|ICD-10||F 48.0 48.0|
Neurasthenia - Mental disorder from the group of neurosis, manifested in increased irritability, fatigue, loss of ability to prolonged mental and physical stress. First described by American doctor George Bird in 1869. Neurasthenia usually occurs when a combination of trauma and overly intense work and physiological deprivation (chronic sleep deprivation, lack of rest, etc.) occurs. Neurasthenia is promoted by weakening the body of infections and intoxications (alcohol, smoking), endocrine disorders, malnutrition, etc.
The initial stage, the most frequent form, is manifested mainly in irritability and excitability, with which the disease begins, manifested by increased mental irritability, pronounced irritability. Signs of neurasthenia: annoying little noise, conversations of others, any sounds, fast movement of people, just a crowd of people around, crowded gatherings, also quickly (easily) annoyed, shout at loved ones, employees, interlocutors, increased ability to offend, that is, it is easy to lose self-control. Along with this, working capacity is reduced, but not only due to fatigue, but at this stage of the disorder mainly due to their mental inconsistency, absent-mindedness, inability to focus on the right range of ideas and start the necessary work, that is, due to the primary weakness of active attention. Having begun a lesson, the observed one for a long time does not withstand the mental tension required here, again - the tension of active attention. He gets up from the table, leaves the workplace, is distracted by extraneous stimuli, then again the “difficult start” of the occupation and so many times, due to large losses of time, labor productivity is negligible. Sleep disturbances are always expressed: a person falls asleep with difficulty, often wakes up, falls asleep again, experiencing copious dreams inspired by daily worries. As a result, it rises in the morning with a delay and with difficulty, not rested, with a heavy "obscure" head, bad mood, with a feeling of tiredness and weakness, which somewhat recedes only towards evening. Frequent complaints of headache, general weakness, poor memory, discomfort in various parts of the body. Also experienced a heaviness in the head, a feeling of pressure in the temples, and encircling headaches ("neurasthenic helmet").
Definition of the disease. Causes of disease
"Neurasthenia" (Greek. Neuron — nerve astheneia — weakness), literally - "weakness of nerves or nervous weakness."
Great psychological encyclopedia: “Neurasthenia is a neurotic disorder characterized by increased fatigue, irritability, headache, depression, insomnia, difficulty concentrating and loss of ability to rejoice (anhedonia). This condition can develop after infection or exhaustion or be combined with them, and also as a result of prolonged emotional stress. ”
International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision (ICD-10): F48. "Other neurotic disorders." F48.0 Neurasthenia. Diagnostic criteria:
A. More often than others, there are two types of complaints:
1. for increased mental fatigue, manifested by a decrease in social activity,
2. on increased physical fatigue, inability to exercise even a small physical stress,
B. The disorder must be accompanied by at least two of the following symptoms:
4. sleep disturbance
5. inability to relax,
6. irritability, anhedonia,
C. Secondary and unexpressed depression and anxiety.
So, from all of the above, it follows that “neurasthenia” is a condition that can be formed as a result of the following reasons.
- Psychogenic causes. The presence of severe acutely developed mental trauma or a long-existing mental trauma, in any case, is subjectively highly significant for the individual. A significant role is played by the value system of a person, his way of thinking and behavior, his level of adaptability. Against the background of constant nervous tension, depletion of the nervous system occurs (for example, the death of a loved one, separation, divorce, prolonged illness of a loved one, care for a patient in bed. Constant conflicts in the family or at work and inability to resolve the situation on their own, non-compliance with their own requirements and claims to oneself and the surrounding world with its own possibilities and realities of reality, inability to adapt to changes in the environment and many other reasons).
- Somatic causes. Severe somatic illness (for example, infectious with high fever).
- Play a certain role organic causes - past traumatic brain injuries, congenital disorders of the nervous system (a child has been observed by a neurologist since childhood with a diagnosis of MMD, ADHD, IRR, "signs of intracranial hypertension", etc.) In this case, the nervous system is initially the "weak link "And more susceptible to various adverse factors.
- Plays a certain role unfavorable heredity - the presence in the family history of mental disorders.
- Availability matters exogenous factors - various kinds of hazards: abuse of alcohol, narcotic substances, work associated with hazardous working conditions (the presence in the production of harmful substances, such as gasoline vapors, paint and varnish materials, etc.), constant mental or physical fatigue at work.
