Gastroenteritis is an infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract. People call it "intestinal flu." It is the main cause of high mortality in third world countries. Most common among children of the younger age group. Statistics show that in our country every year more than 1 thousand patients are treated with gastroenteritis in hospitals. Often the consequences of such appeals are very sad. Thanks to clinical studies, it was found that gastroenteritis is caused by viral, parasitic and bacterial endopathogens. Accompanied by loss of appetite, severe diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, less often - fever. In developed countries, outbreaks of infectious disease are rare. Patients who applied to the clinic on time are easily treated and recover. After gastroenteritis, the consequences do not remain.
Types of gastroenteritis
The type of disease depends on the cause of the disease and the pathogen. Infection can be caused by viruses, bacteria or parasites. There are the following types of enterovirus:
- infectious (pathogens are different types of viruses),
- rotavirus (most common in young children),
- coronavirus (transmitted by airborne droplets),
- parvovirus (man in this case is the carrier of the disease).
- bacterial (pathogens are Salmonella, dysenteric bacillus, cholera vibrio),
- damage to the gastrointestinal tract (the causes of the disease - the simplest organisms),
- alimentary (arises from overeating, alcohol abuse, eating spicy foods),
- toxic (occurs when toxic substances are poisoned),
- allergic (appears due to allergies to food, medicines, toxins),
- gastroenterocolitis (caused by radiation)
- toxic (appears as a result of poisoning by toxic substances, medicines, chemicals).
Other non-infectious gastroenteritis:
Acute and chronic gastroenteritis
The most common cause of acute gastroenteritis is the use of low-quality food. As a result, intoxication and the first signs of the disease appear: nausea, vomiting, fainting. Since the symptoms are similar to other diseases of the stomach, until the determination of the main cause, the diagnosis is not specified. The doctor prescribes treatment for general diseases.
Chronic gastroenteritis refers to the type of non-communicable diseases. Complicated disease requires a special and long-term treatment until the change of lifestyle. A special diet is prescribed. The severity determines the duration of treatment.
The disease affects people of middle age. The cause of acute atrophic gastroenteritis is malnutrition, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, and a long course of medication. The process of mucus formation is disturbed and mucosal atrophy occurs. The work of the digestive system becomes abnormal, the patient loses weight and complains of feeling unwell, there is pain in the abdomen, dizziness. The first symptoms appear within a few hours after the poisoning.
Gastroenteritis refers to severe diseases that entail undesirable consequences. Launched acute infectious disease leads to chronic stage. The following fatal complications have been observed:
- intestinal dysbiosis,
- damage to vital organs
- asymptomatic carriage
- toxic shock,
- disruption of immunological mechanisms,
A dangerous pathology is asymptomatic carriage of infection. Without manifestation of any symptoms of the disease, the person remains the carrier and carrier of the infection. This leads to infection of other people.
Which doctor should be treated with an intestinal infection?
When the first symptoms of the disease occur, you should contact the therapist of the local clinic. If the manifestation of symptoms has become more pronounced, you can call the doctor at home (a therapist or pediatrician for the child). Treatment will occur on an outpatient basis. If the patient's condition worsens, you should immediately call an ambulance and take the patient to an infectious hospital. By clinical symptoms, it is not always possible to determine the exact diagnosis. Therefore, the patient needs to accurately tell the doctor about what products he used, what public places he visited, and whether he traveled to places with a poor epidemiological situation. Self-treatment is strictly prohibited.
Gastroenteritis is a disease with pronounced symptoms. At the initial stage of gastroenteritis, the main symptoms are: nausea, vomiting, indigestion, abdominal pain. If the disease is not treated, over time, fatigue, lethargy, cold sweat, and body temperature increase to these symptoms. Also, problems such as the appearance of intoxication and even vascular collapse may appear. Very rarely, symptoms characteristic of the inflammatory process in the small intestine can appear. During the examination, the doctor may identify problems in the epigastric area.
Gastroenteritis quite often develops in the same way as most bacterial diseases, and the symptoms are similar: the frequency of stool in patients increases to 20-30 times a day, emptying watery, in the stool may be an admixture of blood or mucus.
Forms of gastroenteritis
When this disease occurs, doctors distinguish three degrees of severity:
- In the mild form of the disease, vomiting and diarrhea are characteristic, but the stools are infrequent. Characteristically, the temperature remains almost unchanged and dehydration does not occur.
- With moderate severity, an increase in body temperature is characteristic (but not higher than 38.5 degrees). Also, the patient has vomiting and increased stools. The skin is dry, tormented by great thirst.
- Acute gastroenteritis symptoms of the disease - increased body temperature (up to 40), in addition to vomiting, loose and frequent stools, loss of consciousness and severe convulsions can be observed. Severe dehydration, in which the patient refuses to drink, the skin becomes dry and flabby.
