Intestinal polyps do not carry any danger and do not cause discomfort, however, if they are not provided with proper treatment, over time they can turn into an oncological disease.
Polyps can be the result of chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Proponents of embryonic theory believe that during embryonic development, in some cases there is an excess of embryonic material that turns into a neoplasm due to the inflammatory process.
Polyps in the colon are one of the most common negative factors affecting the function of the colon and rectum. The frequency of distribution - 15-20 percent of the adult population.
Symptoms of intestinal polyps
Polyps in the intestines most often do not express themselves; only then can a person feel something when polyps become very large and they expand.
|When adenomatous polyps in the feces a lot of mucus appears, there is bleeding.|
|because of large polyps there may be cramping pains, a person is tormented by constipation, symptoms similar to intestinal obstruction, this causes blood and mucous discharge, a foreign body is felt in the anus. The pain is localized most often in the lower abdomen.|
|Due to adenomatous polyps may develop bowel cancer.|
|Diarrhea and constipation - these are the main signs of polyp occurrence, because of them peristalsis is disturbed in the intestine, most often this happens if the polyps are large after the size, because they are able to reduce the intestinal lumen and because of this there is stagnation, partial intestinal obstruction is formed.|
|If pain appears in the intestinal area, the abdomen is talking about inflammation.|
|Bleeding is one of the dangerous symptoms you need in such cases. urgently consult a doctor, it can talk about malignant education.|
Surgery to remove intestinal polyps
Removal of polyps in the intestine is carried out at any size education. In order to prevent the development of cancer, immediately after the discovery of a neoplasm, it should be eliminated.
Surgery to remove a neoplasm depends on how quickly intestinal polyps grow, and is performed using endoscopic equipment.
During the procedure, the patient is introduced into the patient's anus. endoscope. Unlike colonoscopy, in this case the device is equipped with a special loop electrode, which allows you to grab, pinch and cut the leg of the polyp.
The treatment of a polyp in the intestine is affected by the symptoms of its manifestation. So, if the size of a polyp exceeds the average, its removal occurs in parts in several stages.
So that after the surgery, the scar does not cause inflammation or infection, it is cauterized. For this is used electrocoagulation method.
The method of eliminating polyps described above is well tolerated by patients and does not require anesthesia or anesthesia. The injury to the intestinal tissues is minimal, the scar after the operation is extremely small.
Depending on the symptoms of the disease, the treatment of the polyp will become more complex.
In cases where the patient has intestinal polyposis, the removal operation looks a bit more complicated. In this situation, it is necessary to resect polyps together with the affected part of the intestine.
Such an operation is carried out under general anesthesia and can last long enough. This is necessary to prevent further growth of tumors.
After such an operation should be long recovery period. It includes taking the complex of anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs, a special diet.
Diet after removing intestinal polyps
The diet after the operation should include copious amounts of liquid and semi-liquid food, the maximum restriction of flour products and the use of various kinds of spices.
In the diet menu for polyps in the intestine should contain foods rich in fiber (vegetables fruits). It is recommended to drink plenty of liquids and completely eliminate the use of alcoholic beverages, products with a caffeine content.
Treatment of intestinal polyps folk remedies
If you have polyps, herbal medicine can become your faithful ally in the fight against this disease. There are many ways and recipes that will help you to heal your body, even without leaving home.
|Take one spoonful of chopped chaga (this is a mushroom that most often grows under a birch), a millennial, St. John's wort, they should be in equal parts and pour boiling water over everything, insist on collecting for 20 minutes. Take small doses 20 minutes before meals.|
|Can come to the rescue oak bark, it can be purchased at any pharmacy. To prepare the broth, take a tablespoon of bark and cover with a liter of boiling water, boil the contents for 10-15 minutes on low heat. Remove from heat, allow to cool, then store in a dark place. Take several times a day, half an hour before meals, do this for a week, then take a break. Continue alternating until complete recovery.|
|Polyps can eventually transform into malignant tumors, help prevent this. viburnum. Take 3 spoons of viburnum berries and fill them with boiling water when the drink has cooled, strain it through a sieve and drink to treat polyps throughout the day, it is best to do this before eating.|
|Polyps of the intestine and rectum removes well a mixture of honey and horseradish. Mix them in equal proportions and take one teaspoon of a folk remedy daily on an empty stomach.|
Causes of intestinal polyps
Based on numerous studies and observations of patients with colon polyposis, several assumptions have been made regarding the most likely causes of the appearance and development of polyps:
- Chronic inflammatory processes:
- nonspecific ulcerative colitis,
- Crohn's disease,
- chronic form of dysentery and giardiasis,
- chronic enteritis and colitis,
- membranous colitis.
