presence of pinworms often gives a false negative result. Ease of infection with enterobiasis through household items and general bedding, contact with animals and handshakes, as well.
In most cases, the symptoms of this pathology, as teniarinhoz, are not diagnosed. The patient may complain of general weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, but he has no visible clinical manifestations. In this case, the bovine tapeworm in a person is diagnosed by blood tests, in which eosinophilic leukopenia and anemia are noted, as well as by radiography. Pathology treatment is prescribed by the doctor, depending on the size of the helminth and the patient's health.
Sometimes the symptoms, on the contrary, are clearly pronounced. This usually occurs during the chronic course of the process, when a person’s bullish tapeworm has been parasitizing for more than one month or even a year.
In the chronic form of the disease, 4 syndromes are distinguished:
Dyspeptic syndrome can express symptoms such as diarrhea, heartburn, nausea, sometimes vomiting, weakened stools, or the development of constipation. In abdominal syndrome, a person complains of a symptom such as abdominal pain. Asteno-vegetative syndrome is characterized by symptoms of a general deterioration of well-being:
- increased fatigue
- poor sleep, etc.
It also happens that the symptoms are completely absent and a person with a bovine chain in the body does not feel any negative changes, and for a long time does not seek medical help. Then the only way to find out that he has teniarinhoz is accidentally seen by a proglottid in the stools - just so many people find out that they are infected with a bull chain.
Sometimes it happens that the main symptoms are absent, but the person is disturbed by discomfort in the anus, or he can observe the movement of the proglottids in the legs during his wakefulness, which is often capable of extremely unpleasant surprise.
As already mentioned, the diagnosis of pathology is based on the collection of anamnesis, X-ray examination, taking tests and the fact of the release of segments of the bovine chain from the patient’s intestines. Treatment of the disease is not particularly difficult and consists in taking such drugs as fenasal, which is used according to a certain scheme proposed by the attending physician. In addition, the treatment can be carried out and an alternative drug - biltricid, which is taken once. Under the influence of these drugs, the helminth dies and is independently excreted with feces from the body.
The importance of the method of treatment is given to proper nutrition. It is necessary to abandon certain products (beets, legumes, cabbage, grapes, milk, peaches, chocolate, carbonated drinks and others). It is recommended to eat more dairy products, lean fish, bread and buckwheat. Moreover, the treatment involves eating small portions up to 6 times a day.
Be sure to change linen daily. Observation of the elimination of segments with feces is carried out for three months - only after that we can talk about complete cure.
Note that the treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis. But prevention is needed to prevent re-infection. In addition, teniarinhoz is easier to prevent than to cure. Prevention consists in high-quality heat treatment of beef before consumption. In addition, prevention for individuals according to epidemiological indications should consist in regular examinations and compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. And it is also important to be attentive to your health and if you experience any unclear symptoms, consult a doctor in order to identify and eliminate the pathology.
What is bull snake
Bullseye - white tape worm. And this is not some tiny pinworm, its average value ranges from 4 to 10 meters. There were cases when particularly voracious parasites reached 22 meters. The width of the bull chain is 5-7 millimeters.
On the rounded head of a parasite with a diameter of about three millimeters are placed suckers - four “retainers” that help it attach itself to the donor's intestinal wall and crawl. The smallest "detail" of the body of a bull chain is the neck. It consists of underdeveloped segments and serves as a "growth zone" of the helminth. The neck passes into the body, which consists of separate segments - proglottids. The division of the body into separate parts with a length of 16 to 30 millimeters is a feature of the bull chain. Proglottids form in the neck area. Having reached the maximum size, they are part of the main body (strobila). And the segments that are at the end of the strobila are separated.
Having separated, segments are able to move independently for some time. Young proglottids located near the neck have their own digestive system. Segments that are “advanced” near the end of the “tail” of the body become “capacities” for the eggs. Embryos (oncospheres) with three pairs of hooks are located in oval or round eggs covered with a thin shell.