Symptoms of gastroenteritis in adults
The incubation period of the disease lasts from several hours to 4 days - it all depends on the individual characteristics of the body and immunity. Usually the incubation period of gastroenteritis lasts from three to five days.
The severity of symptoms will vary depending on the causative agent, the severity of the disease and the individual characteristics of the organism. Someone can tolerate the disease much easier, and someone suffer more severe symptoms.
At the initial stage, adults experience symptoms such as:
- Severe nausea
- Increased flatulence (gas)
- Stomach ache
- The appearance of mucus and blood in the stool
- Increased stool frequency
- Color change emptying
- Increased body temperature, perhaps up to 40º C
- Reduced appetite
If the disease is severe, then dehydration caused by frequent stools may be added to the previous symptoms. At the same time, the skin on the body becomes flabby and lethargic, the lips and mouth are dry. Also, the skin is easily gathered in the fold and slowly straightens back.
If the patient does not seek help from a doctor when such symptoms occur, his condition worsens significantly (up to loss of consciousness). Seizures may occur, and blood pressure decreases. In the extremely severe course of this disease, the patient can observe nonsense.
Symptoms of gastroenteritis in children
Depending on the causes of gastroenteritis, this disease is divided into: acute and chronic. Symptoms of chronic gastroenteritis can occur when a malfunction in the diet, allergies or the presence of infections, especially parasitic ones. The first signs of gastroenteritis are the occurrence of severe cramping pain near the navel, which spreads over the entire surface of the abdomen. This is especially characteristic during the meal. Such pain can spontaneously occur or disappear. The first sign of illness in children is also a rise in temperature.
The child has bloating and strong gas. If you press on the stomach, there may be a rumbling in the cecum. If a child with acute gastroenteritis has vomiting blood, loose stools with blood and mucus, a high temperature that does not subside throughout the day, then you should seek medical help as soon as possible, otherwise it may cause deterioration.
If the temperature rises with gastroenteritis, then this is one of the most dangerous and serious symptoms. Gastroenteritis can occur without diarrhea, but with severe abdominal pain.
Viral gastroenteritis: symptoms
The first signs of this disease occur immediately or maximum a couple of days after the infection enters the body. Symptoms of viral gastroenteritis are:
- The appearance of a bad cold
- Pain and sore throat
- Severe fever
- Strong headache
The most dangerous is dehydration, which is observed due to vomiting and frequent stools. This can lead to the fact that the body is significantly weakened, strength is lost, the patient is observed lethargy, drowsiness.
Allergic gastroenteritis: symptoms
Another type of this disease is food allergies. Quite often, this disease can be observed in children. Typical symptoms are:
- Severe epigastric pain
Only a doctor can distinguish allergic gastroenteritis from the usual. Therefore, in order to avoid serious consequences for the organism, at the very first symptoms one should immediately seek help from a qualified specialist.
Most often in practice, infectious gastroenteritis occurs, the symptoms and diagnosis of which depend on the type of pathogen. However, the reason may be in the damaging effects of aggressive to the mucous drugs and chemicals. Gastroenteritis is not an independent nosological unit and usually represents a symptom complex of manifestations of other diseases.
Diagnosis of gastroenteritis is the examination of the patient, collecting anamnesis of his disease, differential diagnosis with similar pathologies, the use of laboratory and instrumental methods of research.
As a rule, the diagnosis of gastroenteritis can be made already on the basis of examination and complaints of the patient. Signs of gastroenteritis may be of different severity. It all depends on the nature of the disease, its etiology, severity, age of the patient, comorbidities.
The disease manifests itself suddenly.
The main complaints are as follows:
- lack of appetite,
- weight loss
- nausea, vomiting,
- rumbling in the abdomen,
- pains of different intensity of spastic nature,
- diarrhea of a different nature
- muscle pain,
- severe weakness
- feeling of bloating
- temperature rise.
Diarrhea may be absent, but this does not exclude the presence of rumbling in the abdominal cavity, which is one of the specific features of this disease, which facilitates the diagnosis of gastroenteritis.
Vomiting and diarrhea can be so significant that they sometimes provoke dehydration of the body with the corresponding manifestations: a decrease in blood pressure, an increase in heart rate, and kidney failure.
Temperature rise: it can vary from subfebrile to high, depending on the pathogen.
Features of the disease, depending on the pathogen
In viral etiology, the main manifestation of gastroenteritis is liquid to watery stools. Impurities of mucus or blood are rarely observed.
Rotavirus causes significant intoxication. Temperature often subfebrile, but sometimes it can rise to high numbers. Characterized by vomiting. An acute period of about a week continues.
Acute onset of the disease with marked vomiting and spasmodic pain of considerable intensity is characteristic of Kaliitsiviruses. Children have more vomiting and diarrhea in adults. Often, all this is accompanied by headache and muscle pain. This period does not last long - 1-2 days.