- Influence of the environment.
- Pathology of blood vessels and organs involved in digestion.
- Genetic abnormalities.
- Bad habits.
- Eating large amounts of preservatives.
The risk of converting benign polyps into malignant is large enough. Especially dangerous are the so-called adenomatous polyps. Therefore, periodic examinations with the use of special methods are advisable, especially for adults who have stepped over a 50-year milestone.
Types of intestinal polyps
|Hyperplastic intestinal polyps small size often found in the rectum (in 50% of cases of colon polyps in adults). They do not belong to neoplastic formations.|
|Tubular (tubular) adenomas - formations of characteristic pink color with a smooth dense surface.|
|Adenomatous polyps - Optional precancer. The probability of rebirth of these formations depends on their size and type: with a polyp size of 2 cm, the probability is 30-40%.|
|Hamartomatous intestinal polyps they are formed from normal tissues in an unusual combination of them or in the disproportionate development of a tissue element. Juvenile intestinal polyps are the most characteristic representatives of hamartozoznyh polyps of the colon.|
Diagnosis of intestinal polyps
If a colonoscopy is not possible, then computed tomography is recommended. When a polyp is detected, the doctor will suggest a biopsy, which is necessary to determine the histological form of the formation and further treatment tactics.
Multiple polyposis can be familial, congenital and occurring against the background of other diseases (colitis). Polyposis belongs to the precancer group, since the frequency of malignancy is 99.9%.
Familial polyposis, a disease that is inherited, affects several family members. Usually detected in children, less often at a young age. Localization of polyps corresponds to the entire length of the intestine.
In the case of multiple polyposis, the clinic is more pronounced. Characterized by diarrhea, discharge of mucus and blood from the feces, abdominal pain without clear localization, progressive weight loss, anemia.
Prevention of intestinal polyps
To protect yourself from polyps in the intestines, you can, observing some of the simplest regulations:
- limit the use of alcoholic beverages,
- instead of animal fats, you should eat vegetable,
- eat coarse plant foods rich in fiber (apples, beets, zucchini, pumpkin, cabbage),
- harmonize the correct, rational diet.
In the event that a person has polyps in the intestines, this condition is called polyposis. By itself, it is not malignant, but is considered by doctors as a precancerous disease, which, if left untreated, can turn into an oncological tumor.
The following causes and contributing factors that may affect the formation of polyps in women and men are distinguished:
- Chronic colitis, typhoid fever, enteritis or dysentery. In this state, the large intestine becomes the breeding center of pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, such diseases provoke stagnation of feces in the intestines, which also increases the likelihood of the formation of polyps.
- Diseases in which the rectum is inflamed, as well as other areas of the digestive system. It was found that polyps could not form in perfectly healthy tissues. For successful development, they need inflammatory processes that are localized in the mucous membrane and lead to epithelial degeneration.
- External factors. For example, smoking, unhealthy diet, stress, and the abuse of strong alcoholic beverages greatly affect the appearance of polyps. Moreover, the work of the gastrointestinal tract is negatively reflected in living in a polluted ecological environment and the use of products with chemicals.
- Vascular diseases. Especially adversely affects the condition of the mucous membrane in the intestine atherosclerosis, which tends to constant progression.
- Individual genetic predisposition to such a disease can cause the appearance of polyps in a child. Moreover, as recent observations show, unfortunately, intestinal polyposis is “younger” and can now easily be diagnosed even in children of preschool age.
- Food allergies, in particular, gluten intolerance. In this state, a person can not digest protein. When it enters the digestive system, the latter begins to react violently to it. It perceives protein as a foreign component that damages the intestinal mucous layer. This can increase the likelihood of polyp formation.
In addition, the following theories of polyp formation are distinguished, which scientists have divided into several sections:
- Formations that have arisen due to the influence of gastritis and stomach ulcers (read about the diagnosis of stomach ulcers in this article).
- The inflammatory process of the reproductive system in women, which leads to small intestine polyposis.
