Non-lactating mastitis

Inflammation of the mammary glands, which is not associated with breastfeeding, has been called "non-lactational mastitis." The disease occurs under the influence of many factors and women of different ages of different ages are subject to it. The disease is quite rare, but always accompanied by a number of unpleasant symptoms. What provokes the development of non-lactational mastitis, how does it manifest and what treatment methods are there?

Several factors contribute to the development of mastitis. The most common is a hormonal disorder during menopause or puberty. The first case is characterized by a decrease in the level of estrogen and an increase in sensitivity to infections as a result of the deterioration of the immune system.

During puberty, the hormonal system is unstable. Such hormonal jumps are stressful for the body, as a result of which the defenses are reduced and the risk of developing non-lactating mastitis increases. The peculiarity of the disease in adolescence - it can affect not only girls, but also boys.

It is possible to provoke non-lactation mastitis and the development of diseases that reduce immunity (for example, diabetes mellitus). In this case, even minor cuts or chest injuries can lead to inflammation. Sometimes an infection penetrates the mammary gland with blood from other affected organs, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, HIV infection or blood diseases. A rare cause of the disease is infection of postoperative wounds on the chest, for example, after removal of a benign tumor.

There are two forms of non-lactational mastitis: acute and chronic. Each of them has specific symptoms.

Acute form

  • Pain in the mammary gland, which has no clear localization. In advanced cases, the pain may spread to the armpits, affecting the lymph nodes.
  • Redness of the skin of the breast.
  • Puffiness of soft tissues.
  • The temperature rises to 39 ° C, chills and fever.
  • Deterioration of general well-being, weakness and fast fatigue.

If you find the above symptoms immediately contact a breast specialist or gynecologist. If you do not start timely treatment, the likelihood of a purulent process is high, which can lead to a number of complications, including removal of the breast.

Chronic form

The chronic form is very rare and develops, as a rule, against the background of undertreated acute mastitis. The disease is exacerbated by hypothermia of the mammary gland, in the case of hormonal disruption, weakened immunity or with frequent stresses and emotional experiences. As a rule, non-lactational mastitis in a chronic form does not inconvenience and only worries during the period of exacerbation, when purulent formations in the chest appear and fistulous passages open with excretion of pus.

Diagnostics

An exact diagnosis and the form of the disease can be done by a mammologist or gynecologist. In some cases, consult a surgeon.

The following methods are used for diagnosis:

  • examination and palpation of the mammary glands,
  • breast ultrasound,
  • laboratory examination of secretions from fistulas or nipples,
  • a biopsy that will help confirm the absence of a malignancy in the breast.

During the diagnosis, the doctor must not only confirm the diagnosis, but also establish the cause that provoked the disease. On this depends the tactics of further treatment and prevention of disease recurrence.

The choice of treatment method depends on several factors: the form and degree of neglect of the disease, the cause of the disease, and the general health of the patient. At the first stage of development of non-lactating mastitis, the doctor prescribes antibiotics to destroy the bacteria. To relieve pain syndrome will help fixing the breast in an elevated state and receiving painkillers. To achieve the maximum effect helps complete rest and tranquility.

If hormonal disorders become the cause of mastitis, then hormonal drugs are prescribed. Acceptance of this kind of medication is allowed only after the necessary tests have been carried out and on condition that the dosage is strictly observed.

In the case of an abscess, an emergency surgical intervention is performed. During the operation, an abscess is opened and pus is removed. Additionally prescribed antibiotics and agents that strengthen the immune system.

Non-lactating mastitis can affect every woman, regardless of age. To avoid the disease or its complications, promptly consult a doctor if you find the slightest pathological changes in the chest.

Causes, symptoms and treatment of lactational mastitis

Mastitis in non-nursing women or otherwise non-lactational mastitis is a rather rare phenomenon. Typically, this pathology, which is a lesion of the mammary gland by any infectious pathogen, often streptococcus or staphylococcus, occurs as a reaction to a severe thermal burn, advanced furunculosis, nipple injuries, breasts of the breast after surgery on it, unsuccessful plastic surgery and in other ways . Non-lactation mastitis differs from lactation mastitis in that a woman does not produce milk in her breast, and one of the measures — expressing it to a sense of relief when practicing breastfeeding is useless. Non-lactation mastitis during pregnancy may occur, and its danger lies in the fact that it can be a screen of cancer or other complex diseases of the breast. For example, non-lactation mastitis may be related to fibrocystic mastopathy in a woman. Namely, the cause may be a festering breast cyst. In this case, most likely, surgical treatment will be needed.

Non-lactating chronic mastitis is often placed on newborns up to three months of age, both for girls and boys. But in most cases, it does not require treatment and passes on its own. There is still a matter of erroneous formulations. Sometimes for mastitis take simply engorgement of the mammary glands in babies. And this phenomenon is temporary and is a consequence of the presence in the blood of the parent hormone estrogen. These kids need only the supervision of a pediatrician.