Under the influence of adenoviruses, the disease lasts a long time - 2-3 weeks. Vomiting is not expressed. Begins 1-2 days after diarrhea. In half of the cases there is an increase in temperature, but rarely to high numbers.
Bacterial gastroenteritis is accompanied by severe intoxication symptoms: high fever, severe general weakness. Severe diarrhea, accompanied by the release of blood. Some bacteria synthesize enterotoxin in large quantities, which causes profuse watery stools.
Parasites do not cause acute manifestations. As a rule, the gastroenteritis caused by them develops with not pronounced diarrhea. Blood in the stool is rare. Only with amoebic dysentery. Characterized by general malaise, weakness.
The attending physician determines which tests should be taken if you suspect gastroenteritis. Rectal examination. Cal for gastroenteritis is indicative. While maintaining the admixture of blood and watery diarrhea for more than a couple of days, a study is performed on hidden blood, on the content of parasites in the feces and their eggs, and bacterial culture is carried out.
An enzyme immunoassay method can be used to determine the presence of Giardia, some viruses. However, such studies are conducted only under the condition of an outbreak of the disease.
All patients who have bloody diarrhea, be sure to undergo a study for the presence of E. coli.
If bloody diarrhea occurs in adult patients, sigmoscopy is performed. At the same time, a biopsy and seeding of the contents for blood tests on gastroenteritis are taken.
General tests for acute gastroenteritis
General blood tests for this pathology are not specific. Complete blood count with gastroenteritis can reveal inflammatory manifestations, an increase in eosinophil levels. In case of a severe course, a change in the number of electrolytes is possible, which requires their correction.
Diagnosis, as well as treatment should be done only by a specialist. Self-diagnosis can lead to erroneous diagnoses and, accordingly, complications.
Treatment of gastroenteritis in adults and children in most cases occurs at home. When the first symptoms appear, you must immediately take some measures that are aimed at improving the patient's condition.
The treatment of all forms of gastroenteritis includes the following aspects:
- normalization of water-salt balance in the body,
- the first hours after the onset of the disease - a complete failure of food, after which you need to follow a certain diet,
- taking funds that stop vomiting, diarrhea,
- use of antibiotics.
Treatment of gastroenteritis in adults can occur by folk remedies, which are aimed at restoring the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines. Also, these medications are acceptable for ingestion to compensate for the loss of body fluids. To improve the condition of the patient is quite effective is the use of physiotherapy:
- paraffin baths,
- warm compresses
After stopping the main symptoms, you need to start a rehabilitation therapy, which is aimed at normalizing the work of the digestive system.
About the causes of the disease
The source of the disease is a sick person or carrier, as well as contaminated food or water. The transmission mechanism is fecal-oral. In order for the symptoms of acute gastroenteritis to appear, the pathogen must enter the human gastrointestinal tract. Many viruses and bacteria can cause manifestations of this disease, among them:
- E. coli.
The defeat of an infectious agent has its own characteristics of the course, which often help in the diagnosis, but the main symptoms are similar and manifest signs of damage to the digestive tract.
Manifestations of the disease
The symptoms of infectious gastroenteritis can be divided into several groups:
- Common manifestations: weakness, headaches, loss of appetite, fever.
- Symptoms of gastritis: abdominal pain, nausea, belching, vomiting.
- Symptoms of enteritis: abdominal pain, abdominal distension, frequent loose stools.
The disease is different in adults and in children:
- Children lose fluid much faster with diarrhea and vomiting and dehydrate earlier than adults.
- In children, the reaction is also more intense than in adults.
How to diagnose?
When diagnosing acute gastroenteritis, it is important for the doctor to systematize all the symptoms and manifestations of the disease.
- The severity of the general condition is in terms of the frequency of vomiting and stool, severity of fever, and symptoms such as nausea and abdominal pain. Pulse rate and blood pressure are also determined.
- The degree of dehydration ─ by color and moisture of the skin and mucous membranes, the intensity of thirst and the degree of reduction of diuresis.
- Local events ─ with the help of palpation of the abdomen, auscultation of intestinal noise eliminates acute surgical pathology.
For a more accurate diagnosis of gastroenteritis and establishing its etiology, the following laboratory tests are used:
- CBC: leukocytosis (neutrophilia or neutropenia and lymphocytosis, depending on the bacterial or viral nature of the disease, accelerated ESR).
- Urinalysis ─ monitoring of key indicators.
- Bacteriological seeding feces or emetic masses ─ allows you to accurately determine the pathogen.
- Coprological study: a large amount of fiber, muscle fibers, salts of fatty acids.
- Sero-and PCR diagnostics ─ quickly and accurately identify the pathogen, but are costly.
Principles and methods of treatment
The objectives of the treatment of this disease are:
- restoration of water and electrolyte balance,
- elimination of signs of intoxication,
- stopping nausea and vomiting, stool normalization,
- removal of the pathogen from the body.
