Lilac, perhaps one of the most common flowering shrubs in the post-Soviet territories. It is known that initially this plant was brought to Russia from Turkey. Under the name "common lilac" it is known even by elementary schoolchildren. In Latin, the name of the plant is written as Syringa and in its melodic sound resembles a female name.
Botanical characteristics of the plant
Common lilac is, as a rule, a shrub, but sometimes gardeners form it in the form of a small tree. Lilac bushes grow quickly enough and can reach a height of 6 to 8 meters, depending on the climatic conditions of the region where they grow. The leaves of a lilac saturated green color in the shape of an elongated heart, remain green until frost and, falling off, do not change their color. Lamina dense, harsh with pronounced veins and a long sturdy petiole. The length of the sheet reaches 10-12 centimeters, the edge without chipping, smooth.
Lilac blooms at the turn of May-June, forming a fluffy brush pyramidal, oval or cylindrical in various colors, which depends on the type of shrub. Common lilac forms an inflorescence consisting of many small flowers, each of which has a bell-like calyx, a four-membered corolla with a cylindrical tube. The wild-growing lilac usually has flowers of lilac-blue color of unique specific shade which gave definition "lilac color".
Today, breeders derived a huge number of varieties of lilac, which differ from each other in color and size and shape of floral brushes. The varieties also differ in the type of individual flowers that form the inflorescence - they can be double or colored in two colors, for example, the flower itself is dark purple and has a bright white border along the edge. The duration of lilac flowering is usually up to twenty days, but there are also varieties with a longer flowering period.
After flowering, common lilac forms a box-shaped fruit filled with small seeds, which are easily carried by the wind, thanks to the “wings” of the seeds. In addition to reproduction by seeds that have good germination, common lilac multiplies and basal shoots. Usually gardeners simply dig up the shoot next to the bush and transplant where they plan: the shoots take root perfectly and rarely if they die. Lilac, growing from escape, blooms much earlier than the one that develops from a seed.
During the flowering lilac bushes are literally covered with a hat of flowers. Lilac flowers are used for bouquets that long retain their fresh look and aroma in a vase. If you carefully, not barbarously, cut off the twigs with flowers for bouquets, the shrub will not lose its decorative appearance, and next year you will be delighted with new shoots with flowers.
Common lilac is a low-maintenance plant and can grow almost anywhere, besides, the plant has good winter hardiness. Therefore, it can be found in the Siberian zone and even in the North.
Firms that grow flowers grow lilacs for winter bouquets, using greenhouses.
Lilac flowers are used in the perfume industry, and various souvenir crafts are made from wood.
Shoots, buds, leaves.
The bark of young shoots is gray or dark gray, it is lighter in varieties with white flowers. Sometimes the color of the bark is a characteristic sign of the variety. For example, in Olympiad Kolesnikov variety, the bark is brownish-purple. The length and structure of annual shoots in adult lilac plants depend on the age of the bush and growing conditions. On average, the length of flowering shoots of common lilac and most of its varieties is 20–30 cm with a thickness of 0.5–0.6 cm. Some varieties form shorter shoots 12–15 cm long (Godisho, Madame Casimir Perier, Michel Büchner, Fürst Bülow, Schoolgirl). There is a group of tall varieties in which shoots grow by 30–40 cm during the growing season (Buffon, Madame Antoine Buchner, Madame Lemoine, Madame Florent Stepman, Marshal Foch, Necker, Ogni Donbassa, Kolesnikov Olympiad, Princess Clementine, William Robinson).
In accordance with the length of increments, the height of lilac bushes at the age of 15 years in medium-sized varieties is 2.5–3 m, low-growing varieties form wide bushes not exceeding 2 m, tall - compact - over 3–3.5 m. Annual increments are not the same . The growth of young shoots is weakened by hot, dry weather, as well as inadequate care of plantings, especially in the first half of summer. The intensity of flowering in a given year is no less important for the size of the increment. The more abundant it is, the weaker the increase. The weakest growth of shoots is observed in those years when dry hot weather is in the period of abundant flowering. Pruning significantly affects shoot growth. After deep pruning of a bush for perennial wood or with a strong pruning of one-year shoots, young shoots reach a length of 60–70 cm and more, while the number of nodes does not increase, but only the internodes stretch.
Generative (flower) buds are usually laid on strong and well-lit shoots in the upper part of the crown. In the shade lilac forms shoots only with vegetative buds. Weak shoots in the bush never go to flowering. Due to its plasticity, lilac plants very quickly respond to improved care - annual gains increase, the size of the buds, leaves and the number of flower buds on the shoot increase.