It should be noted that the symptoms of neurasthenia are reversible, regardless of their severity. This mental disorder is classified as temporary and completely reversible.
Symptoms of neurasthenia
Let us consider in detail how neurasthenia manifests itself and what is most characteristic of this state.
- The combination of increased excitability, irritability, rapid exhaustion and fatigue, poor tolerance of strong stimuli, due to increased fatigue and deterioration in concentration of attention significantly reduced efficiency. (For example, you get out of bed in the morning and are going to work, it seems that there are some forces to do the usual activities for you. your point of view, the word of a colleague, a bit harsh tone makes you react violently. You find it difficult to hold back your own emotions, you get the feeling that “I’m about to fall off the brakes, I can’t stand it." workplace, I will stay crumble without livelihoods, etc. As a result, you are no longer up to work and not to perform your normal duties. ).
- The lability of emotions, unstable mood - often reduced, depressed. (The mood changes very quickly for the slightest reason - someone said something wrong, pushed in transport, the chief raised his voice, etc.).
- Increased tearfulness. It becomes much easier to cry - from resentment, while watching a movie, etc.
- Often there is anxiety, fear. Not understanding what is happening to him, a person begins to suspect that he has some kind of strange mental illness, and the most severe - for example, schizophrenia, is afraid to go crazy. Or begins to think that he has a serious somatic illness - for example, cancer or AIDS. There may also be sexual problems, which further aggravates the decline in self-esteem, the emergence of thoughts about their own insolvency.
- Unpleasant somatic sensations: headaches, fluctuations in blood pressure, pain in various parts of the body, tingling, bowel disturbances, hand tremors, sweating, heart palpitations, sleep disturbance (it is difficult to fall asleep because of unpleasant sensations or, which happens more often due to thoughts constantly spinning in my head, constant scrolling of the events of the past day or a trauma that has happened, inability to completely relax, distract, switch to something positive).
- As a result of emerging complaints, patients with this disorder often begin to be very actively examined, referring mainly to internist doctors (therapists, neurologists). All possible examinations are performed (blood and urine tests are taken, EEG, ECG, MRI, ultrasound, FGDS, etc., etc., are performed, depending on the nature of the symptoms), but, as a rule, they have nothing serious are found. To a doctor, a psychiatrist or a psychotherapist, such patients are already in possession of a “weighty medical history” with all possible examinations. In this case, they often come after repeated persistent referrals of internist doctors to consult these specialists. Or, on the recommendation of more experienced friends or relatives in this field who have had the experience of meeting a psychologist or psychotherapist. Often, instead of going to a specialist, such patients are actively using Internet resources, trying to make a diagnosis, prescribe a treatment for themselves. And only in despair, go to the doctor.
Pathogenesis of neurasthenia
Various factors of great strength and / or duration affect a person. In response, in order to preserve the whole body intact and increase its resistance to these factors, the brain reorganizes its work by changing the functioning of higher nervous activity. Formed "dominant". This means that our thoughts and attention are rearranged to fight the conflict, or to ignore it. Since the coordination of the functioning of all organs and systems of our body depends on the work of the nervous system, due to the suppression (inhibition) or, conversely, the enhancement (excitation) of the nervous system, disruption of its normal functioning occurs, an imbalance occurs. As a result, the nervous system gives the wrong commands to all internal organs. As a result, there is a violation of their work. And first of all, there will be a failure in the body that was not originally characterized by perfect health or was depleted as a result of external or internal additional loads. Neuropsychiatric stress caused by increased anxiety for one’s health and the continuing impact of stressful factors leads to a violation of interpersonal and interpersonal relationships. That, in turn, can again cause an increase in the strength and / or duration of the impact of psychological factors.
Classification and developmental stages of neurasthenia
Conditionally allocate three forms of neurasthenia:
2. irritable weakness
3. hyposthenic (retarded).
The forms reflect the severity of neurasthenia, being the stages of this disorder. In the absence of qualified medical help, there is a gradual increase in the intensity of symptoms, that is, burdening the pathology. One form gradually becomes another. However, there are cases when patients have a painful condition fixed in one particular form. Hypersthenic form - the initial stage of the disease. Most often found in the clinical practice of the doctor.