- Effect of gallstone disease.
The probability of transition to oncology
According to research information, more than 70% of all types of polyps in the intestine, if untreated (surgical removal or drug therapy), can turn into oncological pathology. This makes this condition very dangerous for human health and life.
If we consider such formations under a microscope, they can be tubular or pilus. The first types of polyps are less susceptible to the transition to cancer, unlike the second.
In the event that the neoplasm reaches a size of 2 cm, then the probability of developing oncology increases by 25%. That is why, after the discovery of even the smallest polyps, they must be removed.
Symptoms and signs
According to the observations of doctors, polyps in the intestine at the initial stage of percolation rarely provoke characteristic symptoms in a patient. Moreover, for a long time a person may not even guess at all about his illness and learn about it only during a routine examination by a doctor.
Usually, the severity of the observed signs is determined by the specific localization of polyps, their size, number, and the presence or absence of an oncological process.
Characteristic signs of the formation of polyps in the digestive system are:
- The appearance of bloody streaks in the feces, as well as mucus. Usually this phenomenon is observed when diagnosing pilus-like formations.
- For large polyps, patients may complain of sharp pains in the lower abdomen, which are cramping in nature. They may also have a frequent problem of constipation and indigestion.
- Very often, the development of polyps shows a violation of the chair. These can be diarrhea and diarrhea. Also sometimes formed intestinal obstruction.
- The patient may be disturbed by frequent nausea, unpleasant belching and anorexia.
- The general deterioration of health and weight loss happens when the state of polyposis is neglected.
- Sometimes large formations of polyps lead to fairly pronounced anal bleeding.
Diagnosis of intestinal polyps provides for the following activities and procedures:
- Initial examination of the patient, palpation of the abdomen and collection of anamnesis by a doctor.
- Blood and urine tests.
- Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity.
- Biopsy (a study during which a sample of the affected tissue is taken from the patient, after which it is examined under a microscope).
- CT or MRI.
Also, the doctor must necessarily differentiate the type of polyp (hyperplastic, tubular, villous, etc.), as well as determine its neglect.
Important! Older people are most susceptible to the formation of polyps in the intestines, since in 80% of all cases this pathology is found in patients after fifty years. That is why doctors advise people of this age category to undergo prophylactic diagnostics annually.
Treatment of polyps in the intestines depends on the specific type, size of the formation and general neglect of the patient’s condition.
If the size of the neoplasm is not large, then it should be removed endoscopically. In other cases, the patient will require open surgery.
Drug therapy in this state involves the appointment of the following drugs:
- Analgesics and antispasmodics are used for pain (No-spa).
- Preparations to improve digestion.
- Remedies for bloating (Simethicone).
- Medications for stool normalization.
- Immunomodulatory agents and vitamins.
If a person’s polyps have reached a large size, then they need to be surgically removed. For this, the patient can be assigned the following types of operations:
- Transrectal neoplasm removal. This procedure is done with a scalpel or scissors. A similar method is used when the polyp is close to the anus. During the procedure, a person is given local anesthesia.
- Endoscopic polypectomy is performed on polyps in the middle section of the intestine.
- Electrical excision. It provides for the introduction into the rectum of the rectoscope and the elimination of the polyp current. Further, the tumor gets burned and becomes dead. It is pulled out with a special loop.
- Resection is used to identify fleecy polyps.It is done by cutting the abdominal cavity under general anesthesia.
Important! With timely diagnosis and treatment, the probability of complete recovery of a person is more than 80%. The main thing is to strictly follow the recommendations of the doctor.
Diet after removal of polyps in the intestine provides for compliance with the following dietary guidelines:
- Within a couple of weeks after the operation, the patient should eat the ground food. So it will be easier to digest.
- You should completely eliminate the use of salt, alcohol and coarse food.
- The basis of the diet menu in this state should be frayed porridge and mashed soups.
- It is important to switch to a six-meal meal, but the portions should be no more than a handful.
- Heat treatment should be strictly controlled. Thus, all dishes must be steamed, baked or boiled.
- Avoid eating and eating a dry meal. In general, it is desirable to draw up a schedule of nutrition and to follow it clearly, even while at work.
The following products are strictly prohibited in this state:
- Mushrooms and dishes with their addition.
- Canned and pickled vegetables.