On the one-year shoot, the axillary buds are opposite, often their strictly opposite arrangement is disturbed, approaching the next one, however, from such “next” buds, in the future, the opposite shoots appear. Within the knot, two buds form on the shoot, sometimes three, occasionally in the bush only shoots with triple buds are found (on powerful young bushes). In adult plants, as already mentioned, the apical bud on the one-year shoot is absent.
At the bottom of such a shoot, two or three pairs of small, almost invisible buds are laid in the axils of scaly leaves with closely spaced internodes. In the sinuses of green (median) leaves are six to ten pairs of lateral buds, towards the apex of the escape of internodes lengthened, the buds become larger.
The largest buds at the end of the shoot are usually generative, all the lower buds are vegetative. From generative buds, inflorescences develop, consisting of paired panicles. Sometimes in a pair of buds one - generative - gives an inflorescence, the other - vegetative - a growth shoot. Vegetative buds form a pair of continuation shoots, due to which the bush grows in height. The strength of the growth of these shoots depends on the size of the buds, so that the longest shoots grow from the top pair of vegetative buds.
At the one-year runaway next year, not all buds sprout. Small, close buds always remain asleep at its base. If the final buds of the shoot are vegetative, then a large number of buds awakens: in addition to strong growth shoots, from the top one or two pairs of buds, two or four more pairs of shortened and weaker buds are formed in the middle part of the shoot. If on the one-year shoot there were inflorescences, then the continuation of the shoots develops only from one or two pairs of underlying vegetative buds, the other buds do not awaken. The number of vegetative shoots also varies depending on the variety. With a very strong flowering, when the inflorescences are formed from several pairs of buds, the vegetative buds may not touch the growth at all, and the escape will remain bare (William Robinson variety). On weak shoots of continuation, the flower buds are not laid at all. Naturally, in both cases, there will be no more flowering next year. Lilac is generally characterized by alternation of years with abundant and moderate flowering.
The generative buds are large, up to 8.8 cm long, pointed-ovate, protected by two or three pairs of covering scales on the outside, and the color of the scales is associated with the color of the flowers — it is yellowish-green in light-colored varieties, and cherry-brown in dark-colored ones. These buds overwinter with an already established inflorescence, at this time they also have two or four pairs of rudimentary leaves, from which scale-shaped (upper) leaves form at the base of the inflorescence in the future.
Vegetative buds are smaller, more elongated. From the base to the top of the annual shoot, their length increases from 1 mm to 1.2 cm. A large vegetative bud consists of three pairs of covering scales, two or three pairs of low-leaf buds and three or four pairs of green (middle) leaf buds. Thus, all the organs of lilac escape have already been laid in the bud during latent (intrarenal) growth, which lasts 13-14 months. The subsequent formation of the stem, leaves and buds continues in the process of open growth during one growing season.
Interestingly, new, very strong shoots that develop after trimming a bush, arise from weak sleeping buds in the lower part of the shoot. In this regard, we can assume that the laying of the organs of such a shoot and their formation occur during open growth.
Near the strong kidneys, both generative and vegetative, clearly visible to the naked eye are two daughter buds located in the axils of the lower opposite scales. Apparently, branching is characteristic of vegetative buds located along the entire length of the shoot. In the future, the daughter buds of the generative participate in the formation of inflorescences, while in the vegetative buds they sometimes develop into weak shoots, but more often remain at rest. Unrealized growth buds of the middle part of the shoot die off and fall off, but their daughter buds remain and pass into dormant ones.
Lilac bush has a huge reserve of sleeping buds. These are axillary buds in the lower part of the shoots, especially on the border of annual gains, and daughter buds. Sleeping buds are located deep in the cortex and are not visible. They save the ability to germinate throughout the life of the bush.
The aging thickened bushes of lilac reduce the size of annual shoots (length 3-8 cm with a thickness of 0.2-0.3 cm), buds shrink: at the upper node they are only 0.3-0.4 cm long, the ends of the side shoots often dry out. Of the pair of upper lateral buds, only one continues to grow at this time, the other dies off, so the growing long-term shoot takes on a peculiar "articulated" appearance.
On the one-year vegetative shoot that develops from a growth bud, the leaves of two formations are located - lower and middle ones. The first have normal green plates. Base leaves, represented by renal scales and scaly green leaves (cataphylls), are located at the base of the shoot, in a section not longer than 1–2 cm. Kidney scales reach their maximum size during the period of bud formation and die at the beginning of the shoot growth. In contrast, cataphills grow, assimilate and fall only at the end of May. Median leaves form inside the bud for eight and a half to nine months and for about seven months they live outside the bud. Their growth rate gradually decreases, starting from the first days of June, and by the end of the month the growth stops. The size of the leaf blade varies along the length of the shoot; the largest leaves develop in the upper nodes. The median leaves assimilate until deep autumn and fall green after frost.