Inadequately strong reaction to a minor irritant. The patient is nervous about everything - noise, harsh and loud sounds, bright light. It is difficult to control your emotions, there are flashes of anger, aggression. These flashes quickly go out. Also, the patient has fussiness, impatience, the desire to do everything at once. At the same time performance gradually decreases. Sleep is disturbed. Headaches of tension (headaches of tension) often occur.
Rapid fatigue, both physical and mental, is increasing. Sudden bouts of irritability reach maximum intensity. This attack is accompanied by the previously unnatural man crying. The mood is changing rapidly. The psyche is being exhausted: lethargy, apathy towards everything around is increasingly noted. Worsening appetite. Often there are various problems of the gastrointestinal tract - constipation or diarrhea, heartburn or belching. Changes in the autonomic nervous system - fluctuations in blood pressure, tachycardia. Sexual disorders may occur.
In the first place - lethargy and weakness, apathy, depressed mood. A person cannot force himself to perform any actions. All his thoughts are focused on his own unpleasant state. However, in the emotional background there are no pronounced affects of anguish, no pathological anxiety is observed.
Diagnosis of neurasthenia
Diagnosis of any disease consists of several consecutive stages.
- Clarification of complaints and anamnesis. The psychotherapist will first carefully listen to the patient's complaints. At the same time, it is important for the doctor not only what the patient says, but also how he does it. Observing the patient, the doctor notices whether his speech is accelerated, emotional or slow. The voice is quiet, loud. How the patient responds to the questions of the doctor, how his mood changes, whether his criticism is preserved. What is the state of his memory, attention and thinking. Everything is essential for proper diagnosis. Collecting anamnesis of life and illness includes information about the diseases of close relatives, the presence of chronic diseases in the patient, the time of the complaints expressed by the patient, was there a reason for this (long-term chronic disease or mental trauma, etc.), or vice versa, complaints arose for no apparent reason. Is there a seasonal and daily dynamics of deterioration, is the patient taking any medications. The doctor will certainly familiarize himself with all examinations that have been passed by the patient and, if he considers it necessary, will appoint his own depending on the direction of the complaints.
- Differential diagnosis. To make a final diagnosis, you may need the help of a clinical psychologist in order to conduct an experimental psychological research. Also, the psychotherapist, if necessary, independently conducts various clinical tests to help assess the severity of anxiety, depression, asthenia (for example, the Hamilton scale to assess the level of anxiety and depression, the hospital scale of anxiety and depression, the scale of asthenia, and many others). In establishing the final diagnosis, it is often necessary to make a differential diagnosis between neurasthenia and endogenous depression, namely, with one of its types - larpy (somatized depression).Larvae depression differs from typical depression in that the main factors in this disorder are usually not the leading symptoms of the depressive triad (depression, hypobulia, hypokinesia), but additional and facultative symptoms - pain in various organs, sleep disturbance, impaired autonomic nervous system, resembling symptoms in other diseases, including neurasthenia.
ICD-10 refers to neurotic
ICD-10 refers to affective disorders.
the onset of the disorder is necessary
connection with trauma, acute or
chronic. There is a connection with a long
physical or mental overload.
without an external reason, even against the background of a complete
more often feel better in the morning
am most serious condition to
relief comes in the evening
does not reach the psychotic level
criticism is fully preserved
reach the psychotic level
prone to cycling: can periodically
without external reasons.
treatment method - psychotherapy, change
have auxiliary meaning
treatment method - the appointment of antidepressants.
Psychotherapy is necessary, but not in phase
sharpening and playing auxiliary
Treatment of neurasthenia
Treatment of neurasthenia should be comprehensive and combine psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. With this approach, you can achieve optimal results.
- The purpose of psychotherapy is to first of all explain to the patient what is happening to him, what is the mechanism of his illness. To help him change his attitude towards adverse situations in his life, to develop new ways of responding, to change his way of life in the part that contributes to the formation of the disease.
- Types of psychotherapy - psychoanalysis, student-centered, explanatory, behavioral psychotherapy and others. It is important that the psychotherapist has a good command of the chosen method and can find a way to help a particular patient.
- With neurasthenia, drug therapy is auxiliary. Depending on the symptoms, tranquilizers, minor antipsychotics, sometimes antidepressants, nootropics, angioprotectors, antioxidants, and small amounts of vitamins are prescribed.