The principle of treatment of acute infectious gastroenteritis in both adults and children is one ─ restoring the body's water-electrolyte balance, detoxification and influencing the causative factor of the disease ─ infectious agent.
Indications for treatment with antibacterial drugs:
- the severity of the symptoms of the disease,
- salmonellosis, dysentery and other similar infections.
Antibacterial drugs for the bacterial nature of acute gastroenteritis are selected by a doctor based on the following criteria:
- bactericidal action
- high bioavailability of the active substance, its high concentration in the digestive tract after administration,
- high activity against major causative agents of acute intestinal infections,
- low levels of drug resistance among bacteria.
Some features of treatment with antibacterial agents:
- In some cases, taking antibiotics, causing a massive death of pathogens in the body of an adult or a child, leads to the release of additional toxins, increased intoxication and deterioration.
- In other cases, an improperly chosen antibacterial agent for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis causes persistence of infection, carriage.
An important place in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis is the replacement of fluid loss ─ rehydration. It can be carried out either parenterally or orally, using special rehydration solutions (rehydron). The doctor chooses the method of rehydration and the required volume of fluid for each patient individually, depending on the losses.
In addition to antibiotics, intestinal antiseptics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis use the following groups of drugs:
- Enterosorbents ─ Smecta, Enterosgel.
- Enzyme preparations - Pancreatin.
- Pro- and eubiotics ─ Linex, Bifiform.
- Vitamin complexes ─ Complivit, Alphabet.
The indication for hospitalization is the inefficiency of the outpatient treatment:
- persistent vomiting and diarrhea, increasing signs of dehydration,
- long lasting fever.
With timely treatment to the doctor and an integrated approach to treatment, the disease responds well to therapy and passes without consequences.
Viral gastroenteritis - treatment
If there are symptoms that may indicate the development of the disease, you need to contact the duty therapist. On examination, the doctor will determine the tactics of treatment. If there is no improvement in the patient’s condition after 1-2 days, the decision is made to place him in a hospital.
The main aspect of the treatment of viral gastroenteritis is the elimination of dehydration. In this case, the use of saline is shown. Both pharmacy and homemade products have a positive effect.
Comprehensive treatment of the disease involves taking the following remedies:
As a prophylactic against viral gastroenteritis, vaccines are used against certain types of viruses that cause the development of the disease.
Treatment of infectious gastroenteritis
In the presence of the infectious nature of this disease, the use of dehydration therapy, which is aimed at restoring the water-salt balance, is shown. In the acute course of gastroenteritis caused by various bacteria, antibiotics are prescribed. It is strictly forbidden to take them on your own, as if you choose the wrong treatment regimen, this may cause an increase in dysbiosis.
In the treatment of infectious gastroenteritis are also used funds that are aimed at eliminating the main symptoms of the disease - fever, diarrhea, vomiting. Often prescribed enzyme preparations to improve digestion. Also shown are agents that have an enveloping effect on the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines.
Acute gastroenteritis - treatment
Treatment of the acute form of the disease occurs in the hospital. It is important to monitor the patient’s condition and take measures that are aimed at improving it. In this case, the gastroenterologist deals with the treatment.
Rehydration in acute gastroenteritis is most often carried out intravenously in several stages. First, the entire volume of the missing liquid is restored, after which special solutions are gradually introduced as diarrhea and vomiting develop.
Also, treatment of acute gastroenteritis includes the following aspects:
- gastric lavage at the first stage of treatment,
- receiving symptomatic remedies that will help eliminate fever, diarrhea, vomiting, pain and cramps in the stomach,
- sorbent drugs
- diet food,
- medications to restore the intestinal microflora,
- enzyme preparations.
Treatment of gastroenteritis in children
Treatment of any form of the disease in children is no different from adult therapy. If there are alarming symptoms, you need to contact your pediatrician who, after examination, will determine whether you need to hospitalize the baby. If the child’s condition is satisfactory and improves after taking rehydration drugs, the treatment is carried out at home.
If the baby is sick, you do not need to stop its usual diet. Breast milk or milk formula does not harm him. When treating older children on the first day, it is best not to feed him at all. You need to give your child a lot of drinking to make up for the loss of body fluids.
Diet for children with gastroenteritis
Diet for gastroenteritis includes the following rules of nutrition:
- The first hours after the appearance of vomiting and diarrhea, you can drink only water, unsweetened fruit drinks, decoctions of herbs.
- After improving the condition of the child, add mashed baked apples, bananas, potatoes to the diet.
- Starting from the third day, you can eat vegetable soups, porridges and lean boiled chicken.
- Starting from the fourth day, enter boiled eggs, lean meat and fish, and biscuit biscuits into the diet.
- The next day, you can gradually return to the normal way of eating.
- Dairy products eliminate from the diet for at least a week.
What can you eat with gastroenteritis?