In the generative bud, the leaves of the third formation are laid - upper ones. These are scaly or underdeveloped green leaves located at the base of the inflorescence. They die shortly after flowering.
Inflorescences, flowers, fruits
Have common lilac the inflorescences are an axillary panicle formed from the upper pair of lateral buds, less often from one or two underlying pairs. As already mentioned, there are upper leaves at the base of the panicle, but sometimes they are absent. Inside the inflorescences, individual varieties develop true green leaves (Miss Ellen Wilmott, Etoile de Mae). In lilac culture, the number of generative buds ranges from one to nine pairs. It varies depending on the crop and weather conditions, but in some varieties it is a varietal trait. Thus, the varieties Ludwig Shpet, Jules Simon, Christopher Columbus, Charles Joly such kidneys often only one pair.
The pyramidal form of lilac inflorescence varies widely in varieties. It can be oval, wide or narrow pyramidal, almost cylindrical, etc.
The length of the panicle in wild forms - from 10 to 25 cm, in varieties it remains in the same range or slightly increased, the number of flowers in the panicle - from 100 to 400 (up to 1000 in varietal). In the main species, the flowers are small, with a diameter of about 1 cm, in varietal plants they are several times larger, especially in the large-flowered (up to 4-5 cm).
In terry varieties, flowers have two — four, sometimes even five corolla. In densely terry forms, the stamens in the flower are absent, turning into additional petals, the post and the stigma are often deformed. The nature and degree of terry flowers in terry lilac varieties are rather constant, in semi-terry flowers they are variable.
Most of the terry varieties poorly set fruit, including the variety with normally developed stamens. In double flowers, individual petals often twist into the corolla tube. This is probably an obstacle to pollination, as with the artificial application of pollen, the ovaries are formed quite satisfactorily. However, some terry varieties form viable seeds well in natural pollination (Michel Buechner, Condorcet), while at the same time there are varieties with semi-double and simple flowers, obtaining seeds from which is very difficult (Reomur, Mechta, Madame Floren Stepman).
It should be noted that sometimes breeders inhibit plants specifically in order to obtain normal pollen from densely shaped forms, the flowers of which do not have stamens. If during the year to grow copies of these varieties on poor soils, and even shorten the roots during transplantation, the flowers lose their terry and form the anthers with viable pollen. At the same time, pollen from depressed plants retains the hereditary properties of this variety.
The lilac fruit is an oblong two-capsule box, the size and shape of which vary depending on the variety: in white-colored varieties it is double-adorned and without shoulders, in color ones it is shorter, wider, with distinct shoulders. In each nest there are usually two flat winged seeds. In terry varieties often chetyrehgnezdnaya box occurs. The mass of 1000 seeds is 5–9 g and depends on the variety - in terry forms the seeds are smaller, in non-terry ones they are larger and have better germination.
The area of natural distribution: the mountainous areas of Hungary, Romania, Croatia, Bulgaria, Greece, in our country - the Carpathians (up to an altitude of 1200 m above sea level). It grows on hard-to-reach rocky cliffs and limestone mountain slopes.
In places of natural growth, relatively few varieties have been found in common lilac, markedly different from the original species. A species with small wavy foliage and a form with larger flowers are selected.
In 1900, Rodopod lilac was found in the mountains of Bulgaria (S. rhodopea Velenovsky), which the author singled out into a separate species. According to morphological features, it is very close to ordinary lilac and differs from the latter only in the characteristic rounded shape of the petals.
In culture, lilac showed great variability. In 1613a white-flowered form was discovered, giving rise to numerous varieties. Forms appear with purple, violet, light lilac and other flower colors. In 1823, the first terry form was marked. Breeding of this species started about 150 years ago, first in Europe (France), and then in America. As a result, more than 1600 varieties, widely used in ornamental gardening, in landscape gardening construction and for winter forcing, have been developed. Its varieties, possessing great ecological plasticity, are stable in the middle zone of our country and are widely distributed in culture, comprehending in the north of the Solovetsky Islands. The species is also found in open landings of some regions of Siberia, in the Far East and on Sakhalin. They are popular in landscaping ornamental shrubs.
Slavic people plant lilac became known in the fourteenth century, and first brought it from the Turkish lands. The history of the origin of the pleasant-smelling shrub is quite interesting and is shrouded in many legends.
One of them says that lilac received its name from the ancient Greek goddess Syringa, who, having turned into a flowering shrub, was saved from the harassment of the god Pan. A voluptuous man has long sought the attention of a beautiful woman, but he was constantly refused. Unable to withstand another decisive "no," Pan began to pursue Syring, and she, in order to somehow save her honor, turned into a pleasant-smelling lilac bush.