- In addition to drugs, it is important to convince the patient to comply with the regime of work and rest, maintain a mobile lifestyle, eat right, monitor weight, stop using alcohol, nicotine, and drugs. Recommended spa treatment.
The prognosis for neurasthenia is favorable.
Prevention of neurasthenia includes:
- In childhood - raising a child in a harmonious family, studying his character and developing his strengths in him. Teaching a child independence, constructive communication in society, the development of flexibility of thinking, the ability to extract experience from any, even unpleasant situations, the ability to positive thinking. Hardening of the child, introducing him to a healthy lifestyle.
- In the period of adulthood - to learn how to realistically assess their physical and mental abilities, in time to arrange a vacation. To learn how to plan your day constructively, to comply with the regime of work and rest, to strive for a healthy lifestyle. Examine your character. Use your strengths and work on strengthening the weak. In the process of working with a psychotherapist, it will be useful to master auto-training and meditation.
What it is?
Neurasthenia (asthenic neurosis) is a pathology of the nervous system, which is provoked by prolonged emotional and physical overload, as well as nervous exhaustion. This disease is considered common, as signs of neurasthenia occur in 1.2-5% of the population. Most often, neurasthenia is diagnosed in women and young people who begin an independent life. People who do not tolerate loads, as well as people with asthenic constitution, are predisposed to the occurrence of the disease.
The greatest recognition to date has received a polyfactory model of the etiological causes of neurasthenia. This design is based on a comprehensive study of various factors, the impact of which initiates the start of asthenic neurosis.
Among the most likely causes of the disease is a group of biological factors. Among them unfavorable heredity - the presence in the family history of neurotic and psychotic disorders, which were recorded in close relatives of the patient. It also presents the severe course of pregnancy of the patient’s mother, serious infectious diseases, the difficult course of labor and birth injuries of the infant during this period. Among the biological reasons - the innate constitution of man: features of the functioning of the nervous system.
The psychological foundations of neurasthenia include premorbid personality traits. A significant reason for the development of pathology are psychological trauma received in childhood. Extremely negative factor that creates the basis for the formation of neuroses, is the long stay of the individual in a psycho-traumatic situation. The sudden start of the disease is often fixed after an intense, sudden stress, the circumstances of which are extremely relevant and important for a person.
Scientists also name the social causes of asthenic disorder. In this group: features of the psychological climate in the parental family, the conditions of upbringing and maturation. A significant role is played by the social environment of the patient: the person’s social circle, the sphere of his interests, the degree of personal pretensions satisfaction.
Characterized by neurasthenia symptoms that occur gradually, usually the patient and his environment can not say for sure when the symptoms of the disease first appeared. Every day a person feels increasingly tired, rest and sleep cease to help recuperate, he becomes irritable, insomnia appears, headaches, appetite disappears, physical activity and the desire to do something.
If neurasthenia is not diagnosed and treated in time, it can cause a more serious nervous breakdown or diseases of the cardiovascular system, digestive organs or other systems.
The development of neurasthenia occurs in both sexes, but more often in women who are more emotional and more easily demonstrate their feelings and seek help than men.
There are 3 forms or degrees of neurasthenia. Until now, it has not been precisely established - these are individual forms of the disease or degrees of the same form of the disease, differing in the severity of the condition.
- Irritable weakness - this kind of neurasthenia develops in people with a strong nervous system, who have been under stress for a long time or develops after a hypertonic form, subject to increased stress factor. The main symptom here is weakness of the nervous system and the organism as a whole. Patients with neurasthenia still irritate everything, but he does not have enough strength to aggression or showdown. They have a sharp decrease in working capacity, memory, attention, it becomes harder and harder to perform professional activities, because of which the nervous tension increases, you have to spend more time and effort on work, which worsens a person’s condition even more. A characteristic symptom of neurasthenia is an abrupt change of mood, inadequate reactions — crying or flashes of aggression on the most insignificant occasions. From this stage of neurasthenia it is rather difficult for the patient to cope on his own, most often he does not see a way out of the current situation and does not understand why he feels so bad and what caused the deterioration of his health and mood.