- Sweet carbonated drinks.
- Any kinds of sauces.
- Fatty meat and fish.
- Canned food.
- Herring and smoked meats.
- Sour fruit.
- Black tea and coffee.
Products allowed are:
- Green tea.
- Oatmeal and soups with it.
- Mashed potatoes.
- Omelette steamed.
- Boiled chicken and fish, which were crushed.
- Shredded boiled vegetables.
- Low-fat kefir.
Important! It is recommended to observe such nutrition for a patient for at least a month. All this time, the patient’s condition should be monitored by the attending physician.
Rarely enough, the formation of this species are found in the small intestine. In the medical literature, isolated cases of the development of neoplasms of such localization are noted. In almost half of the patients in this group, polyps are observed in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract).
They are mainly composed of glandular tissue, but fibromatous and angiomatous can occur. The growths on the inner walls of the small intestine were detected in adults aged 20 to 60 years.
Localization of polyps in the duodenum is very rare. Almost all patients who went to the doctor with such a pathology were operated on, because there was a suspicion that the tumor was malignant.
Such outgrowths can be located in the area of the sphincter of Oddi (in patients with cholecystitis or cholelithiasis) or near the duodenal bulb (in gastritis with high acidity). The disease occurs in women and in men aged 30 to 60 years.
Most often polyposis lesions are located in the colon (sigmoid or rectum). They can be both single and multiple. In most cases, they are formed in adolescence, but sometimes they can be identified in children (which may indicate a hereditary predisposition).
Multiple or single growths of such localization are observed in 15% of people over 40 years of age. In almost 8 out of 10 people, they precede rectal cancer.
Symptoms of polyps in the intestines
The disease in the initial stages may not manifest, proceeding asymptomatically. In some cases, growths can be detected only during routine inspection.
The first signs of polyps in the intestines appear when the formation reaches a large size, begins to ulcerate, or is supplemented by inflammatory processes.
The following symptoms may indicate formations in the colon:
- bleeding. It can occur as a result of ulceration of the outgrowth, torsion of its legs or damage to the blood vessels,
- nagging pains: can ache in the lower abdomen or in the sacrum,
- frequent urge to empty the bowel,
- mucus in the feces (an indirect sign of villous bowel polyps),
- pain in the anus
- alternation of constipation and diarrhea.
The growths located on the walls of the small intestine are very dangerous, as they often degenerate into cancer. They can also cause perforation of the intestinal wall, profuse bleeding or intestinal obstruction.
Signs of a polyp in the small intestine:
- dyspeptic symptoms (belching, nausea, flatulence) usually occur in the initial stage of the disease,
- indomitable vomiting, which occurs in cases where the tumor is located in the initial sections of the small intestine,
- cramping abdominal pain,
In 67% of cases, growths located in the duodenum do not cause any symptoms and it is impossible to determine them. But if the tumor is large, the patient may experience the following symptoms:
- nagging pain around the navel,
- belching rotten egg
- feeling of fullness in the stomach,
- frequent nausea.
If the growths overlap the intestinal lumen, a person has cramping abdominal pain, severe vomiting of undigested food, weakness. The general condition of the patient is rapidly deteriorating, so immediate hospitalization is necessary.
If the growth is single, benign and located in the distal colon, it is removed through a colonoscope by electrocoagulation.
Neoplasms up to 2 cm on a broad basis are eliminated by the method of electro-dissection. For large and numerous polyps, abdominal surgery is performed.
To eliminate formations in the small intestine or in the duodenum, enterotomy is indicated. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. The surgeon dissects the abdominal wall and removes the loop of the intestine.
In the next step, the intestinal wall is cut in the longitudinal direction and formation is eliminated. Then the wound is sutured. This operation does not lead to a narrowing of the intestinal lumen, therefore in the future the work of the intestine is not disturbed.
Diet in the postoperative period
In order to accelerate healing and prevent the formation of new growths, the patient must follow a diet after surgery. He is forbidden to eat spicy, salty and sour dishes. It is also necessary to abandon fried and fatty foods. The patient needs to minimize the amount of salt in the diet.
Doctors recommend eating frequently (every 2–3 hours) in small portions. Meals should be at room temperature. They are prepared by boiling, baking or steaming. The consistency of the dishes should be soft, they must first be crushed, rubbing through a sieve or using a blender.