Proper nutrition for gastroenteritis is one of the main aspects in the successful treatment of the disease. During the acute manifestation of symptoms and for at least two weeks thereafter, it is prohibited to use the following products:
- raw vegetables and fruits
- fat meat,
- rich broth,
- all sweets, fresh pastries, sugar,
All food should be light, thermally processed. Do not eat anything hot and hot, so as not to cause even more inflammation of the gastric mucosa. Portions should be small, and each new product should be tried in a small amount.
Prevention of gastroenteritis
In order to prevent the development of the disease, first of all you should always wash your hands thoroughly before eating and after using the toilet. All perishable foods should be stored in the refrigerator. Also do not forget to wash fresh vegetables and fruits.
If someone is sick in your home, try to isolate it from the rest of your family. Select the patient separate dishes and towels.
Also, always eat only in proven catering establishments, where you can be confident in the quality of food and compliance with sanitary standards in the kitchen.
Effective drugs for the treatment of gastroenteritis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and small intestine should be treated under the supervision of a physician. The specialist prescribes effective drugs, calculates the dosage of the drug. Forms of drug administration vary depending on the degree of development of the disease. For the treatment of gastroenteritis pills, suspensions, solutions for intravenous fluids and intramuscular injections are prescribed. Used drugs:
Rehydrants. Help to avoid dehydration.
Multienzyme preparations. Improve the functioning of the liver and digestive system.
Knitting and enveloping agents. Strengthen intestinal walls, contribute to the restoration of the mucous.
Enterosorbents. Toxic products of metabolism are bound and removed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Eubiotics. The small intestine is colonized with beneficial microflora.
Antibiotics. It is possible to use for the treatment of gastroenteritis at the accession of a bacterial infection.
To eliminate the symptoms of the disease medications must be taken comprehensively. It is important to take vitamins to activate the immune forces of the body. Acute gastroenteritis must be treated in a hospital under the control of a gastroenterologist.
Gastroenteritis often causes dehydration. This condition is characterized by dry mouth, lips, and general weakness. Therefore it is important to compensate for the loss of fluid in the body. To make it easier to calculate how much to drink liquids, you can stick to the formula: how much is done, so much, and pour in. Of course, sometimes the volume is difficult to calculate, just after each visit to the toilet and vomiting you need to drink a couple of sips. To replenish the water-salt balance with gastroenteritis, drugs are used:
The main composition of these drugs used to treat gastroenteritis includes: sodium chloride, sodium citrate, potassium chloride, dextrose. Preparations help to maintain the acid-base balance of the intestine, to remove heavy salts and citrates. Rehydrating solutions with potassium chloride are contraindicated with an excess of potassium in the body.
The composition of drugs includes pancreatic enzymes that facilitate the digestion of proteins, fats, carbohydrates. These drugs compensate for the lack of pancreatic secretory function, help to improve the digestive process. The doctor may prescribe pills effective for gastroenteritis:
Certain enzyme preparations are contraindicated in children under two years of age and in case of intestinal obstruction in adult patients.
Knitting and enveloping agents
When gastroenteritis to restore the intestinal mucosa and small intestine, the doctor can prescribe tablets with astringent, anti-inflammatory properties. These drugs increase the production of mucus, increase the stability of the membrane of the gastrointestinal tract.
During pregnancy and breastfeeding, astringent drugs should be used with caution.
Often, when gastroenteritis is administered, Smecta or similar enterosorbents are used. The preparation contains double magnesium and aluminum silicate. Smect stabilizes the mucous barrier of the gastrointestinal tract, reduces the negative effect of toxins, removes only toxins, viruses, pathogenic bacteria from the body. Also prescribed by doctors:
Enterosorbents are contraindicated for chronic constipation and individual intolerance to the components of the drug.
To normalize the work of the intestine, it is necessary to take eubiotics. Active bifidobacteria contribute to improving the function of the gastrointestinal tract, stimulate metabolic processes, help to get rid of toxic substances. Treatment of gastroenteritis with eubiotics should be lengthy.
There are no contraindications for adults to receive eubiotics, the use of drugs should be limited to children with lactase deficiency.
Gastroenteritis is rarely given antibiotics. This is done if it is determined that the infection is caused by a bacterium. Only a doctor based on tests can find an effective antibacterial drug for treating a disease. In the first stages, broad-spectrum antibiotics are used, which are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The use of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of gastroenteritis is needed to reduce the manifestations of the disease and prevent complications.
Antibiotics for gastroenteritis are taken for a short period of time, the dosage and type of medication is determined by the gastroenterologist.
As with any other problem in medicine, the treatment of gastroenteritis at home is possible using recipes and methods known and used since ancient times by many nations of the world. However, do not rush to immediately turn to untested methods and self-medicate, in many cases the best and most competent option would be to consult a doctor who can easily diagnose the cause of your illness and prescribe the necessary treatment.