The second legend says that the beautiful plant is the work of the goddess of spring. Painting the waking Earth, the girl was so carried away by the work that there was no paint left in her palette except white and violet. Since there were still unpainted areas on the planet, she mixed the remaining shades and lowered them to the ground with the help of a sunbeam. At the same moment, where the Spring envoy touched the ground, splendid shrubs with small unusual flowers and delicate aroma sprouted.
From a scientific point of view, the shrub belonging to the family of olives, in its present state, has more than 35 species of wild-growing representatives, which are scattered in various parts of our planet. So, wild lilac is found not only in Russia and Ukraine, but also in Japan, China, the Balkans, Hungary and Asia.
The bush of the usual wild lilac represents treelike plant up to 7 m high, with small clusters of inflorescences-stars of delicate shades and delicate aroma. The leaves are usually green spear, do not turn black even in winter and fall to the ground in green color.
It is known that the usual lilac bush has up to 18,000 flowers. The total weight of the inflorescences is about 9 kilograms. Inflorescences-stars of a plant are:
- yellow shade.
Everyone knows that if a lilac bush has blossomed nearby, it means that spring has really come and there will be no more frosts. Abundant flowering shrubs observed from May to June. The plant is classified according to several characteristics. The main classifiers of lilac are:
- flowering time
- flower size
- color bunches.
According to the period of active flowering and fragrance bushes are of three types. Experts divide them into:
Early varieties of plants bloom in the 20th of April and end flowering in early May. Then comes the turn of medium-flowering bushes that delight the eye of passers-by throughout May. But the late lilac dissolves its flower clusters in the last days of May and blooms until the 10th of June.
There is a separation of lilac bushes and flowers. According to the generally accepted classification, plants are divided into:
- medium color,
Small flowers in the inflorescences do not exceed 10 millimeters in size. Average flowers on lilac bushes reach 20 millimeters. But flowers-stars of large sizes can be 25 millimeters.
Types of simple lilac
Shrubs simple Syringa also have their varieties. Most of them ordinary man in the street meet:
The description of the lilac Blanche Sweet is pretty ordinary. The bush reaches a height of 4 meters and in the spring becomes covered with pale lilac or whitish-bluish inflorescences. The diameter of the blooming stars on this plant reaches 30 millimeters.
Mulatto variety is also quite common in our latitudes. The plant has received this name because of the color of flowers, pale pink in the middle and dark burgundy on the outer surface. Tree bushes are usually erect and covered with dark green succulent leaves.
India starlets have a fairly intense purple hue and a persistent, distinctly perceptible scent. Plants of this species are rather sprawling and also covered with foliage of rich green color.
In addition to the common lilac species, other species are also known in nature. varieties Syringa plants. Among them we can especially distinguish such shrubs as:
- Hairy, or hairy.
- Mayer variety.
Shrubs of the hyacinth or Syringa hyacinthiflora species are very interesting and unusual. The foliage of the plant acquires a burgundy color by autumn, but the flowers are scattered around the bush rather abundantly and have a palette ranging from pale lilac to rich pink hues. The clusters of stars themselves are quite massive and heavy in appearance.
Broadleaf species of plants, called in Latin Syringa oblata, are usually represented by three-meter bushes with a spreading crown. The foliage of such a lilac representative is shaped like a heart, and the color range of the star flowers varies from violet-lilac to pale pink.
The inflorescences of the Hungarian lilac, or Syringa josikaea, at first glance resemble delicate lace, which in some magical way wrapped shrubs. The height of the representatives of this species reaches 4 meters, and the color of their stars is pale pink or pale lilac. It is noteworthy that the bushes practically do not smell.
Syringa reflexa, or wilted lilac, is very unusual for the usual bushes plants. The uniqueness of this species consists in the form of flowers, which are rather oblong and form real hanging or drooping brushes like grape. The outer side of the flowers, tubules are usually rich pink in color, but inside the inflorescence is almost colorless.
The foliage of the Persian lilac variety, or Syringa persica, has a characteristic pointed shape, and the star flowers are bright lilac-purple in color, with a distinct separation of petals. Plants of this species have a rather unusual and rich aroma. The height of the bushes does not exceed 3.5 meters.
The Himalayan lilac is rather unusual in appearance. It has long flowers, tubules like the appearance of drooping, and their color is always white, without any blotches. However, nature worked over the color of leaves, and their palette includes pale green edges and a dark green center. The aroma of such a shrub is also quite unusual for most people on our planet. The uniqueness of the species also lies in the fact that it can be found at an altitude of more than 1900 meters above sea level.