Non-lactational mastitis symptoms are less pronounced in comparison with lactation. And its purulent forms are rare. Usually a woman takes him for manifestations of mastopathy, which occur at the end of the menstrual cycle. The mammary gland becomes painful, reddens. When probing is determined by the seal area. Less often the temperature rises to subfebrile values. When a woman has acute non-lactational mastitis, all the symptoms, respectively, are brighter. And with the rapid development of the process, she will definitely turn to the doctor. In this case, a gynecologist, a mammologist or a surgeon can help. An ultrasound examination of the mammary glands is performed, blood and urine tests are taken, and the discharge from the nipples is taken for analysis.

Non-lactating mastitis in an unborn girl is often associated with a “hormonal storm”, an imbalance between progesterone and estrogen, a high level of prolactin in adolescence, is a consequence of severe acute respiratory viral infections, pyelonephritis and other diseases. Non-lactational purulent mastitis often occurs when there are cysts in the mammary glands. With such a neglected form, the woman is already in the hospital. And doctors decide on surgical treatment with further antibiotic therapy.

How to treat non-lactational mastitis

Surgical intervention is not always required, it all depends on the neglect of the disease. There are 6 forms of non-lactational mastitis, and only two of them are primary. Namely - serous and infiltrative. With these forms, it is enough to take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - they are also an anesthetic, antiallergic drug. Antibiotics in the treatment of non-lactating mastitis are also used, but usually in a short course.

However, doctors often diagnose destructive, that is, neglected forms of mastitis: abscess, infiltrative-festering focal and diffuse, phlegm. Not one symptom of mastitis in non-feeding women. And many of them usually lead women to the doctor.

When destructive forms of surgery. In the case of an abscess form, it is the opening of the cavity with pus and the cleaning of the wound, with the subsequent establishment of a drainage system for the time of wound healing. Surgery for non-lactating mastitis on a large scale may be needed for bulk lesions of the breast. Then the doctors carry out the removal of the area of ​​the mammary gland, doing the operation “sectoral resection”. By the way, some observations show that sectoral resection is more effective than opening and purging the purulent cavity, since non-radical treatment can lead to the chronic form of the disease, its periodic relapse. Sectoral resection for uncomplicated destructive forms of mastitis is recommended for women older than 30 years.

In the case of a diffuse infiltrative-purulent form, the treatment of non-lactational mastitis with folk remedies and just a delay can cost a woman her life ... With such a severe form of the disease, extensive surgery is required. The doctor excludes a significant part of the mammary gland, and in some cases even its complete removal is carried out - subcutaneous mastectomy.

If you feel pain in the area of ​​the mammary gland, a thickening appeared in it, the skin reddened - do not hesitate to consult a doctor. Conspiracies from non-lactating purulent mastitis will not help.

Symptoms and features of the flow

In contrast to mastitis in breastfeeding mothers, the symptoms of this disease appear more erased, which often makes it difficult to diagnose patients in the early stages and prevents the timely appointment of conservative therapy. Therefore, sometimes pathology is detected only when it moves into the destructive phase, when urgent surgical treatment is required.

There are the following stages of the disease:

  1. Longevity:
    • serous,
    • infiltrative,
  2. Purulent (destructive):
    • infiltrative purulent,
    • abscessing
    • phlegmonous,
    • gangrenous.

Non-lactation mastitis differs from lactation also in that it is much more likely to become chronic and recur with a certain frequency (on average once every 4-6 months).

The main symptoms that are characteristic of the serous stage of mastitis are:

  1. Mild tenderness in the mammary gland.
  2. The temperature rises to 37.5 * С or its normal values.
  3. The presence of a seal in the breast (most often para-aolar).
  4. Not strong skin hyperemia in the chest.

At an infiltrative stage it is observed:

Increased temperature in women with infiltrative mastitis stage

  1. Temperature indicators up to 38-38.5 * С.
  2. Mild symptoms of intoxication.
  3. Pain in the mammary gland of a pulling nature.
  4. The presence of a firm-elastic consistency in the breast, the palpation of which is sharply painful, is an infiltrate.
  5. Hyperemia of the skin over infiltration, possible swelling and local hyperthermia.
  6. Increasing the size of the affected gland.

Symptoms that indicate the transition process in the destructive phase:

  1. The temperature reaches 38-40 * C.
  2. Severe intoxication symptoms (fatigue, dizziness and headache, chills, nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite).
  3. Sharp jerking pain in the affected gland.
  4. Positive symptom of fluctuation from the affected side (reliable in abscess and phlegmonous types of destructive inflammation).
  5. Intensive hyperemia, hyperthermia and edema of the skin over the pathological focus.
  6. Severe tenderness in the axillary lymph nodes (it may be difficult for the patient to raise her arm).

If non-lactation mastitis acquires the features of a chronic one, during the examination the doctor notes the following symptoms:

  1. Intensity of the skin at the site of postoperative scar or healed fistula, possible deformation of the breast.
  2. The presence of open functioning fistulas, as well as purulent discharge.
  3. The presence of periodic purulent discharge from the nipples.

When the process is chronized, differential diagnosis with breast cancer is necessarily carried out.

In laboratory tests, the following indicators change:

During examination, a complete blood count is taken.

  • Complete blood count - leukocytosis, accelerated ESR,
  • Bacterial seeding of pus obtained during the puncture of the outbreak - the release of pathological microorganisms-pathogens,
  • On ultrasound of the mammary gland - a typical echo picture of an infiltrate or abscess.