Since this disease occurs primarily because a person drinks dirty water, it is necessary to limit its consumption and switch to bottled water.Everyone knows that the water from the tap contains a lot of infections and bacteria, however, many continue as if nothing has happened to use it.
It will not be superfluous to adhere to a special diet, because in the case of the disease you should not even more burden your digestive system. If the pain is acute, then doctors recommend drinking plain salted water and low-fat broths. Plain porridge and steamed rice are better for eating.
What kind of folk remedies can help in the treatment of gastroenteritis?
There is a huge variety of tinctures, decoctions and drinks that can give positive results in the fight against the disease.
Cranberry. It has long been known that this berry is an excellent antiseptic. Add a certain amount of berries in boiling water and simmer for about ten minutes. Strained broth to use sixty milliliters three to four times a day.
Mint. The leaves of the plant pour boiling water and leave for half an hour. Strain the infusion through gauze and drink fifty milliliters per day.
Oats. Doctors like to recommend their patients to use ordinary oatmeal. Just fill them with boiling water and wait.
Orchis. Strengthens the immune system and stimulates the nervous system. For the preparation you will need a powder that is obtained from the tubers of this plant. Explain and dilute it in boiling water in the proportion of two small tubers for two hundred milliliters of water. For a more pleasant taste, add a little honey.
Blackhead. Actively fights inflammation and strengthens the gastrointestinal tract. The finely worn blackhead is poured with boiling water and left for three to four hours. Eat infusion is necessary before meals in the amount of two teaspoons.
What it is
Children under 3 years of age are more susceptible to the disease due to weak immunity, imperfect intestines. The risk zone also includes people with chronic gastrointestinal diseases, pathologically weak immunity, elderly men, women.
Intestinal infection is spread by the fecal-oral route. The source of infection is a sick person with a bright clinical picture, as well as a carrier of the infection, who has mild symptoms or is completely absent. Bacteria, viruses enter the environment through feces, in which they remain active for up to 7 months. If you violate the rules of personal hygiene fall on household items, food. In the human body, pathogens penetrate through dirty hands, unwashed vegetables, fruits, greens, improper storage of food.
The most dangerous method of infection is infected pipeline water. In this case, the situation is dangerous epidemics, massive infection of the population. Viruses, bacteria get into the water upon contact with faeces that are present in the drains, drain holes.
The causative agents of infectious gastroenteritis are rotaviruses, shigella, salmonella, E. coli, campylobacter and others. Infection with various pathogens has its own characteristics, however, gastrointestinal lesions are common, intoxication. After suffering the disease, the immune system is produced for a short time, and in contact with pathogens, the disease re-develops.
What does photo look like?
With infectious gastroenteritis instrumental diagnosis is not carried out. Conclusion experts make on the basis of laboratory tests, the external clinical picture. In general, the disease looks like food poisoning, indigestion, exacerbation of gastritis, gastroenteritis. In each case, is individual in nature, the symptoms in children are more pronounced.
The main reason is the failure to follow basic rules of hygiene. With a weakened or pathologically weak immunity, bacteria, viruses actively develop in the body, provoke gastroenteritis of varying degrees. The source of infection are:
- Spoiled, infected food, especially dairy, meat products, eggs.
- Unwashed vegetables, fruits, greens.
- Unwashed hands after returning from public places, before eating.
- Eating in public places where sanitary and hygienic standards are violated.
- Inadequate heat treatment of products.
If we consider the cause of the spread of intestinal infection globally, the cause is a negligent attitude towards the performance of their duties as authorized bodies - local authorities, sanitary-epidemiological service. Thus, in developing countries, the main source of contamination is water into which feces fall. The most serious complication is death.
The incubation period lasts from 24 hours to 7 days. In most cases, the disease begins within a day after infection in the body. Symptomatology in adults, children in the early stages of the disease is almost the same, but among adults the percentage of carriers of the infection increases, then the symptoms are mild, like aggravation of gastritis, a slight indigestion. In addition, the symptoms directly depend on the variety of pathogens, the individual characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Common to all diseases is the appearance of symptoms of gastritis, enteritis.
Symptoms in children:
- Diarrhea or just loose stools,
- Abdominal pain, rumbling, bloating,
- Increase in body temperature to 37-39 degrees Celsius,
- Decreased appetite.
Unpleasant symptoms appear abruptly, pronounced 2-4 days. In general, infectious gastroenteritis is ill for about 7 days. At this time, the person is most contagious. In some cases, the ability to transmit the infection lasts for more than a month.
Symptoms in adults:
- Diarrhea or loose stools,
- Lack of appetite,
- Abdominal distension, rumbling, increased gas formation.
When the disease is sluggish, a person feels a slight indisposition, an upset stomach, intestines. In the presence of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, perceived as an exacerbation. For adults, symptoms of general intoxication and dehydration are less pronounced than in children. The body is recovering faster. Vivid symptoms are present 1-2 days.