Shrubs Syringa villosa, or Hairy lilac, in adulthood do not reach 3 meters in height. The leaves have pale green shades, and the buds have a pleasant pink color, and the inflorescences can be as long as 24 cm. The territory of modern China and Korea is considered to be the homeland of the plant.
The shrub of Mayer species is considered to be the shortest and smallest in its parameters. This plant, in Latin Syringa meyeri, does not exceed 1.5 meters in height, and the color range of blooming stars varies from light pink to light lilac. The foliage of the shrub is rich green with well-marked veins.
Planting a bush
Lilac shrubs are relatively unpretentious and pretty easy to plant and care. Experienced breeders and gardeners recommend to choose plants for planting sunny areas where there are no drafts. It is also worth considering that the bushes of the genus Syringa in the majority do not like highly moist soil, with the exception of the Himalayan species, which likes to grow near water bodies.
If you plan to plant two or more shrubs, you should leave for the normal development of plants the distance between them is 1.5-2 meters. It is also worth considering that the planting time for different varieties of Syringa is also different, and it is better to consult specialists about this.
Traditional medicine ascribes to the plant not only aesthetic, but also healing power. Since olden times, colds and infectious diseases have been cured with tinctures of lilac leaves and flowers. Tea was used from inflorescences of plants and for cleaning the body from possible parasites and viruses. Leaves of lilac ordinary have a disinfectant and wound-healing property, as well as plantain leaves known to all from childhood.
In spring, the plant is pleasing to the eye and improves mood. It is also known that the aroma of lilac helps to relieve nervous tension and good sleep.
A bit of lilac history
According to a historical document, the first mentions of lilac appeared in the 16th century and were then called “Turkish viburnum” because it was brought from Turkey by an Austrian diplomat, a lover of exotic flowers. Thanks to its beautiful and fragrant flowers, lilac quickly won the hearts of European gardeners and spread throughout Europe, and it was brought to Russia. The plant received its name from Karl Linnaeus, who called the shrub a lilac in honor of the legendary beauty from ancient Greece called Syringa, which supposedly turned into a beautiful plant.
Lilac and folk beliefs:
In Russia, there was a belief that lilac has magical protective properties and they tried to put a shrub of this plant in front of their house. Lilac bushes, in addition to beauty and aroma, had to protect the house and the family living in it from evil spirits, ghosts, to save from any other evil spirits. Lilac brought peace, prosperity and happiness to the whole family who planted this plant. And if someone can find an unusual, five-petalled flower among the lilac flowers, he will be a special lucky person and will be able to make a wish that is surely fulfilled.
Useful properties of lilac and preparation of medicinal raw materials
Common lilac has long been appreciated by folk healers as a useful medicinal plant, bringing relief to people affected by various ailments. Description of the medicinal properties of lilac can be found in various reference books on healing herbs. Thus, it is widely believed that not only lilac flowers, but also leaves, buds and bark have healing properties.
Lilac buds are harvested for medicinal raw materials during their “swelling”, when they have not yet opened. Lay out a thin layer on a litter and dry well, then store in a canvas bag, using as needed. For medicinal use, flowers are harvested when they are still in the form of buds and have not opened. Brush flowers cut off with a sprig and dried suspended in a well-ventilated place, where there is no access to rain, usually under a canopy or in the attic of the house. A lilac leaf is harvested in May or early June only in dry weather, until it becomes old and hard, dried on a litter in the shade, scattered in a thin layer for better drying. The bark should be harvested only from young stems and shoots, it is possible together with the leaves.
Ready raw materials can be stored in wooden, well-closed containers for no more than two years, then it must be replaced with more fresh one. Preparation of medicinal raw materials can be done with almost any kind of lilac, but in folk medicine more often there is a description of the recipes, which use white lilac, or the traditional "lilac".
Common lilac - a description of the chemical composition and medicinal properties
Common lilac, despite the fact that it has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time, has not yet been studied chemically well enough. So, today it is known that the colors of lilac contain such substances as essential oil, syringopicrin, phenoglycosides, phytoncides, various resins, farnesine, sinigrin and other substances.
Syringin, various bitterness and vitamins, including vitamin C, were found in the leaves of lilac. In the bark and branches there is sinigrin, which belongs to bitter glycosides. Common lilac has healing properties due to its biochemical composition.
Recipes in traditional medicine
Traditional medicine offers a description of the recipes for the use of lilac in diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis, urolithiasis, flu, cough, fever, diarrhea, joint pain, gout, or purulent wounds. Lilac brewed and drank as tea, made infusions, decoctions and tinctures on vodka.