In severe intoxication, tachycardia and a progressive drop in blood pressure are possible. The most dangerous complication of non-lactational mastitis is sepsis that occurs during generalization of the infection.

How is the treatment made?

If treatment is started within 3-4 days from the moment of the development of the disease in the serous or infiltrative stages, then it is possible to do with conservative measures alone. In the transition of mastitis into the purulent phase, an integrated approach to therapeutic measures is usually applied. In this case, after a successful surgical intervention, various pharmacological preparations and physiotherapeutic procedures are involved.

In the early stages of the disease, anti-inflammatory drugs are used, as well as half-alcohol compresses with their use. Conservative treatment includes ointments such as Vishnevsky's liniment or ichthyol ointment.

Treatment of infiltrative forms is carried out using broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. Tableted antibiotics are used (in case of a purulent process, they are administered intramuscularly or intravenously):

  • "Protected" and "unprotected" semi-synthetic penicillins (amoxicillin, amoxiclav, etc.),
  • Cephalosporins of the first and second generations (cephalexin, cefuroxime, etc.).

Antibiotics of other groups that can be prescribed for the resistance of pathological microflora to the above drugs:

  • Aminoglycosides (gentamicin),
  • Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin).

In order to protect the body, if an antibacterial treatment is indicated, probiotics are additionally used together with antifungal drugs.

To reduce the sensitization of the body and prevent complications, the treatment involves the administration of antihistamine drugs (loratadine, tavegil, etc.).

To reduce intoxication, infusions of blood substitutes and detoxification solutions (hemodez, reopolyglucine, etc.), as well as specific immunostimulants (antistaphylococcal plasma, globulins, absorbed toxoid) are produced.

Surgical treatment of mastitis involves the opening of a purulent cavity and its revision, as well as the installation of drainage. If necessary, produce sectoral resection of the mammary gland, remove all non-viable tissue and then restore the appearance of the organ with the help of an implant.

Non-lactation mastitis is a rather rare disease whose treatment with timely diagnosis is very effective.

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Non-lactating mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that develops in a woman not during breastfeeding.Most often, mastitis manifests against the background of hormonal changes in the body: during puberty or menopause. Hormonal imbalance contributes to the deterioration of the immune system, the natural defense of the body weakens, allowing microbes to more easily manifest their pathological activity.

According to statistics, non-lactational mastitis accounts for about 5% of all inflammations of the mammary gland. The age of the diseased women varies widely; a similar diagnosis is made to both 15-year-olds and 60-year-old elderly women.

If we compare lactation and non-lactation mastitis, the second has a less rapid course, rarely causes generalized complications. However, the risk of the disease becoming chronic is much higher.

  • Causes of non-lactating mastitis
  • Symptoms of non-lactating mastitis
  • Types of non-lactating mastitis
  • Diagnosis of non-lactational mastitis
  • Treatment of non-lactating mastitis
  • Prevention of non-lactational mastitis

Causes of non-lactating mastitis

The reasons that can lead to the development of non-lactational mastitis are the following:

Diseases of the reproductive system or malfunction of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which leads to hormonal imbalances in the body.

The sharp decline in estrogen levels in the body of a woman against the background of menopause.

Puberty, which is accompanied by a hormonal imbalance in the body.

Disturbances in the immune system, which helps to weaken the defenses. Viral and bacterial infections, physical overstrain, severe hypothermia, stress, etc. weaken the immune system.

Chronic foci of infection in the body. Danger are diseases such as tooth enamel caries, tonsillitis, pyelonephritis, genital infections, dermatological diseases of a bacterial nature.

Metabolic disorders, for example, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, obesity, etc.

Breast injuries. Squeezing the chest is most dangerous.

Thermal damage to the chest, for example, while applying a heating pad.

Complications after surgery on the chest. Moreover, any medical manipulations on the breast, including the installation of implants, the removal of cysts and fibrous growths, are dangerous.

In 90% of cases non-lactation mastitis causes Staphylococcus aureus. Other representatives of the bacterial flora provoke inflammation much less frequently. Epidermal staphylococci, Proteus, Escherichia coli can sow.

The causative agent of infection penetrates the mammary gland in three ways:

By hematogenous route (with blood flow),

Lymphogenous way (through the lymphatic vessels),

Through damage on the skin in the area of ​​the breast or nipple.

Hematogenous and lymphogenous infection leads to the fact that inflammation is localized around the vessels. When the microorganism penetrates the skin, intracanalicular inflammation is observed.

First, a serous exudate is formed inside, which eventually becomes purulent.

Chronic non-lactational mastitis develops against the background of undertreated acute non-lactational mastitis. Most often, the woman herself is guilty, who, after the onset of improvement, stops therapy or does not seek medical help at all by self-healing.

Symptoms of non-lactating mastitis

The clinical picture of non-lactational mastitis is not as bright as with inflammation of the mammary gland during breastfeeding. This often makes it difficult to self-diagnose and impedes the timely start of treatment. Therefore, if a woman knows the symptoms of non-lactating mastitis, she will be able to seek medical help on time.