- Hypertonic form - most often the disease begins with this form. Typical symptoms are hypersensitivity and, as a result, irritation. Patients react sharply to any irritant - a loud sound, a bright light, a crowd of people, someone's whisper, awkward joke, any action can cause a flash of aggression. Such signs of neurasthenia are especially pronounced in women, they feel constantly tired, frustrated, unhappy and misunderstood and, more often, they do not consider it necessary to hide their feelings. And since, due to the increased sensitivity of the nervous system, they are really annoyed by any sounds, laughter, movement or conversations, there is no need to look for irritation for a long time. Men suffering from hypertensive forms of neurasthenia are also distinguished by increased irritability and aggressiveness, but they usually better control their behavior and “break down” not because of constant minor stimuli, but seek an excuse for irritation and a surge of aggression. This may not be a good job done by a subordinate, a slammed door in the house, a car parked in the wrong place, and the like. In addition to weakness and irritability and bad mood, all neurasthenics show a decrease in working capacity, concentration, problems with sleep and appetite. The occurrence of such a symptom as a “neurasthenic helmet”, a strong headache that appears at the end of the working day or in the evening, is characteristic.
- Hyposthenic form - most often develops in people of asthenic type, with a weak nervous system, characterized by suspiciousness, increased sensitivity. With this form of neurasthenia, the constant complaint and weakness becomes the main complaint of the patients, the lack of strength and energy does not allow to lead a normal life, to perform daily duties, the physical condition of the patient deteriorates. Usually, an appeal to doctors occurs only at this stage, and the reason for treating neurasthenia is precisely the impossibility of performing professional duties and severe weakness.
Signs of neurasthenia in women
Neurasthenia in women is a fairly common occurrence today. Sexual neurasthenia, the symptoms of which consist in the loss of mental and physical performance, irritability, is also characterized by problems in the intimate sphere. In women, as a rule, this is a decrease or complete loss of libido, low self-esteem and other changes in the nervous system.
It is worth noting that the signs of neurasthenia in women are not monotonous, and therefore it is rather difficult to single out the main ones. If we consider the symptoms of the disease, the first thing you need to pay attention to the mental state of a person. Often in this case there is:
- quick change of mood
- lack of joy
- women with neurasthenia don't like something all the time,
- all is indifferent
- I don't want to do anything.
In the absence of timely treatment, neurasthenia can result in prolonged depressive psychosis, requiring more serious and prolonged correction. Increased production of adrenaline, which is accompanied by neurasthenia, adversely affects the functional state and the work of internal organs, however, this symptom is temporary and passes without a trace after treatment.
In the course of drug therapy of neurasthenia, the use of tranquilizers of the benzodiazepine group (for example, Relanium, Elenium) proved to be the most effective and justified. Tranquilizers affect the structure of specific substances found in the brain and responsible for the transmission of excitation between mediators (specific nerve cells), which leads to inhibition of neurons, i.e. to their inability to be active.
With such a principle of action is associated not only the sedative effect and hypnotic effect of drugs of the group of tranquilizers, but also anti-anxiety, anti-phobic, anticonvulsant action. With the mechanism of action of these drugs, also associated with side effects, which manifest themselves in drowsiness, light dizziness, a decrease in concentration. In rare cases, individual reactions can be detected, such as itchy skin, decreased libido, nausea, and constipation. Drowsiness due to tranquilizers is observed in patients only at the beginning of the reception. Some elderly people may experience a movement disorder, in rare cases of euphoria.
It is forbidden to prescribe drugs of the tranquilizer group if the patient has a history of diseases such as myasthenia, acute liver and kidney ailments. Also, drivers and other persons whose profession requires special concentration of attention or quick coordination should not be assigned. Alcohol-containing drinks, painkillers can significantly enhance the effects of tranquilizers. In advanced severe cases, the use of neuroleptics of different groups is recommended in small dosages (for example, Fluspirilen). Effectively recommended the use of mildly acting psychoactivating drugs such as tincture of Eleutherococcus or Schizandra Chinese. In cases of pronounced depressive disorders, a combination treatment with tranquilizers in conjunction with antidepressants (for example, Oxazepam with Paxil) is indicated.
Also, therapy must necessarily include fortifying drugs, complex vitamin aids, minerals, physiotherapeutic procedures, balneotherapy, herbal therapy, and physiotherapy.