Special attention should be paid to fluid intake. Per day it is necessary to drink up to two liters of pure non-carbonated water or weak black tea. It is necessary to abandon the use of carbonated beverages and alcohol.
Prognosis and prevention
Can a polyp in the intestines disappear by itself? No, such neoplasms do not resolve, they must be surgically removed.
The prognosis of the disease is favorable if the formation was timely detected and eliminated. The longer the growth is, the more likely it becomes a malignant tumor.
Almost in 30% of patients after removal of the neoplasm, recurrence was observed for several years (polyps can grow again). People who have a history of this disease should have an endoscopy annually.
In order to prevent the development of the disease, it is necessary:
- eat right: give up eating fatty and fried foods, alcohol, carbonated drinks, add vegetables, fruits, seafood to the diet,
- get rid of bad habits
- treat constipation effectively and in a timely manner,
- lead a healthy lifestyle, play sports, walk in the fresh air.
Especially carefully for their health need to monitor people who are at risk of developing pathology. If a close blood relative has an education in the intestine, regular examinations should be carried out.
We offer for viewing a video on the topic of the article.
Causes of polyps in the intestine
There is no single theory explaining the appearance of polyps in the intestines. Some scientists are inclined to believe that these tumors appear as a result of disruption of regeneration processes in the places of injury to the intestinal wall. Others consider the cause of polyp formation to be abnormal during embryonic development. There are many other opinions regarding the nature of this disease.
However, factors have been identified that may increase the likelihood of the formation of polyps in the intestines:
- male gender (in men, the disease is detected more often than in women),
- genetic predisposition
- inactive lifestyle and obesity,
- the prevalence in the diet of carbohydrate and fatty foods,
- persistent constipation and dysbiosis,
- diverticulosis and intestinal cancers.
Irrigoscopy is a study of the large intestine using a contrast agent that is administered retrogradely, that is, with the help of an enema through the rectum. This method allows you to visualize the features of the structure of the large intestine and to identify the various formations in it (filling defects). It is often impossible to detect small polyps with this test.
If you suspect the presence of polyps or other defects in the higher sections, a barium passage through the intestines is examined. The patient before the examination should drink a solution with a contrast agent. A few hours later, X-rays are taken, in which different sections of the intestine are visualized as the contrast agent passes.
Rectoromanoscopy is a diagnostic method that allows inspecting the rectum and distal parts of the sigmoid colon, which is about 20-25 cm up from the anus. With the help of the device, the doctor can:
- visually assess the condition of the intestinal mucosa,
- examine the tumors, if any,
- take the material for a subsequent biopsy.
Colonoscopy is the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of diseases of the colon. This method allows you to examine the intestine almost throughout its length (up to 1.5 m). With the help of a colonoscope, a doctor can:
- inspect the mucous membrane, revealing the smallest polyps the size of just a few mm,
- take biopsy material
- remove education.
Treatment of intestinal polyps
Radical treatment of this disease is possible only by surgery. It is impossible to get rid of polyps with the help of drugs.
Endoscopic removal of polyps on the walls of the large intestine is performed using a sigmoidoscope or colonoscope. Most often, the operation is performed under general anesthesia.
- When polyps are detected in the rectum, their transanal excision is performed; most of these operations are performed with the help of local anesthesia. Education in this part of the intestine is recommended to be removed, even if they are small and of a benign nature, since they are often injured, causing unpleasant symptoms for the patient.
- If endoscopic formation is impossible to remove, then the removal is performed through an incision in the wall of the intestine, such an operation is called a colostomy.
- In polyposis, when there are more than a hundred polyps and they are concentrated in one section of the intestine, the affected area is removed, and anastomosis is applied between the ends of the intestine.
Intestinal polyps - is it cancer or not?
This question arises in many patients in whom polyps are found in the intestine.
Polyps are benign tumors, they are not cancer, but some of their species may malignize over time (become malignant).
When polyps are detected during colonoscopy, biopsy material is taken. Laboratory research allows to establish the type of neoplasms, which makes it possible to draw a conclusion about the possibility of malignancy.
Adenomatous (glandular) polyps
The probability of malignancy of this type of polyps is very high, in 85% of cases 5–15 years after their detection colorectal cancer is found in patients. The larger the size of such polyps and the greater their number, the higher the likelihood of an adverse course of the disease, therefore adenomatous polyps are often called precancer.