Symptoms of the initial stage of non-lactational mastitis (non-purulent serous form):

The appearance of weak pain in the breast.

Normal body temperature, or its increase to subfebrile marks.

The appearance of a seal in the mammary gland. Most often it is located in the periphery region.

Perhaps a slight reddening of the skin in the area of ​​inflammation.

Symptoms of the infiltrative stage of non-lactational mastitis:

Body temperature rises and can reach 38.5 degrees.

Signs of intoxication appear.

Chest pains become more intense, become pulling.

The seal is well palpable, which, when touched, gives pain.

The skin over the seal reddens, the breasts may swell. Sometimes the mammary gland becomes hot to the touch.

The chest becomes larger in size.

Symptoms of purulent stage of mastitis:

Body temperature rises to high elevations. It can reach feverish values ​​of 39-40 degrees.

Signs of intoxication are pronounced. A woman suffers from general weakness, a headache worries her, a chill joins, nausea and vomiting can occur, and her appetite is lost.

Chest pain increases, has a pulsating character.

Swelling of the skin becomes pronounced, the surface of the breast becomes bright red.

Axillary lymph nodes increase in size and hurt.

Symptoms of chronic mastitis:

The disease often recurs, can occur 3-4 times a year.

The mammary gland will be deformed; skin involvement in the affected area is not excluded.

Purulent fistulas may form on the chest surface.

Pus during exacerbation of the disease may be excreted from the nipples.

Types of non-lactating mastitis

The following types of non-lactating mastitis are distinguished, each of which has characteristic symptoms:

Abscessing mastitis. In the mammary gland is formed one or more small abscesses, which are filled with pus.

Infiltrative abscess mastitis. The course of the disease is more severe. Abscesses are formed in the infiltrate, have a different size and shape.

Phlegmonous mastitis. The mammary gland swells strongly, an indented area appears on it. The skin becomes red in places and in some places a bluish tint. Possible nipple retracting. The area of ​​breast damage is quite extensive.

Gangrenous mastitis. Breast tissue and blood vessels suffer greatly. The process is accompanied by the active formation of blood clots. The impossibility of normal blood supply to the breast leads to the formation of areas of necrosis. On the surface there are zones of dead tissue, bubbles filled with ichor. The whole mammary gland is involved in the pathological process. The patient's condition is very serious, there is a possibility of confusion, a decrease in blood pressure. Against the background of an established gangrene, the risk of septic blood infection increases. This is a direct threat to not only health, but also the life of a woman.

Diagnosis of non-lactational mastitis

If you suspect inflammation of the mammary gland, you should contact either a mammologist or a gynecologist. The doctor will hear the patient’s complaints and examine the breast.

To confirm the diagnosis will require the passage of the following studies:

Delivery of the general blood test. The inflammation will be indicated by accelerated ESR, increased white blood cell count.

Complete urinalysis.

If there is purulent inflammation, then perform puncture and send the collected material for bacteriological examination.

Ultrasound of the breast.

The chronic course of the disease often requires a mammogram, which allows you to specify the diagnosis. High-quality diagnosis of non-lactational mastitis is a must, since there is a risk of omission of a disease such as breast cancer.

Treatment of non-lactating mastitis

With timely treatment to the doctor, the treatment of non-lactational mastitis is not difficult. It is important to start implementing therapeutic interventions as early as 3-4 days after the onset of the disease. If the inflammation turns into a purulent form, then it is often necessary to resort to surgery.

If the disease is diagnosed at an early stage, then the doctor prescribes anti-inflammatory drugs, the imposition of semi-alcoholic compresses, Vishnevsky ointment or Ichthyol ointment.

When a woman has already developed infiltration, then you can not do without taking antibiotics. Prescribe a broad-spectrum drugs: Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav, Cefalexin, Cefuroxime, etc. When the bacterial flora is resistant to them, it is possible to use Ciprofloxacin (a group of fluoroquinolones) or Gentamicin (a group of aminoglycosides). If there is no pus in the chest, oral medication is possible. In the destructive form of mastitis, antibiotics are administered either intramuscularly or intravenously.

To help the body cope with the infection faster and prevent the development of complications, the following points must be observed:

Appointment of probiotics (Linex, Hilak Forte, Bifiform, etc.).

Purpose of antifungal drugs (Fluconazole, Candide, etc.).

Purpose of antihistamine drugs (Tavegil, Zodak, Loratadin, etc.).

Purpose of detoxification solutions (Hemodez, Reopoliglyukin, etc.).

The appointment of immunostimulants (Globulin, Absorbed toxoid).

To increase the body's resistance, vitamins of group B, ascorbic acid are prescribed.

If the woman's condition improves, then a day after the start of treatment, physiological procedures can be performed, for example, UHF-therapy. This contributes to the speedy resorption of infiltration and restoration of breast tissue.

Affected chest should be ensured maximum rest. You should refuse to wear a tight bra or pinch bandage. The chest should be supported but not squeezed.

When conservative treatment does not bring the desired effect, surgical intervention is necessary. The purulent cavity is opened, the tissues are cleansed of pathological contents, the wound is sanitized, the necrotic areas are removed and drainage is established. Drip washing of the wound is carried out for 5-12 days, which allows to minimize the risk of recurrence of the disease. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. In order to return the breasts to their previous form, it is possible to establish an implant in the future.