The treatment strategy has an absolute dependence on neurotic symptoms, its dependence on the characteristics of the individual, various somatogenic or psychogenic factors. The greatest effect have a variety of hypnosuggesting methods of psychotherapy.
Physiotherapy techniques will help eliminate the clinical manifestations of neurasthenia. Namely, massage, aromatherapy, reflexotherapy, and electrics showed their effectiveness in treating the disease. Along with drug therapy, psychotherapeutic methods are also used: psychoanalysis, individual or group psychotherapy.
The treatment is aimed at changing the attitude of the patient to the psycho-traumatic situation and the urge to take his active position to solve the problem that provoked neurasthenia.
Neurasthenia (asthenic neurosis) is a pathological condition of the human nervous system, resulting from its exhaustion during prolonged mental or physical overload. Most often neurasthenia occurs in people 20–40 years old, in women a little less than in men. It develops during prolonged physical overstrain (hard work, lack of sleep, lack of rest), frequent stressful situations, personal tragedies, long conflicts. The emergence of neurasthenia can contribute to somatic diseases and chronic intoxication.
Prognosis and prevention of neurasthenia
Neurasthenia has the most optimistic predictions of all neuroses. However, often there is a transition to a chronic form that is difficult to treat.
The main thing in preventing the development of neurasthenia is the observance of the correct mode of work and rest, the use of relaxing techniques after a nervous overstrain, the avoidance of physical overloads and stressful situations. Important is the change of activity, complete disconnection from work, active rest. In some cases, to prevent the development of incipient neurosis helps vacation and a trip to rest.
Medical expert articles
The diagnosis of "neurasthenia" is made in case of a disease of the central nervous system caused by its exhaustion due to prolonged moral or physical overload. Most often, the disease affects patients over 20 years old, mostly men.
The appearance of pathology can be preceded by long-term chronic diseases or exposure to toxic substances.
Pathology is treatable depending on the type of disease.
- F00-F99 - Mental and behavioral disorders
- F40-F48 - Neuroses caused by stress, as well as somatoform disorders
- F48 - Other neurotic disorders
- F48.0 - Neurasthenic disorder
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Causes of Neurasthenia
In the appearance of neurasthenic disorders, a whole list of reasons of every possible nature is of great importance. Among them, for example, exposure to toxic substances, vitamin deficiencies, immunity disorders, oncological processes, etc. Often, the disease occurs against the background of metabolic disorders. However, the main reasons are hidden in the incorrect arrangement and reassessment of the possibilities of the human psyche.
In most cases, pathology is triggered by moral and physical overload, stress, anxiety.
Excessive loads that a person has to experience over time lead to the impossibility of relaxation and rest. The fact that the body ceases to rest, sooner or later manifests itself in overload. As a result, excessive exhaustion of the nervous component of the body (the so-called distress) is formed. Simultaneously with a neurasthenic disorder, increased irritability, pathological fatigue, insomnia, irascibility, and frequent mood swings increase.
Neurasthenic syndrome is more often observed in people who are at the peak of activity - from 20 to 45 years. According to statistics, men are more often ill, but experts say that in recent years, the chances of men and women to get sick with a nervous breakdown have become almost equal.
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Overstrain of brain activity leads to the occurrence of the disease. At the present time, many people strive to improve their social status and financial situation, which can lead not only to the achievement of their goals, but also to overload the body, to negative emotions, to overwork. As a rule, such people, because of the fuss created around themselves, do not have time to observe the banal day regimen, which would include enough time for rest, recuperation, and eating food.
An additional stress factor is impaired intimate life - the lack of full-fledged sex, a permanent partner, the inability to relax during intimacy, etc.
Many try to compensate for the lack of rest by drinking, smoking, gambling, visiting nightclubs. However, this does not solve, but only exacerbates the problem, since the body still does not experience rest.
Other factors that have a provoking effect on the development of a neurasthenic disorder are various kinds of infections, injuries with damage to nerve endings, and chronic low-intensity diseases. Such disorders as bulimia or anorexia (eating disorders) can join them. Some experts also assign a role to the hereditary factor in the appearance of the disease.
Complications of the neurasthenic syndrome can occur in the absence of treatment, or in cases where the treatment is carried out, and the cause that provoked the disease remains.