Bovine tapeworm causes a disease called teniarinhoz. The total number of helminth segments reaches two thousand. Segments detached from the strobila creep out of the intestine, but due to the action of the “growth zone”, the “length” of the bovine tapeworm does not decrease. On the contrary, in two decades of life it grows to an enormous size, filling the intestines of the donor. In this case, for the year, two and a half thousand segments that carry millions of eggs are separated from the body. "Autonomous" segments can move through the human body and crawl out of the anus. Part of the proglottid comes out with feces. Sometimes "travelers" find:
- in the ear,
- in the airways
- in the gallbladder,
- in the vessels.
Important! Eggs out of the “host” are viable for a month, infecting the earth and water bodies.
Ways of infecting the bull chain
The helminth is exceptional because it lives in the body of two masters:
After leaving the human body, segments of the bovine tapeworm crawl on the ground until the time of their death, “float” in the water, scattering eggs with oncospheres - infectious larvae. Sooner or later, one or several oncospheres together with grass will be swallowed by a cow. The larva with the help of its hooks will pierce its intestines and move to the path through the circulatory and lymphatic systems. The name of the bullish worms was due to the fact that bulls and cows are used as intermediate hosts.
The oncosphere can spread throughout the host organism. At a certain moment, the larva enters the next phase: the Finn is a bubble with a head twisted inside. In order to live and develop, with infected meat Finn must get to the final owner - man. Already in his intestine, the Finn turns his head out and attaches to the wall. She is already very similar to this chain.
As soon as the bubble falls off, the process for the production of proglottids will begin - the helminth will “mature”. It takes about three weeks. And then begins the "evacuation" of mature segments of the worm, filled with eggs. Begins a new round of the life cycle of the bull chain. But “pick up” the parasite is possible only by eating undercooked or undercooked beef.
For humans, bullish tapeworm is dangerous because it causes:
- discomfort (movement of segments),
- lesions of the gastrointestinal tract (inflammation of the mucous membrane),
- pain (proglottid penetration through the ileocecal valve),
- intestinal obstruction (excessively long flail),
- nutritional deficiencies
- allergic reactions.
Important! In the body of the intermediate host, the Finns live no more than two years. Without finding a final host during this period, the larvae die.
Symptoms of teniarinhoses
Isolation of proglottids from the anus sometimes becomes the only sign that a bullish tapeworm has been “prescribed” in the body. Symptoms in humans, However, very diverse:
- itching and discomfort in the anus,
- colic in the abdomen, resembling an attack of appendicitis,
- nausea and vomiting,
- high or low appetite
- impaired stools (diarrhea and constipation),
- crusted rash,
- inexplicable thinness
- reduced immunity
- manifestation of atypical pathologies (in cases of helminth larvae getting into “unsuitable” organs).
Teniarinhoz develops in two stages. Early disease is asymptomatic. When it turns into a chronic form, the symptoms become more and more, they become pronounced.
Important! The head and proglottids of the helminth should not be thrown out or buried. Under certain conditions, they are able to get into the body of a new "owner". The "remains" of the chain must be burned.
Diagnosis of infection
Determining the invasion of a bovine chain is not easy - due to mild signs at the initial stage of the disease. For the diagnosis use:
➡ patient survey (it turns out whether the patient did not eat raw, dried or insufficiently cooked meat),
➡ analysis of feces, scraping (allow to detect segments of the helminth),
Blood test (witness a decrease in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, sometimes hemoglobin and an increase in the number of eosinophils),
➡ X-ray (the picture shows the presence of a helminth in the form of a bright band about a centimeter wide),
➡ analysis of gastric juice (after infection, its acidity decreases).