After the surgical intervention, drug therapy is implemented. It allows you to quickly remove toxins from the patient's body. Antibiotics are prescribed without fail. They are administered either intravenously or intramuscularly. The drugs of choice in this case are cephalosporins of the first or second generation.

Prevention of non-lactational mastitis

Non-lactational mastitis is not a common disease among the female population.

However, it is periodically diagnosed, so it is useful to familiarize yourself with the main recommendations aimed at preventing its development:

Diseases of the reproductive sphere should be treated on time. For any problems with the hormonal background should contact a specialist.

During menopause and after its occurrence, a woman must be examined by a gynecologist.

Foci of chronic infection should be properly sanitized.

By the mammary gland should be treated carefully, trying to protect it from various kinds of injuries.

Bra should be selected by size. It is best to give preference to linen made from natural materials.

It is important to monitor the cleanliness of the breasts, daily washing it with warm water using soap.

Maintaining a state of the immune system at the proper level allows maintaining a healthy lifestyle, proper nutrition, adequate rest.

It should be remembered that any disease is easier to cure in its early stages. This statement is entirely valid for non-lactating mastitis.

Education: The diploma “Obstetrics and Gynecology” was obtained at the Russian State Medical University of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development (2010). In 2013, graduate school in NIMU named after. N.I. Pirogov.

Non-lactational mastitis is an inflammatory disease of the breast that occurs in non-nursing women, men and children. Causes of infection are injuries, chronic pathologies of other body systems. The peculiarity of the disease is its bright symptoms, due to which it is possible to make a diagnosis and prescribe treatment at an early stage.

Causes of pathology and provoking factors

Inflammation in the ducts of the mammary glands occurs for several reasons:

  1. Sexual crisis in babies, puberty in adolescents, menopause in women and other periods during which an imbalance of hormonal levels occurs.
  2. Breast injuries, including piercing nipples.
  3. Complications after surgical treatment of the breast.
  4. Reduced immunity after illness, with vitamin deficiency.
  5. Metabolic dysfunction, endocrine pathology.
  6. Chronic infectious diseases of other body systems.

Most often non-lactational mastitis occurs in women over the age of 35 years. At risk are people who abuse smoking, leading a low-active lifestyle.

In men, the causes of inflammation of the glands are endocrine diseases, hormonal imbalances, alcohol consumption, smoking.

Danger of illness

By ignoring the symptoms of mastitis, women put their health at great risk. The neglected form of the disease leads to negative consequences:

  • chronic form of pathology, the probability of exacerbation within a few months
  • accumulation of pus, the formation of an abscess, which can only be removed surgically
  • sepsis, the spread of pus in the body
  • ignoring breast cancer symptoms

Mastitis in a non-feeding girl or woman is not the cause of cancer. But the symptoms of pathology are similar, which creates a risk to miss the possibility of early diagnosis of cancer. Ignore breast pain is life threatening!

Clinical picture

In the first stage, non-lactation mastitis is practically not manifested. A woman may feel some discomfort in the chest area, often this is attributed to new, uncomfortable underwear or premenstrual syndrome. During this period, there is an active release of prolactin into the blood, activation of the pathogen, if the cause is the development of infection.

In the second stage, there is a slight swelling and pain in the chest, at the site of the location of the inflammation darkens and the skin is slightly drawn. As the pathology develops, other symptoms appear:

  • inflammation of the axillary glands causing severe pain
  • muscle pain, aching joints
  • temperature rise
  • chills
  • headache and other signs of intoxication

Treatment of mastitis should be started immediately, without delaying the visit to the mammologist. To exclude breast cancer, it is recommended to visit an oncologist. Differentiate one pathology from another can only complex examination.

Diagnostic methods

For diagnosis, palpation of the breast is carried out to study the state of the breast, the nature of the seal. The patient is interviewed with the aim of compiling a clinical picture of symptoms, the course of the inflammatory process.

If mastitis is in a chronic stage, the doctor, upon examination, identifies:

  • presence of breast deformity
  • degree of skin tension at the site of inflammation
  • the presence of fistulas and purulent discharge

Instrumental and laboratory examinations are conducted:

  • general blood analysis
  • breast ultrasound
  • puncture site of inflammation for bacterial seeding

Physiological treatment

Physiological non-lactational mastitis often does not require treatment.It occurs against the background of hormonal imbalance, including in newborns. If the disease does not cause severe pain, then under the supervision of a specialist treatment can be postponed. Patients are prescribed hormone therapy in the absence of contraindications.

If pain and discomfort are strongly pronounced, antibacterial therapy and painkillers are prescribed. Bright symptoms indicate the active development of the infectious process, requiring medical treatment.

Surgical treatment

If a woman is diagnosed with mastitis, surgical treatment is prescribed in two cases:

  • inflammation has passed into a purulent process
  • conservative treatment fails within 2-4 days

The operation is carried out in stationary conditions under general anesthesia. The abscess is opened, the ducts are cleared from the contents, the dead tissue is removed. During the operation, drainage is required.