- Losing the ability to socially adapt - the enduring inner sense of discomfort blocks the establishment of social ties, the person no longer needs to communicate with other people.
- Depression - gradually developing extreme degree of lowering of emotional mood.
The disease must be treated by a specialist psychologist or a psychotherapist of the appropriate qualification, otherwise the neurasthenic disorder may become chronic, which makes it difficult in the future both for the treatment and for the rehabilitation period. Residual effects of the disease can leave an imprint on a person’s character, on his style of communication. Often, even after a therapeutic course, the patient becomes closed, secretive, he is left with a hot-tempered reaction to loud noises, bright light, unpleasant smell. If the patient was initially a vulnerable person, then the disease can be delayed, poorly respond to therapy and acquire a chronic course, regardless of the completeness and timeliness of treatment.
Psychotherapy for neurasthenia
Psychotherapy is perhaps one of the main methods of treating patients with neurasthenic disorder. This technique provides a variety of therapeutic effects on the psyche.
- Conviction therapy is a type of treatment that involves providing the patient with information that convinces him of the correctness of certain actions. What can it give to the patient? Under the influence of logical arguments, his attitude to the problems, to the situation, fears and experiences gradually lose their significance.
- The method of suggestion - direct or indirect. Suggestions from the patient can cause feelings, emotions, desires that will not yield to the conscious analysis of the person, that is, they will not be analyzed logically. After the session, the patient will believe that new thoughts in his head are thought out and compiled by him, albeit with the direct assistance of a specialist.
- The method of self-hypnosis is an independent compilation of associations, the collection of information that is analyzed by the patient and reproduced by him. With this kind of treatment, success is not immediately visible, but only after 1.5-2 months of therapy. This method can also include such procedures as autogenic training and muscle relaxation - relaxation.
Psychotherapeutic techniques help not only to calm the patient, to adjust him to positive thinking and to give a charge of optimism. It is noticed that regular exercises with a psychologist allow us to stabilize the work of the heart, normalize breathing, and have a positive effect on the neurological and autonomic processes inside the body.
Drugs for neurasthenia
Drug treatment is carried out simultaneously with psychotherapy.
In the recent past century, agents based on bromine and caffeine were used in the treatment of neurasthenic disorders. Now there is more amount of the newest effective medicines that successfully treat the disease, and also do not cause the formation of dependence. Most often, drugs are prescribed tranquilizing drugs, antipsychotics, psychoactive drugs, and antidepressants.
- Tranquilizing drugs soothe emotions of tension, eliminate feelings of anxiety, fears. Such drugs do not just soothe the nervous system - they improve sleep, making it deeper and longer. At the initial stage, tranquilizers can cause side effects, such as drowsiness, a feeling of lethargy, but over time these symptoms disappear. Apply these drugs according to individual indications.
- Chlordiapoksid, Diazepam - sedatives and relaxing means. Normalize the state of the autonomic nervous system, facilitate the process of falling asleep, eliminate seizures.
- Oxazepam (analogue of Tazepam) - eliminates phobias, internal stress, irritability, normalizes mood. In standard dosages, it does not inhibit psycho-emotional activity.
- Lorazepam, phenozepam - reduce the manifestation of anxiety, relax the muscular system.
- Nitrazepam (analogue of Radeorm) - improves the duration and quality of sleep.
- Medazepam (analogue of Orehodel) - effectively soothes, without causing inhibition and drowsiness.
- Afobazol - reduces psychological discomfort and the effects of prolonged nervous tension, including irritability, tearfulness, anxiety, phobias, insomnia. Improves the mental and physical condition of the patient.
- Neuroleptics - have a more pronounced sedative effect than tranquilizers. Such drugs include Aminazin, Sonapaks, Reserpine, Melleril, Triftazin, Haloperidol, etc. These drugs are used in small dosages and mostly at night, as they can cause a feeling of mental constraint and lethargy, as well as lower blood pressure. An overdose of neuroleptics may cause a temporary inhibition of sexual desire.
- Antidepressants are designed to improve mood. Of these drugs most often resort to the use of Imizin, Amitriptyline, Azafen and Pyrazidol. Antidepressants increase the feeling of vitality, increase appetite, but at the same time can slow down sexual activity. Eglonil is one of the popular anti-depressant drugs with neuroleptic and stimulating activity. Used to combat the state of apathy and anhedonia, a disorder in which the patient loses the ability to receive pleasure and joy. The active component of the drug is Sulpiride.