In addition to the symptoms of gastritis, enteritis, sore throat, tickling, dry cough, rhinitis may be present. In the people such infection is called intestinal flu. Unpleasant sensations disappear without special treatment as the gastrointestinal tract improves. This symptom is a sign of rotavirus gastroenteritis.
ICD code 10
According to the International Classification of Diseases, intestinal infections are code A00-A09. Under the appropriate numbers starting with A00, cholera, typhoid and paratyphoid fever, salmonella infections, shigellosis, other bacterial intestinal infections, other bacterial food poisonings, amebiasis, protozoal infections, other protozoal intestinal diseases, viral and other specified intestinal infections, gastroenteritis and colitis unspecified go .
There are no special preparations for the treatment of intestinal infections. Apply the means to prevent dehydration, elimination of toxins, eliminate the symptoms of gastritis, enteritis, restore immunity, increase energy reserves.
Directions of therapy:
- Elimination of the pathogen,
- Restoration of water-lipid balance,
- Elimination of painful symptoms, signs of intoxication,
- Strengthening of protective forces
- Normalization of the digestive tract.
To achieve a therapeutic effect, medications, folk remedies, diet food are used. If bacteria have provoked an intestinal infection, antibiotics are indicated in severe cases. Appoint experts after receiving the results of laboratory tests.
Standard treatment regimen:
- Preparations to prevent dehydration. In most cases, regidron is prescribed. It is a crystalline powder, which is diluted with cold boiled water. 1 sachet per liter of water. Drink should be in small sips after each act of vomiting, bowel movements, or every half hour to 1-2 tbsp. Spoon.
- Sorbents for removing toxins, eliminating signs of intoxication, eliminating waste products of harmful microorganisms. Assign Enterol. A bag of powder diluted with 1 cup of warm boiled water. Adults drink a dose at a time, children are given every half hour for 1-2 tbsp. Spoons. During the day, an adult should drink 3 sachets in the first days of the illness. Similarly, Smecta, activated carbon. These drugs also help stop diarrhea.
- Medications to improve digestion, eliminate nausea, vomiting, heartburn. Domrid is often prescribed. For children comes in the form of a suspension. Take according to the instructions - adults, 1 tablet per day, children - 1 scoop three times a day. Immediately after eating, they recommend drugs that accelerate the movement of food into the intestines, Mezim, Pancreatin.
- To normalize the work of the intestine, eliminate bloating, rumbling, meteorism, Colicides are prescribed. For children it is produced in the form of a suspension with a pleasant taste. Either Espumizan.
- From abdominal pain, elimination of pathological bacteria prescribed course in 1-2 weeks Nifuroksazid. Children in the form of peach-flavored suspension. Three times a day, half an hour after meals. If experts prescribe antibiotics, this drug is not taken.
- To normalize the intestinal microflora, strengthen the immune system prescribed probiotics. Vivid representatives of this = group of drugs are Linex, Laktiale, Laktovit, Bifidumbakterin, Turbiotik, Bifiform, Hilak Forte. The course of therapy from 14 days to 2 months.
With increasing temperature, antipyretic drugs are prescribed - Nurofen, Ibuprofen, Paracetamol. From abdominal pain with spasm give No-Shpu, Drotaverin. With excessive weakness prescribe a system with glucose, preparations for cleansing the body. Antiviral drugs are indicated for viral infection - Laferobion, Viferon.
Treatment for children
Gastroenteritis affects children of any age, including babies. Resistance to pathogenic microorganisms is produced by 3-4 years, then the incidence rate is significantly reduced. In most cases, treatment is carried out at home, but you should consult with a specialist on the first day of the disease. The treatment is carried out according to the scheme described above. The main goal is to prevent dehydration, eliminate painful symptoms. Acute manifestations are observed within 2-3 days, if the condition does not improve, hospitalization is necessary.
With a mild degree of illness, children are given a sorbent - in most cases, activated carbon, but-Shpu from abdominal pain, provide abundant drinking. Allowed non-carbonated mineral water, compote of dried fruit, herbal tea. A prerequisite for a successful recovery is diet. To normalize the intestinal microflora from the second or third day begin to give probiotics.
If vomiting does not stop, give Domrid, diarrhea - Nifuroksazid, Smektu. In the presence of blood impurities in the feces, mucus, immediately seek the help of specialists. Also, the reason for hospitalization is too frequent visits to the toilet, when the child does not literally get off the pot, the temperature rises above 38 degrees Celsius.
Treatment for adults
The disease is easier. Acute symptoms are present 1-2 days, if we are not talking about dysentery. Much longer manifested discomfort against the background of chronic diseases of the digestive tract. Treatment is carried out on the basis of common symptoms. With a bright clinical picture using the scheme described above.