As a rule, women are well tolerated by the treatment of mastitis, recover quickly. Surgical intervention does not affect the patient's hormonal background.

Conservative therapy

Conservative treatment is indicated for patients who have a satisfactory state of health, and there are no signs of a purulent process. The mammary glands do not have a pronounced deformity, with palpation, infiltration is noted with a small area. In general, a blood test has not been diagnosed with progressive inflammation.

Patients need to be treated in a complex, using drugs from the groups of antibiotics (Amoxiclav, Cefalexin) and antihistamines (Zodak, Suprastin, Tavegil). In case of severe pain syndrome, pain relievers are prescribed, including for local application. These include Vishnevsky ointment and ichthyol ointment.

Patients are advised to change their underwear, to avoid wearing a close bra. The chest is protected from injury, and remains dormant.

Treatment of mastitis in newborns

At birth, children often have swelling and swelling of the mammary glands, which does not cause discomfort to babies. Physiological mastitis disappears within a few days, in rare cases it persists until 2-3 months old. Parents are required not to interfere with the natural process and not touch the child’s breasts. You can not put compresses, warm glands, put pressure on the nipples.

Neglect of these rules leads to the development of purulent mastitis in newborns. It can be diagnosed by severe swelling of the chest, purulent discharge, redness. Pathological changes occur in the gland. In this case, drug treatment with antibacterial drugs is required.

Non-lactating mastitis is an inflammatory disease of the mammary glands. With timely treatment to specialists, the risk of complications is reduced and treatment is simplified. Running form requires surgery and can lead to life-threatening consequences. Therefore, it is impossible to ignore the symptoms of pathology, immediately referring to specialists in the event of unpleasant sensations in the chest.

Inflammation of the mammary glands, not associated with breastfeeding, occurs infrequently and can be diagnosed in both men and women. The disease is called non-lactation mastitis, has characteristic symptoms, is classified by location, duration, and clinical and morphological forms.

Non-lactation mastitis develops due to exposure of pathogenic microorganisms to tissues, which in the process of vital activity provoke serious inflammatory diseases. The most common infection is staphylococcus, but there are also cases of infection with Escherichia coli and some other types of bacteria.

If we consider the grounds under which pathogenic microorganisms fall into the mammary glands, then from common causes can be identified:

  1. Wounds, skin lesions, injuries.
  2. Changes in the morphological nature of tissues that become a favorable breeding ground for bacteria.
  3. The presence in the body of foci of infection. They can be formed in any system and transmitted through blood to any other tissues.
  4. Contact with objects or the environment where sources of infection are located.

In addition to the main reasons that suggest infection in the body, it is possible to identify and provoking factors in which pathogenic agents multiply rapidly. These include:

  • Hormonal imbalance. Such conditions are especially characteristic of women in the period of menopause or in endocrine system diseases.
  • Weakening of immunity of various etiologies.
  • The development of pathological infectious processes inside the body.
  • Violations of metabolic processes, including in connection with other diseases, such as diabetes.

In the presence of provoking factors, the chance of spreading infection increases, because the body is unable to adequately respond to pathogenic agents.

Signs of non-lactation mastitis are pronounced and cause significant discomfort even at the initial extent of the disease.

Especially intense symptoms observed in acute stages, when characterized by the following manifestations:

  1. Pain in the breast, it is often difficult to identify the lesion, because it hurts everything and gives to the armpit and even to the arm.
  2. Puffiness, change in breast size.
  3. Discoloration, redness and the appearance of purple, bluish shades.
  4. The sensation of pulsation, indicating a strong inflammatory process.
  5. The temperature increase, mostly marked indicators over 39 ° C.
  6. General weakness, malaise.

If the body already has foci of infection, the symptoms are complemented by signs of infection. For example, with staphylococcus extending to the ENT organs, in addition to the main manifestations of mastitis, there will be symptoms of laryngitis, sinusitis, or other pathologies arising from the action of these microorganisms.

Symptoms of non-lactating mastitis may vary in severity. depending on the stage of development of mastitis, in particular, the presence of pus.

Treatment of folk remedies

There are many recipes for curing mastitis at home, but no one can say how safe it is. In practice, women often come to the operating table after such self-treatment.

Such consequences are associated with the etiology of the disease, because relieving symptoms does not mean saving the body from pathogenic bacteria. Only specially selected antibiotics can handle them.

Prescriptions for traditional medicine can be useful as an adjunct therapy to the main treatment. You need to coordinate with your doctor, in order not to harm the positive dynamics, not to provoke relapses.

Treatment of folk remedies for mastitis involves a local effect when peculiar compresses are applied to the chest, as well as the use of herbal infusions. Certainly popular are dill seed infusions, a mixture of motherwort, string, yarrow.

If we consider compresses, in the case of an extensive abscess, they can aggravate the situation, especially if they are warming. To alleviate the condition, you can attach the cabbage leaf, it removes puffiness well, practically has no contraindications. Rice starch will help ease the condition.

There are many treatment options for non-lactational mastitis using unconventional methods, the main thing is to understand that such methods can provoke complications.

Danger of non-lactating mastitis

Inflammation of the mammary gland of an infectious nature requires timely and properly selected treatment. If this is not done in full, then complications that are quite dangerous to health are possible.