- Psychogogic drugs can additionally excite the nervous system. Such drugs are used only in medical institutions, under the supervision of a physician. In the pharmacy network, psychostimulants are available only by prescription.
- Phenibut is a well-known psychostimulant used to treat impaired attention and normalize human activity. Increases intellectual and emotional activity, restores memory and ability to concentrate attention. It can be used to eliminate asthenia and anxiety-neurological conditions, which are characterized by anxiety, fears and insomnia. In childhood, the drug is prescribed for the treatment of stuttering, enuresis, nervous tic.
Any drug treatment must necessarily be complex, in combination with psychotherapy, physiotherapy (darsonvalization, snotherapy, manual therapy, laser and reflex therapy, galvanic collar), as well as with spa treatment.
Herbal therapy can be used either in the early stages of the disease, when the symptoms are not sufficiently pronounced and a slight soothing effect is required, or simultaneously with complex therapy under the guidance of a doctor.
- Herb-based decoction is prepared in this way: dry chopped herb (medicinal raw materials) is poured with boiling water and boiled over low heat for 5 minutes (or kept in a water bath). The medicine is taken in 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day before meals. As a sedative herb used by the bone, the woolly Panzer, creeping thyme, bearberry ordinary.
- Herbal infusions are prepared as follows: medicinal herbal mass is poured with very hot water (90-95 ° C) and infused under the lid (it is also possible in a thermos). The duration of the infusion is half an hour. Next, the drug is filtered and take 1 tbsp. spoon up to 4 times a day. For the manufacture of infusions using herbs such as wild rosemary, marsh berries, hawthorn leaves, cowberry leaves, crushed rhizomes of valerian, leaves of oregano.
- Herbal tinctures are prepared by insisting the raw materials on high-quality vodka or 40% medical alcohol. Medicine insist 10 days in a dark place at room temperature. Use 15-25 drops three times a day before meals. As raw materials for making tinctures hawthorn flowers and rhizome of aralia are most often used.
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Massage with neurasthenia
Of course, massage is not considered the main tool in the treatment of neurasthenic disorders. However, it is beneficial to use as an effective addition to the therapeutic course.
The main goal of the massage is to stabilize the psychoemotional state, normalize sleep, improve the functioning of organs and body systems, improve blood circulation, relax the muscular system.
Often, massage treatments are combined with psychotherapy sessions, paying special attention to the neck and neck and collar area, as well as the spinal column. All movements should have a relaxing, relaxing effect: for example, such movements as tapping, clapping, and hitting with the edge of the palm should not be used. Intense exposure is completely excluded.
One session lasts about 15 to 20 minutes and takes place every day for 2 weeks. With a strong moral or physical exhaustion of the patient, it is allowed to conduct a session in a darkened room, using light strokes, rubbing, and surface kneading. After the session, oxygen therapy is recommended for 10–15 minutes, or an oxygen cocktail with minerals and a rich microelement composition.
Vitamins for neurasthenia
In the treatment of neurasthenic disorders with vitamins, the main role is assigned to vitamins of group B, and especially B¹. Thiamine has a calming effect on the nervous system, feeding and improving the function of neurons, as a result of which the vegetative and central nervous systems will soon normalize. To meet the body's need for thiamine, it is recommended to use greens, in particular, parsley, dill, and fennel. Also useful are plants such as chamomile, sage, clover and burdock. A large amount of vitamin found in the leaves of lingonberry or raspberry.
Other vitamins of this group B are also important. They provide protection for nerve cells, stabilize the processes occurring in the brain, eliminate depression, dissatisfaction and doubt.
Where can I find the B vitamins:
- milk products,
- cereals (mainly buckwheat and oatmeal),
- greens, vegetables and fruits of green color,
- legumes (peas, lentils, chickpeas, mung, beans),
- dog rose
You can also buy ready-made drugs at the pharmacy. For example, such multivitamin preparations as “Vitrum Centuri”, “Neyrobion”, “Pentovit”, “Kombilipen” are perfect.
Thanks to the vitamins, you can not only strengthen the body, but also bring the nervous system to a normal balanced state.