The bullish, or unarmed, tapeworm (Taeniarhynchus saginatus) reaches a length of 5-6 m and more. The head is rounded, with a diameter of 1-2 mm, carries two suckers. The thin neck, which is the zone of growth of the chain, goes into the body, divided into many (up to 1000-2000) segments. Young segments located in the initial part of the body (strobila), approximately square, hermaphroditic. The terminal mature segments contain the uterus, which consists of the median trunk with 18-36 lateral branches on each side. In the dried or clarified preparation of the segment, it is clear that the entire uterus is filled with a mass of eggs up to 150 thousand. The end segments, as they mature, detach from the strobila, and due to their active mobility they crawl out of the intestine. Despite almost daily separation of up to 6–8 segments or more, the length of the tapeworm does not decrease, since new segments are formed in the growth zone. Term life to 20 years and more.
Eggs are round or oval, their shell is thin, transparent, colorless. Inside is the embryo (oncosphere), surrounded by a double-contoured, transversely striated shell of yellowish-brown color. The germ has 3 pairs of hooks. In the eggs released, the shell is very quickly destroyed. Therefore, microscopy usually shows only oncospheres, sometimes with remnants of a wrinkled or torn egg shell.
The life cycle of the bull chain
Bovine tapeworm parasitizes in the human small intestine. Segments are allocated with feces or more often actively creep out through an anus.Part of the eggs in the destruction of segments inside or outside the intestine is released along with feces. At hit of joints or excrements in the environment there is a massive pollution by the oncospheres of the soil, grass, hay, places of keeping of cattle, pastures. With contaminated food, oncospheres enter the body of cattle, where they settle in the muscles, turning into larvae (Finns, or cysticerci). In the regions of the Far North, cysticercus bovine tapeworm develops in the reindeer brain. Finns up to 0.5 cm in size, white in color, bubbly, filled with a clear liquid, inside the head, which has a structure like an adult tapeworm, shines through with a white dot. In the body of livestock, the Finns can survive up to 1-2 years, then die.
A person becomes infected by eating raw or half-baked beef that contains Finns (Finno meat). Finns can stay alive in kebabs, insufficiently cooked meat, in sliced beef from low-frozen meat, in ground beef, which some people try or eat raw, etc.
In the human small intestine, the head of the Finns turns out, attaches to its wall and after 3 months turns into an adult, sexually mature parasite.
Symptoms (clinical picture) of teniarinhose
Infection with a bull chain leads to the disease - teniarinhoz.
Sometimes the only complaint of patients with teniarinkhoz is an indication of the selection of segments of the chain from the anus. However, most patients have the following symptoms: decreased appetite, nausea, less vomiting, drooling.
A study of gastric secretion reveals in approximately 70% of patients a decrease in the acidity of gastric contents. X-ray examination of the intestine revealed smoothness of the relief of the mucous membrane of the small intestines, a sharp restructuring or the absence of kerkringovye folds.
On the part of the nervous system, when teniarinhose, symptoms are noted: headache, dizziness, irritability or apathy, in some patients Meniere's syndrome and epileptiform seizures. A blood test soon after infection with teniarinhoz usually establishes the presence of eosinophilia (less than 20% infested with a bovine chain), which later often disappears. Approximately 25% of patients with teniarinhoz have moderate anemia. The color index is sometimes higher than one. Measuring the diameter of red blood cells reveals macrocytosis.
In some patients with teniarinkhoz, colic occurs, probably due to the penetration of segments of the chain into the vermiform process or irritation of the bauhinium valve by them. Cases of biliary colic caused by biliary dyskinesia are described. Occasionally, the bullish tapeworm penetrates the gallbladder, causing acute cholecystitis. A case of blockage by the helminth of the common bile duct with the subsequent development of fatty necrosis of the pancreas was described. There are cases of obstructive intestinal obstruction, perforation of the duodenal cord, its introduction into the pancreas.