These may include the following consequences:

  1. Sepsis spreading through tissues, blood poisoning.
  2. The formation of new foci of inflammation. They can be formed in any areas, including the respiratory system, the digestive system.
  3. Infectious toxic shock.
  4. Increased risk of breast cancer.
  5. Aesthetic problem, since the shape of the breast, its size after complicated mastitis can change, and it will be difficult to get rid of the scars without the help of a doctor.

All these unpleasant consequences can be eliminated, if at the first symptoms to consult a specialist.

With timely and adequate therapy, non-lactating mastitis can be treated without health complications. In the case of a neglected stage, the chances of a full recovery are also high, but prolonged rehabilitation, as well as recovery after surgery, is already required.

Non-lactating mastitis develops with obvious symptoms.therefore, many women, as well as men who also have this pathology, can independently assume the disease. In such cases, you should immediately consult a doctor. This may be a first therapist who will refer to a specialist, or immediately a mammologist, a surgeon.

Causes of non-lactating mastitis

The reasons that can lead to the development of non-lactational mastitis are the following:

Diseases of the reproductive system or malfunction of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which leads to hormonal imbalances in the body.

The sharp decline in estrogen levels in the body of a woman against the background of menopause.

Puberty, which is accompanied by a hormonal imbalance in the body.

Disturbances in the immune system, which helps to weaken the defenses. Viral and bacterial infections, physical overstrain, severe hypothermia, stress, etc. weaken the immune system.

Chronic foci of infection in the body. Danger are diseases such as tooth enamel caries, tonsillitis, pyelonephritis, genital infections, dermatological diseases of a bacterial nature.

Metabolic disorders, for example, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, obesity, etc.

Breast injuries. Squeezing the chest is most dangerous.

Thermal damage to the chest, for example, while applying a heating pad.

Complications after surgery on the chest. Moreover, any medical manipulations on the breast, including the installation of implants, the removal of cysts and fibrous growths, are dangerous.

In 90% of cases non-lactation mastitis causes Staphylococcus aureus. Other representatives of the bacterial flora provoke inflammation much less frequently. Epidermal staphylococci, Proteus, Escherichia coli can sow.

The causative agent of infection penetrates the mammary gland in three ways:

By hematogenous route (with blood flow),

Lymphogenous way (through the lymphatic vessels),

Through damage on the skin in the area of ​​the breast or nipple.

Hematogenous and lymphogenous infection leads to the fact that inflammation is localized around the vessels. When the microorganism penetrates the skin, intracanalicular inflammation is observed.

First, a serous exudate is formed inside, which eventually becomes purulent.

Chronic non-lactational mastitis develops against the background of undertreated acute non-lactational mastitis. Most often, the woman herself is guilty, who, after the onset of improvement, stops therapy or does not seek medical help at all by self-healing.

Symptoms of non-lactating mastitis

The clinical picture of non-lactational mastitis is not as bright as with inflammation of the mammary gland during breastfeeding. This often makes it difficult to self-diagnose and impedes the timely start of treatment. Therefore, if a woman knows the symptoms of non-lactating mastitis, she will be able to seek medical help on time.

Symptoms of the initial stage of non-lactational mastitis (non-purulent serous form):

The appearance of weak pain in the breast.

Normal body temperature, or its increase to subfebrile marks.

The appearance of a seal in the mammary gland. Most often it is located in the periphery region.

Perhaps a slight reddening of the skin in the area of ​​inflammation.

Symptoms of the infiltrative stage of non-lactational mastitis:

Body temperature rises and can reach 38.5 ° C.

Signs of intoxication appear.

Chest pains become more intense, become pulling.

The seal is well palpable, which, when touched, gives pain.

The skin over the seal reddens, the breasts may swell. Sometimes the mammary gland becomes hot to the touch.

The chest becomes larger in size.

Symptoms of purulent stage of mastitis:

Body temperature rises to high elevations. It can reach feverish values ​​of 39–40 ° C.

Signs of intoxication are pronounced. A woman suffers from general weakness, a headache worries her, a chill joins, nausea and vomiting can occur, and her appetite is lost.

Chest pain increases, has a pulsating character.

Swelling of the skin becomes pronounced, the surface of the breast becomes bright red.

Axillary lymph nodes increase in size and hurt.

Symptoms of chronic mastitis:

The disease often recurs, can occur 3-4 times a year.

The mammary gland will be deformed; skin involvement in the affected area is not excluded.

Purulent fistulas may form on the chest surface.

Pus during exacerbation of the disease may be excreted from the nipples.

Types of non-lactating mastitis

The following types of non-lactating mastitis are distinguished, each of which has characteristic symptoms:

Abscessing mastitis. In the mammary gland is formed one or more small abscesses, which are filled with pus.

Infiltrative abscess mastitis. The course of the disease is more severe. Abscesses are formed in the infiltrate, have a different size and shape.

Phlegmonous mastitis. The mammary gland swells strongly, an indented area appears on it. The skin becomes red in places and in some places a bluish tint. Possible nipple retracting. The area of ​​breast damage is quite extensive.