Patients who have adenomatous type of polyps according to the results of biopsy are recommended to remove them with subsequent annual control colonoscopy. There is evidence that people whose parents were “owners” of polyps of this type (even if it didn’t get to colon cancer), the risk of this pathology increases by 50%.
Also, histologically secrete hyperplastic, inflammatory, and hamartomatic polyps, which very rarely degenerate into cancer. Small, single-sized polyps with a low probability of malignancy, which do not cause any symptoms, are usually not removed, and regular examination is recommended for patients.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that diagnostic colonoscopy be performed on all persons who have reached the age of 55 years, and then every 10 years (in the absence of complaints and symptoms characteristic of polyps in the intestine). This recommendation is related to the fact that in more than 85% of cases colon cancer is detected in patients older than 60 years.
The age limit for the first study is reduced to 45 years, if polyposis or intestinal cancer has been identified in a family of first-line relatives (mother, father, siblings), especially before the age of 45 years.
Different countries have their own standards for incorporating this procedure into a public health plan. In many European countries, colonoscopy is recommended to be performed annually to all persons over 45 years of age, and a fecal occult blood test is also included in the examination plan (Gregersen's reaction).
If there are any complaints that may indicate the presence of this disease, a colonoscopy is performed by a doctor, regardless of the patient's age. Frequent cases of detection of benign polyps in children.
Such recommendations are dictated by disappointing statistics. Over the past 30 years, colorectal cancer, the precursor of which are often polyps in the intestines, has become the second most common cause of death from cancer in developed countries. Moreover, in the overwhelming majority of cases, the disease is already diagnosed at stage III or IV, when radical treatment is impossible or ineffective. Thus, the inclusion of colonoscopy in a survey plan for people over 45 years of age is one of the most effective measures to prevent bowel cancer.
A specialist talks about colon polyps:
About intestinal polyps in the program "About the most important":
What is the likelihood of polyp degeneration into intestinal cancer?
About 75% of all polypous formations found in the intestine are capable of malignancy. Such growths are called adenomatous. In order to determine the subtype of adenomatous polyp, it is necessary to study it under a microscope. Polyps can be tubular, glandular-villous or simply villous. The most favorable prognosis in terms of ozlokachestvleniya give tubular education. Villous polyps are the most dangerous and most often reborn into cancer.
The size of the formation additionally affects whether a polyp is threatened with malignancy. What it is, the risk is higher. When the growth in volume exceeds 20 mm, the threat is exacerbated by 20%.Due to the fact that even the smallest polyps will steadily increase, they must be removed immediately after detection.
There are some types of polyps that are not threatened with malignancy - these are hyperplastic, inflammatory and hamartomatic formations.
Adenomatous formations are the most dangerous. They have a high potential for malignancy.
Large polyps are malignantly reborn with a greater degree of probability.
Colonoscopy, rectoromanoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are diagnostic procedures that must be performed regularly for people over 50 who have a dangerous heredity. If growths are not detected, then the next time it is recommended to come to the clinic after two years,
After elimination of adenomatous formation, a person is regularly examined for new polyps in the intestine,
Modern medicine has special tests to diagnose a hereditary predisposition to the development of bowel cancer. This technique makes it possible to timely prevent the start of oncological degeneration of polyps.
Diagnosis of a polyp in the intestines
The early stage of the disease does not give bright symptoms, so most developed countries have introduced a mandatory annual delivery of feces to detect hidden blood in it. This analysis makes it possible to detect even invisible particles of blood that come out with feces during bowel movements. However, even a negative result of the analysis cannot indicate that there is definitely no polyp in the intestine.
Techniques such as MRI and CT can detect growths in some parts of the intestine. In order to diagnose them in the rectum and sigmoid colon, it is more expedient to undergo a sigmoidoscopy using a rectoscope. This device makes it possible to visualize the intestinal wall more thoroughly. In addition, proctologists recommend a prophylactic sigmoidoscopy every 5 years. It is necessary to do all people over 50 years.
Finger research is another way to detect polypous growths, fissures, tumors, cysts and hemorrhoids in the terminal part of the rectum and in the anus.
Irrigoscopy allows visualization of formations larger than 10 mm. It is performed by introducing a contrast agent into the large intestine and performing X-ray photographs.