- As a diaphoretic, expectorant and diuretic, lilac inflorescences are used, preparing an infusion according to the recipe: pour a tablespoon of inflorescences with a glass of boiling water and infuse for at least an hour, then filter and drink warm with a tablespoon at least three times a day. This infusion is taken in diseases such as bronchitis, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, pneumonia, or inflammation of the bladder.
- As a fever-reducing diaphoretic drug - make an infusion of lilac inflorescences according to the recipe: take half a liter of boiling water and pour two tablespoons of lilac flowers on them (you can use lilac buds), let it brew for an hour, in a well-wrapped container. Drink only in the form of heat, a glass four times a day, regardless of the meal. There is a positive therapeutic effect in bronchial asthma.
- As a remedy for the treatment of varying complexity of wounds, bruises and rheumatism, lilac can be used in the form of lotions, compresses or wraps. You can use several recipes. The first one is a lotion made from tincture prepared from half a liter of vodka and a glass of lilac flowers infused for two weeks in a dark place. Dressings are moistened with tincture and changed frequently - at least 5 times a day. Purulent ulcers and poorly healing wounds can be healed well, using crushed fresh young leaves of lilac or prepare a rich broth for them for lotions. When using fresh leaves, the wound surface should be slightly steamed and lay over with washed leaves and bandaged. In the first day or two, the wound is treated at least four times a day, and when it begins to set in, the dressings can be changed once a day. You can also use the bark of young shoots of lilac. Bark well treats erysipelas of the skin, and crushed leaves with various wounds.
- For the treatment of malaria, there is an old-fashioned recipe for Russian healers: you need to take 12 pieces (to tear them off in the evening) of leaves and brew a glass of boiling water, then wrap the dish very well and leave to stand until morning. Every morning, until recovery, the patient should drink a glass of this infusion on an empty stomach. Recovery occurred on the 8-10th day of treatment.
- For the treatment of diabetes use lilac buds. It is necessary to collect the kidneys during their swelling or use dried in the amount of three tablespoons, which is poured with two cups of boiling water and infused for 6 hours. This volume is the daily dose of medication. You can also prepare a decoction of 10 grams of buds per cup of boiling water. Boil for about ten minutes, strain and, if necessary, top up with boiled water to the original volume. Drink this broth over a tablespoon three or four times a day.
- When gout using tincture prepared from a glass of vodka and two tablespoons of lilac flowers. Infused such a composition in the dark during the week, which periodically needs to be shaken. Take 45-50 drops 3-4 times daily before meals.
- For the treatment of tuberculosis of the lungs and throat, tincture is prepared: the leaves of lilac and St. John's wort are mixed in equal quantities and fill a liter jar by 2/3, then pour it all with vodka (about a liter is needed) and leave in a dark place for a week. Drink on the table. spoon before meals twice a day.
- For polyps in the stomach, they drink an infusion of white lilac branches with leaves and flowers, prepared as follows: take two sprigs of white lilac (on branches in one inflorescence), if possible, grind and pour two cups of boiling water. Insist about 12 hours in a well-wrapped container. Drink this infusion for half a glass before meals four times a day.
- When vision deteriorates, the lilac is brewed as tea, using only flowers, and 4–5 minutes are applied with moistened tampons to the eyes.
- When dyspnea drink two tables. spoon infusion up to five times a day. For an infusion, they take a tablespoon of flowers and steam them with a glass of boiling water, let it stand for 2-2.5 hours.
- When radiculitis is prepared ointment from lilac buds and rubbed into the sore spot. Ointment - the table. l crushed to powder lilac buds and 4 tablespoons of unsalted lard, all mix well until smooth.
- For the treatment of thrombophlebitis used lilac leaves. Legs should be steamed and lined with fresh leaves, you can make a poultice from fresh leaves or a very strong decoction for lotions. For internal use, make a tincture of vodka from lilac flowers. Take 1 of the flowers of lilac and 10 parts of vodka, insist in a dark place 10 -12 days. Take 25-30 drops three times a day.
Before using drugs prepared on the basis of lilac, you must consult a doctor. Do not use lilac treatment for long-term irregularities in the menstrual cycle in women, for chronic renal failure, and for constipation. When using lilac flowers for making infusions and decoctions, one should strictly adhere to prescription recommendations; in case of overdose, it is possible to get not poison, but medicine. You should not get involved in eating the “happy” five-petal flowers either, or you will be happy in the hospital bed.
In scientific medicine, common lilac is almost never used. But in folk medicine, lilac leaves and flowers are recommended as diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic for febrile diseases (influenza, SARS and malaria). With long-term use, lilac is considered an effective remedy for epilepsy. In addition, lilac buds are recommended for the treatment of diabetes and urolithiasis. Infusion of fresh lilac leaves can be used for compresses in the treatment of wounds, felon and boils as an anti-inflammatory and wound-healing agent. Lilac is also recommended in the treatment of febrile diseases and diabetes.