Gangrenous mastitis. Breast tissue and blood vessels suffer greatly. The process is accompanied by the active formation of blood clots. The impossibility of normal blood supply to the breast leads to the formation of areas of necrosis. On the surface there are zones of dead tissue, bubbles filled with ichor. The whole mammary gland is involved in the pathological process. The patient's condition is very serious, there is a possibility of confusion, a decrease in blood pressure. Against the background of an established gangrene, the risk of septic blood infection increases. This is a direct threat to not only health, but also the life of a woman.

Treatment of non-lactating mastitis

With timely treatment to the doctor, the treatment of non-lactational mastitis is not difficult. It is important to start implementing therapeutic interventions as early as 3-4 days after the onset of the disease. If the inflammation turns into a purulent form, then it is often necessary to resort to surgery.

If the disease is diagnosed at an early stage, then the doctor prescribes anti-inflammatory drugs, the imposition of semi-alcoholic compresses, Vishnevsky ointment or Ichthyol ointment.

When a woman has already developed infiltration, then you can not do without taking antibiotics. Prescribe a broad-spectrum drugs: Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav, Cefalexin, Cefuroxime, etc.When the bacterial flora is resistant to them, it is possible to use Ciprofloxacin (a group of fluoroquinolones) or Gentamicin (a group of aminoglycosides). If there is no pus in the chest, oral medication is possible. In the destructive form of mastitis, antibiotics are administered either intramuscularly or intravenously.

To help the body cope with the infection faster and prevent the development of complications, the following points must be observed:

Appointment of probiotics (Linex, Hilak Forte, Bifiform, etc.).

Purpose of antifungal drugs (Fluconazole, Candide, etc.).

Purpose of antihistamine drugs (Tavegil, Zodak, Loratadin, etc.).

Purpose of detoxification solutions (Hemodez, Reopoliglyukin, etc.).

The appointment of immunostimulants (Globulin, Absorbed toxoid).

To increase the body's resistance, vitamins of group B, ascorbic acid are prescribed.

If the woman's condition improves, then a day after the start of treatment, physiological procedures can be performed, for example, UHF-therapy. This contributes to the speedy resorption of infiltration and restoration of breast tissue.

Affected chest should be ensured maximum rest. You should refuse to wear a tight bra or pinch bandage. The chest should be supported but not squeezed.

When conservative treatment does not bring the desired effect, surgical intervention is necessary. The purulent cavity is opened, the tissues are cleansed of pathological contents, the wound is sanitized, the necrotic areas are removed and drainage is established. Drip washing of the wound is carried out for 5-12 days, which allows to minimize the risk of recurrence of the disease. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. In order to return the breasts to their previous form, it is possible to establish an implant in the future.

After the surgical intervention, drug therapy is implemented. It allows you to quickly remove toxins from the patient's body. Antibiotics are prescribed without fail. They are administered either intravenously or intramuscularly. The drugs of choice in this case are cephalosporins of the first or second generation.

Prevention of non-lactational mastitis

Non-lactational mastitis is not a common disease among the female population.

However, it is periodically diagnosed, so it is useful to familiarize yourself with the main recommendations aimed at preventing its development:

Diseases of the reproductive sphere should be treated on time. For any problems with the hormonal background should contact a specialist.

During menopause and after its occurrence, a woman must be examined by a gynecologist.

Foci of chronic infection should be properly sanitized.

By the mammary gland should be treated carefully, trying to protect it from various kinds of injuries.

Bra should be selected by size. It is best to give preference to linen made from natural materials.

It is important to monitor the cleanliness of the breasts, daily washing it with warm water using soap.

Maintaining a state of the immune system at the proper level allows maintaining a healthy lifestyle, proper nutrition, adequate rest.

It should be remembered that any disease is easier to cure in its early stages. This statement is entirely valid for non-lactating mastitis.

Education: The diploma “Obstetrics and Gynecology” was obtained at the Russian State Medical University of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development (2010). In 2013, graduate school in NIMU named after. N.I. Pirogov.

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Mastitis, or infants, is an inflammation of the breast tissue caused by bacterial infection. Due to the spread of pathology, purulent destruction of the mammary gland and its surrounding tissues is formed, sepsis (blood infection) develops. The main category of mastitis sufferers is primiparous women.

Treatment of mastitis at home is possible only after consulting a doctor. Self-diagnosis of the disease and the use of traditional medicine methods can be harmful to health and lead to serious consequences, including blood poisoning and the death of a woman. Conducting conservative therapy is possible in the following cases.

There are many causes of lactostasis, the main of them are considered: refusal to breastfeed, irregular breastfeeding, rare or improper attachment of the child to the breast. Thus, the correct location of the baby's mouth relative to the nipple allows the mammary gland completely.

Often, the scale of the problem is such that the woman is forced to abandon breastfeeding altogether, leaving the child without the natural and most useful source of nutrition, and depriving herself of one of the most important functions, which, in general, during normal lactation should not.

Like any responsible process, decanting requires preparation. The most important thing here is emotional mood. For good lactation, pumping is best done in the presence of a baby. If this is not possible, you can admire the photo. Constantly think about your little miracle, mentally.

Watch the video: Common Breast Complications during Lactation (December 2019).

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