However, the most modern and informative method for diagnosing polyposis is colonoscopy. It makes it possible to obtain information about any pathologies of the intestine, and when a polyp is detected, you can immediately perform a biopsy. The resulting biopsy is sent for histological and cytological examination.
It is important for a physician not to take a polyp for another education similar to him:
Angioma. This is a tumor that has multiple vessels and is often manifested by severe bleeding,
Lipoma is a small tumor, often choosing the right part of the colon,
Myoma, provoking intestinal obstruction, is rarely diagnosed,
A non-epithelial tumor that does not have a stem and at the same time reaches an impressive size,
Crohn's disease can trigger pseudopolyps, which is found in the upper part of the large intestine,
Actinomycosis, affecting the cecum.
Differentiate the type of education helps mainly histology.
Popular Questions and Answers
Do I need to remove polyps in the intestines? The answer to this question is definitely positive. Any polyp must be removed, its other treatment is impossible.
Does the stomach ache with polyps in the intestines? Pains of a cramping character can be observed with large polyps. At the same time the lower part of the abdomen and the iliac region is painful. In addition, abdominal pain may appear on the background of the joined inflammation.
Do intestinal polyps remove during rectoscopy? During this diagnostic study, small-sized formations that are well located can be removed. In all other situations, surgery is required.
Removal of intestinal polyps
Regardless of the size of the formations, each of them must be removed. After this procedure, a microscopic examination is conducted for the presence of atypical cells.
The most popular methods of removing growths in the intestines are:
Transrectal polyp excision
The procedure is performed with scissors or a scalpel. In this way, only polyps close to the anus can be removed from the body. They should be no further than 10 cm from the beginning of the anus, although a distance of 6 cm is considered optimal for such an operation.
The patient is given a local anesthetic. Most often used for this Novocain 0,25%. General anesthesia is used extremely rarely. After the start of anesthesia, the doctor with a special mirror pushes the anal canal and removes the polyp.
When the formation has a leg, the Billroth clamp is used, with which the pinch is clamped. Formed on the mucous membrane defect to be sutured. A maximum of 3 knots made with catgut suture is sufficient for this. It does not require removal and after a month is completely absorbed. If the polyp is attached on a wide base, then remove it by cutting the tumor from the zone of a healthy mucous membrane using an oval incision.
In the case when the growths are located further than 6 cm, but closer than 10 cm from the entrance to the anus, the technology of the operation is somewhat modified. With the help of a rectal speculum, the anal canal is opened and then stretched by the fingers until it is completely relaxed. Then a larger gynecological specimen is inserted allowing the intestinal wall to be retracted without a polyp. Then a short mirror is inserted, and the patient needs to be pinched. This allows you to bring education and gives the doctor the opportunity to capture it with an elongated clip Billroth, or fenestrated clip. The doctor removes the short mirror, additional anesthesia is introduced into the region of the base of the polyp, and then it is removed.
This method of removing a polyp is advisable to apply if the formations are located in the middle (proximal) parts of the intestine. Such surgery is referred to as minimally invasive surgical methods that can be used in the state of a patient’s drug sleep. During the procedure, an endoscope is inserted into the anus, with which a polyp is found. After its detection, the tumor is removed using endoscopic instruments. The doctor then makes sure that there is no bleeding and, if necessary, re-coagulates. The polyp is removed from the patient's body using an endoscope.
If the outgrowth has a large size, then it must be removed not entirely, but in parts. This procedure is called chipping. This is a rather complicated technique, during which an explosion of intestinal gases can occur, as well as perforation of the intestinal wall, if the burn is too severe. Therefore, only a specially trained proctologist or endoscopist can perform such an operation. After removal of a large polyp larger than 20 mm, the patient needs to undergo a second endoscopy a year later. A person is not removed from the register of a proctologist and every 3 years must undergo this procedure, aimed at identifying a possible recurrence of the disease.
A rectoscope is inserted into the cavity of the rectum. On it to the polyp spend electric. She leaps on a polyp, a current passes through it. The temperature of the loop rises, the epithelial tissue heats up. As a result, the tumor gets a thermal burn and becomes dead. When the loop is tightened, the formation is cut off and taken out.
This method has several advantages, in the first place, it allows you to prevent the development of bleeding, as there is an instantaneous coagulation of blood vessels.