The main goal is to eliminate toxins, restore water-lipid balance, gain strength. Take sorbents, probiotics, drugs to improve digestion, remedies for abdominal pain. Finally, the symptoms disappear in 7 days. If the condition does not improve within 3-4 days, you need to seek help, be treated in a hospital. In general, it is wiser to immediately call an ambulance. In the hospital put a cleaning system, injected glucose to support the body, other medicines that facilitate the course of the disease.
Diet, proper nutrition
It is the main element of complex therapy. Dietary food helps to quickly cope with the infection, normalize the work of the digestive organs. On the first day of illness should not eat anything, but to provide plenty of drink. Non-carbonated water is best suited as it normalizes acid-base balance, compote of dried fruit to eliminate vomiting, diarrhea, tea based on medicinal herbs. From the second day begin a strict diet.
Meals during the period of illness - 7 days
It is necessary to exclude poorly digestible foods, as well as causing fermentation, increased acidity, flatulence. Excluded fried, spicy, fatty foods, chocolate, sweets, beans, cabbage, raw vegetables, fruits. In the daily diet should be present on vegetable broth soup or uncool chicken, cereal, biscuits, donuts, straws.
- Boiled egg
- Compote of raisins, dry pears, apples,
- Green, black tea,
- Stale white bread
- Dry biscuits, donuts, straws.
Adults are strictly forbidden to drink coffee, eat chocolate, drink alcohol, beer, kvass.
Food after the acute stage - for a month
To normalize the digestive tract, recuperate, you need to adhere to proper nutrition for a month. The diet is not as strict as in the first week, but has its limitations. It is forbidden to eat canned food, smoked meats, fast foods, sauces, products with the content of chemical components - flavors, flavor enhancers, etc. You should temporarily abandon grapes, plums, apricots, cherries, sweets, cakes.
- Sweet apples
- Bread is fresh,
- Heat-treated milk
- Sour milk,
- Cottage cheese,
- Sour cream,
- Green tea, black,
- Meat of chicken, turkey, rabbit, lean pork,
- A fish,
Meat is better to use in the form of minced meat, so it is digested faster. Make dumplings, meatballs, meatballs, rolls. Especially important to restore the functions of the gastrointestinal tract porridge, dairy products.
Treatment of folk remedies
To alleviate the symptoms of infectious gastroenteritis, the normalization of the digestive tract, the following recipes are recommended:
- A decoction of rice. Washed cereal, pour water. Boil on low heat for 20 minutes, drain the mucus. Take 1 tbsp. Spoon 4 times a day. Similarly, preparing a decoction of flax seeds. Folk remedies eliminate diarrhea, nausea, improve digestion, protect the mucosa.
- Herbs. Hypericum, mint, lemon balm, chamomile, and linden are used. Pour boiled water, leave to infuse for 15 minutes. Drink at a time at least 50 ml.
- Chicken bouillon. The first broth is poured, poured again with water. After boiling add a bay leaf. 20 minutes before readiness, add carrot cubes, then remove them. Serve broth with greens. After a day, you can add vermicelli or rice to the broth.
- Dried fruits compote. It prevents dehydration, removes toxins, stops diarrhea, lowers the level of acetone in the blood. For the preparation of compote using raisins, dried pears, apples.Also, you can add starch, then you get jelly, which is also very useful for the digestive system.
Folk recipes are used in parallel with medicines, diet.
Acute infectious gastroenteritis is life threatening because it leads to dehydration. With self-treatment without recourse to specialists, not the established diagnosis, there is a risk of death. Attacks of gastroenteritis can be one of the symptoms of a severe intestinal infection - salmonellosis, dysentery, cholera. In general, with the right approach, serious complications do not occur. The state of health is normalized within a week, at observance of eutrophy, the digestive system is finally restored in 14 days.
Intestinal infections of bacterial, viral origin are spread throughout the world. The most acute problem in developing countries. There, children and adults die of dehydration. In civilized countries, cases of mass disease also occur, but the epidemic does not reach.
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Svetlana: “Intestinal infection occurs very often, the issue with the warm season is particularly acute. Symptoms are always the same - vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weakness. But the pathogens are different. My sister fell ill in the summer, was treated standardly - Nifuroksazid, Smekta, Domrid, mineral water, etc. The condition did not improve for 3 days, then the temperature still rose to 39. It was sent to the infectious disease, it turned out, salmonellosis. They put a bunch of droppers, antibiotics were prescribed. ”
Natalia: “At first the children got sick. Several times vomited, diarrhea all day. The next day, feel better. Then I came down. Instant weakness appeared, nausea, vomiting a couple of times, almost no diarrhea, just loose stools. I felt terrible, my head ached all day, I slept until the evening. There was no temperature. Nothing really treated, saw activated carbon, non-carbonated mineral water. The next day I was already on my feet, I recovered in 3 days, I was on a diet for a week. ”