Contraindications and side effects
Common lilac - poisonous planttherefore, her preparations should be taken with caution, not exceeding the dosage, for a period not exceeding 3 weeks. With prolonged inhalation, it may cause headache.
In other areas
Common lilac is among the most popular ornamental shrubs, which are widely used as beautiful flowering plants in landscaping gardens, parks, squares in almost all locations in Europe. Along with the decorative value, ordinary lilac as an unpretentious plant is widely used for soil-protective purposes on slopes subjected to erosion. In addition, indoors, lilacs can bloom in winter, so it is widely used for distillation. Lilac is a honey plant, although due to the long tube of the corolla tube, pollen is not readily available to bees.
Common lilac (Latin Syringa vulgaris) - belongs to the genus Lilac (Latin Syringa) of the olive family (Latin Oleaceae). The genus includes about 30 species (in culture), of which 5 species are in Russia. Of all the species, common lilac is the most widely distributed, currently represented in the gardens, including about 500 varieties of the most diverse colors.
Deciduous shrub 2-5 m tall, with a sprawling thick crown. The diameter of the trunks of the bush can reach 15-20 cm. The root system is usually located in the upper layers of the soil. In young plants and young branches, the trunk is smooth, gray, and in old plants it is dark gray or taupe. At the same time, annual shoots are yellowish-gray or olive-green, with almost imperceptible lentils, ending with two thick, tetrahedral buds, less often one. The leaves are simple, petiolate, bare, dark green, entire. The leafy plates in the outline of the ovoid, with a heart-shaped base and a pointed tip, 4-12 cm long and 3-8 cm wide, fall almost green. The leaf distribution is opposite.
Flowers are bisexual, regular, tubular, 10-15 mm long, usually in different shades from lilac to violet and even white, with a pleasant smell, small, gathered in paired, pyramidal, erect or drooping panicles 10-20 cm long. Perianth double, four-membered . Calyx spynolist, poorly visible, halo also spineolepristic. Two stamens. Ovary is upper, bilocular. The formula of a lilac flower: * H (4) L (4) T2P2. The fruit is a two-cap box up to 1.5 cm long with several light brown, leathery-winged oblong seeds. The plant lives up to 100 years. Propagated by seeds, cuttings and root shoots. Abundant flowering occurs at 6 year. Flowering time May-June. The fruits ripen in September and October.
Preparation of raw materials
For medicinal purposes, the useful raw materials are flowers, leaves, buds, bark of common lilac. The collection of raw materials of the plant as a whole is usually carried out in dry sunny weather during the flowering period of the plant. The flowers are harvested in the budding phase - the very beginning of flowering, they are separated from brushes, scattered in a thin layer (1-2 cm) and dried for several hours in the sun, dried in a shade under a canopy or in a room with good ventilation, or cut off branches with buds. in bunches and, having suspended, dried on air, and dried in the same way. The leaves are also harvested in dry weather, usually until mid-summer (from May to July). You can dry the leaves and in the dryer at a temperature of 40-60 ° C. Lilac stores its beneficial properties for two years, so the shelf life of raw materials 2 years.
Lilac is primarily used as a means that has a diaphoretic and anti-inflammatory effect. Common lilac preparations stimulate appetite, promote the discharge of stones and sand in urolithiasis. Due to the content in the plant of many useful substances, it is used as a tool with wound healing, antipyretic and analgesic effects. Lilac flowers have diaphoretic, antimalarial and anesthetic action, leaves - anti-inflammatory, contribute to the ripening of abscesses and cleanse them of pus.
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Syringa vulgaris L.
Beautiful lilac came to Europe in the XVI century, it grew in natural conditions and in the gardens of Asia Minor and Persia. For the first time, Angerius Busbeg, ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I under Sultan Suleiman in Constantinople, brought seedlings to Italy and Vienna. Around the same time, the lilac was brought to England, 6 bushes of fragrant lilac were planted in the royal country castle of Henry VIII around one of the marble basins.
At first, lilac was a great rarity, but thanks to its wonderful beauty, unpretentiousness, endurance to the harsh winters of Europe at that time, after 40 years, they began to plant it in all gardens and parks for beautiful fragrant flowers and greenery.
In Russia, lilacs were bred only in the XVIII century, now it is cultivated throughout the country, as a valuable ornamental plant for decorating city parks, squares, alleys, very much loved by all gardeners.
Lilac ordinary description
Common lilac Syringa vulgaris L. - a type of shrubs or small trees of the Lilac genus of the Olive Oleaceae family with branchy stems, 2–7 meters high, with a strong root system. The bark is gray or gray-brown, in young shoots is smooth.