Colotomy or resection of the intestine
The operation is indicated in the detection of polyps in the sigmoid colon, as well as in the diagnosis of fleecy formations with a broad base. The procedure will require the introduction of general anesthesia. Then the doctor makes an incision in the left iliac region and the colon is brought into the resulting lumen. Polypous plot palpable and opened. Pre-healthy zones impose restrictive soft pulps. The tumor and the part of the mucous membrane on which it is located are excised, then stitches are put on this place. The gut itself is sutured in two rows, and the anterior abdominal wall in layers.
Segmental resection of the small intestine
The operation is indicated when large polyps are found in the small intestine, or if their base is wide. The entire area in which the growth is localized is subjected to excision. The ends of the intestine approach, and an inter-intestinal fistula forms. Often, this intervention becomes a cause of digestive disorders in the future, as the patient suffers from "short bowel syndrome".
As for the prognosis for recovery, it is favorable if the formation was detected in the early stages and promptly removed from the body. The longer the polyps are in the intestine and the larger their size and number, the higher the risks that they will be reborn into a malignant tumor. The probability of recurrence remains quite high even after complete removal of the tumor, it is up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to follow up the patient and undergo regular examination.
Diet after removing intestinal polyps
Rehabilitation of the patient after the operation depends primarily on compliance with the diet. Recovery consists of several stages and must proceed according to certain rules.
After the operation, the first stage of the diet begins. It lasts for 3 days after the intervention. The patient is not allowed to drink or consume food in the first 24 hours. When this time expires, a person can quench their thirst. The maximum volume of liquid taken at one time should not exceed 50 ml. In addition, the patient can drink vegetable broth, or compote based on unsweetened fruit. After another 12 hours, rice broth, weak broth or jelly are allowed. You can also diversify the strict menu of the patient after the operation with dogrose broth. Such limitations are due to the fact that it is necessary to eliminate intestinal motility and to reduce its excretory function as much as possible. Produced bile and digestive enzymes can adversely affect the condition of the seams and damaged tissues.
The second stage of the diet starts three days after the intervention. If the patient feels satisfactory, then his diet can be expanded by the introduction of liquid porridges, meat soufflé (from lean meat), mucous soups and soft-boiled eggs. As for cereals, preference should be given to millet, oatmeal and rice. When a new product is introduced, it is necessary to monitor patient's state of mind very carefully. If after ingestion of this or that dish there is an increase in gas formation, or painful sensations appear, then it is important to refuse such food. The second stage of the diet is aimed at consistently increasing the load on the operated intestines. At this time, the patient needs to normalize the chair. To adhere to such a diet should be until discharge from the hospital.
The third stage comes two weeks after the operation. Over the next four months, the patient will have to follow a gentle diet.
The doctor must familiarize the patient with the basic rules of nutrition:
It is important to adhere to the regime. If products are ingested at the same time, this will allow the enzymes to begin to be produced in advance. In this case, the process of digestion will not be so difficult for regenerating the intestine,
Requires fractional power. This will improve the motor function of the intestine, reduce the load on it. The number of meals should not be less than 6, but small portions should be consumed,
It is important not to allow fermentation processes in the intestine, since they can cause the development of peritonitis. For this it is worth refusing to include legumes in the diet. Under the restriction fall nuts, asparagus and mushrooms,
For the prevention of constipation, the patient should receive a sufficient amount of fluid. Its volume depends on the patient's body weight and averages 3 liters. Be sure to include the first dishes on the menu,
The fatter the food, the more bile is secreted. Its excess content negatively affects the process of intestinal tissue regeneration,
It is important to refuse to accept too rough food that can injure the intestines. Products must be either thoroughly boiled or baked,
Add dairy products, eggs and lean meat to your diet. They all contain protein, which contributes to the speedy recovery of tissues,
Under the complete ban fall sour, spicy and fried foods. This is due to their ability to chemical irritation of the intestine.
The menu should be designed and put together in such a way that it fully meets the needs of an amendment person. This is important to do despite the limitations. Normal intestinal peristalsis is the key to regular stool. This contributes to the prevention of dysbiosis and constipation, and therefore, to some extent reduces the risk of re-formation of polyps.
Education: Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry (1996). In 2003, he received a diploma from an educational and scientific medical center for managing the affairs of the President of the Russian Federation.
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