Diagnostics of teniarinhoz
Diagnosing teniarinhoz after reaching the chain of puberty usually presents no difficulty. The diagnosis is confirmed by examining the segments of the chain that extend actively through the anus or passively excreted in the feces during defecation. The diagnostic study of feces and perianal scraping on oncospheres (embryos) of helminth is of secondary importance. Sometimes, after the patient receives a contrast mass with fluoroscopy, it is possible to see a chain in the form of a strip of enlightenment, 0.8-1 cm wide.
Treatment of teniarinhosis
Teniarinhoz usually proceeds benignly. With rare complications (ileus, intestinal perforation, etc.), the prognosis is poor. Removal of the worms from the body of the patient is made by the appointment for the treatment of anthelmintic - fenasal, ether extract from the rhizome of a male fern, akrihin, pumpkin seeds.
Fenasal for adults is prescribed in a dose of 2 g. Treatment can be carried out according to two schemes:
- In the evening, 3 hours after a light dinner, the patient receives 0.5 teaspoons of baking soda, which washes down 1/4 cup of water. After 10 minutes, he was given a carefully stirred fenasal suspension in half a glass of sweet water.
- Soda and then fenasal, as indicated in scheme 1, the patient takes in the morning on an empty stomach. Laxative treatment with phenasalom is not used.
The effectiveness of the treatment of teniarinhose with fenasal is judged by the absence of excretion of segments of the chain in the next 3 months. Contraindications to the appointment of fenasal not available. The treatment can be carried out on an outpatient basis, but only after a thorough briefing of the patient about the methods of decontamination of feces and worms that are excreted during defecation.
The scheme of use for the treatment of atheniarinhose ether extract of fern:
1-2 days before treatment prescribed nutritious, easily digestible, poor in fat foods. In the evening on the eve of treatment, instead of dinner, the patient drinks a glass of tea or coffee with rusk and takes a saline laxative. In the morning of the day of treatment he is given an enema.
The etheric fern extract is given on an empty stomach in gelatin capsules or mixed with honey, jam, jam, semolina. The entire dose of the drug (for an adult 4-5.5 g) is taken by the patient for 30-40 minutes. 1.5 hours after taking the fern extract, a saline laxative is given, and 1.5-2 hours after taking the laxative, a light breakfast is served. If after 3 h after taking a laxative stool does not follow, then put an enema. At allocation of helminth without head an enema is repeated.
When taking the extract of fern, sometimes vomiting occurs. In such cases, full rest is recommended, a hot-water bottle on the abdomen, anesthesin, swallowing pieces of ice. If the reception of fern extract is not finished, then it is resumed after 15-20 minutes. Increasing the dose of the drug in connection with the removal of part of it with vomiting is not allowed. In some patients with treatment with fern extract, there may be a weakening of cardiovascular activity with a faint condition.
Contraindications to the use of fern extract: organic diseases of the cardiovascular system, liver, kidneys, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, acute gastrointestinal and febrile diseases, menstrual period, pregnancy, the first 3-4 months of lactation, exhaustion, advanced age.
Akrikhin for the treatment of ateniarinhoses is used as follows:
Preparation of the patient is carried out in the same way as in the treatment of fern extract. Akrikhin is given on an empty stomach in tablets every 5-10 minutes. Doses of the drug for adults 0.8-1 g. After 30 minutes - 1 hour after taking Akrikhin, a saline laxative is prescribed. When stool is delayed or when the helminth comes out without a head, an enema is put.
Two days at night the patient takes laxative salt. In the morning of the day of treatment put an enema. 300 g of seeds cleared of outer hard shell are ground in a mortar. The patient takes them for 1 h, with a sip of water. 3 hours after the end of the intake, pumpkin seeds are given a saline laxative, and after another half an hour they give an enema.
Contraindications to the appointment of pumpkin seeds no. Treatment can be carried out at home. To improve the effectiveness of treatment, it is advisable to combine the intake of pumpkin seeds with fern extract in reduced doses.
In some patients, teniarinkhoz has to resort to surgical treatment for complications: intestinal obstruction, perforation of its wall, blockage with a common bile duct chain.