The leaves are opposite, pointed with a heart-shaped base 5–10 cm long and 2–6 cm wide, with petioles about 2 cm long, smooth, bright green above, slightly matt from below.
The flowers are fragrant, in green four-toothed cups funnel-shaped beaters with four-fold limb - white, purple, purple, pink with two stamens and one pistil. Graceful flowers are collected in dense multi-flowered pyramidal paniculate inflorescences at the ends of branches.
Every spring, adults and children look for happy flowers, in which instead of four petals of the corolla there are five or more, and make a wish, eating happy petals.
Common lilac blooms 10 - 20 days in April - May, in more northern areas in May - June. The fruits ripen in July - a brown two-capsule box 1-1.5 cm long with several light brown seeds.
The name of the genus Lilac is derived from the character of ancient Greek mythology - the nyad (nymph) Syringa. Common lilac grows wild in the Balkan Peninsula, on the slopes of the Southern Carpathians. Lilac lives up to a hundred years and longer.
Lilac not only pleases in spring with all its beauty, elevating the mood, but also has many healing properties, is used as a medicinal plant.
All parts of a plant have medicinal properties: buds, flowers, leaves, bark, roots. Flowers and leaves of lilac are especially valued: lilac flowers have medicinal properties, lilac leaves have medicinal properties.
Lilac drugs are used to relieve inflammation and pain in the joints, inflammation in rheumatism, arthrosis, gout, to treat fever and relieve attacks of malaria, in case of kidney stones.
All parts of the plant contain essential oil, glycoside syringin, giving them a bitter taste, and other glycosides, flavonoids, gums and other substances. Bitter glycoside syringin provides anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, analgesic effect to the plant's preparations, relieves fever, and cures malaria, acting like quinine.
In official medicine, the plant is not used. Lilac healing properties and contraindications are widely used in traditional medicine, many recipes for the use of lilac persist and have come down to us since ancient times, are of great practical importance for curing various ailments.
- The plant is poisonous! In all parts of the plant contains the essential oil of lilac, bitter glycoside syringin.
- Do not exceed the permissible dosage of the drug when used orally!
- Before using the lilac drugs inside, you should consult with your doctor.
There are many legends about the wonderful beauty of lilac, many poems and songs are folded. The old English proverb about men says: the one who brings lilac, will not wear a wedding ring. Therefore, to send the groom a branch of lilac - it meant to refuse in the hand of the girl for whom he is wooing - a polite way of refusal, which was often used there.
Decorative varieties of lilac
Lilac ordinary grade "India":
From lilacs, as a result of many years of cultural cultivation, many ornamental varieties have been obtained with different shapes of flowers and inflorescences, with different colors, which are distinguished by different flowering periods, plant heights.
Gardeners from France, Germany, Holland, Canada, North America and other countries are constantly engaged in breeding lilacs.
French lilac grade "Madame Lemoine":
For example, the wonderful white varieties of the French lilac "Mont Blanc" are bred - with large tassels of simple flowers, the cultivar "Madame Lemoine" - with brushes of large terry flowers.
In Russia, the famous lion breeders Leonid Kolesnikov were engaged in the selection of lilacs. In 1973, he received the highest award of the International Lilac Society “The Golden Branch of Lilac” - his famous variety “Beauty of Moscow”; about 50 new varieties bred by him remained.
Lilac L. Kolesnikov variety "Beauty of Moscow":
Kolesnikov's Lilac "Dawn of Communism":
A great contribution was made by selectors N. Vekhov, N. Mikhailov, who also became the winner of the “Golden Lilac Branch” award.
The largest collections of lilac varieties are in the Main Botanical Gardens them. Tsitsin RAS is one of the world's best collections, and in the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University, which presents about 130 varieties of lilac.
Variety of lilac "Christopher Columbus":
Lilac "Sevastopol Waltz":
Lilac loves well-lit sunny places, loose fertile soils, but it can also grow on areas that are slightly shaded and protected from wind, the soil should be moderately wet, lilac does not like wet, flooded areas.
Lilac breeds green cuttings, layering, seeds, garden forms are usually grafted. Lilac multiplies easily and is quite unpretentious to the conditions, can withstand temperatures in winter to -30 ° C and more, quite drought-resistant, but without the necessary care, it quickly runs wild and does not bloom well.
Flowers and leaves of lilac are depicted on the coat of arms of the Latvian city of Sigulda.
Watch a little video for the mood - Oh, what a lilac!
Lilac blooms at our house ... video
Dear readers, you can read about the medicinal properties of common lilac and its use, health recipes in next article .
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