February 22, 2017, 16:54 Expert articles: Daria Dmitrievna Blinova 0 3,945
Diet therapy for dysentery (acute illness caused by infection of the colon) is an important element of complex treatment. Diet for dysentery helps to eliminate toxins and enhance immunity. Thanks to therapeutic nutrition, water-salt balance is restored. Properly selected therapeutic nutrition will help the body in fighting Shiggela bacteria that cause the disease. The functioning of the digestive processes in the human body. With strict adherence to the framework of nutrition, recovery can be significantly accelerated and chronic forms of the disease can be prevented.
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At the first stage of the disease, which lasts for several days, diet No. 0a is used. When the number of toxins in the patient's body begins to decrease, prescribe nutrition according to the recipes of the dietetic table No. 4. As you recover, the diet for dysentery should become more diverse, the transition from diet to a normal healthy diet.
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Purpose of diet
It is important to treat the treatment of dysentery in a comprehensive manner. The doctor prescribes a prescription and medication diet. Proper nutritional therapy helps to eliminate toxins from the body, normalize metabolic processes and increase immunity to speed up the fight against infection. Diet therapy is aimed at preventing the appearance of chronic forms. Specifically, in the case of dysentery, the diet is aimed at sparing the intestines, this can be achieved by selecting the right foods and the way they are heat treated before they are eaten. In any form of the disease, the diet should be complete and balanced. A fractional feeding mode can be chosen (food intake 5–8 times a day). When dysentery is very dangerous, there is a deficiency of vitamins, minerals, animal and vegetable proteins and fats.
For the fastest recovery, the doctor prescribes a drug treatment, the purpose of which are: the removal of toxins and the normalization of the body's water balance. Most often, the recipe for treatment includes drugs containing enzymes. They will help in digesting food. The most successful way to process food for dysentery is cooking for a couple. Cooked dishes are allowed.
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Exclude any food that can enhance the fermentation (it is forbidden to drink milk, use coarse fiber). You can eat dried bread, light soups, a couple of eggs a day. It is desirable to drink green tea, coffee and cocoa without milk, jell. If the stool has already returned to normal, the diet becomes more diverse, cereals, boiled vegetables, meat, fish (low-fat varieties) are permitted. After recovery from dysentery, it is recommended not to lean on spicy, dairy, spicy and raw vegetables and fruits.
Diet number 4 for dysentery
Such a diet is prescribed to reduce the risk of continuing the inflammatory process and to normalize the stability of the function of the digestive system. Also, such food is prescribed for tuberculosis, colitis (acute and chronic), typhoid fever, gastroenterocolitis. In this mode of eating, conditions are created that can eliminate inflammation, reduce fermentation and decay, and restore functions that have been violated. The diet menu minimizes the mechanical damage to the intestinal wall.
Essence of the diet
Provides for limiting the amount of consumed fat and carbohydrates, to the lowest limit of the physiological needs of the patient. Due to this, calorie intake is reduced. Eating animal and vegetable proteins remains normal, and the content of chlorine and other chemical irritants is intentionally reduced. Any product that promotes bile secretion, any diuretic product is prohibited. Everything that stimulates the secretory functions, it is difficult to digest it is absolutely impossible to eat. Biochemical composition: proteins - about 100 grams, fats - 65-70 grams, carbohydrates - no more than 260 grams. Caloric intake - 2000-2100 kcal. Permissible salt intake - 9 g. You need to drink more than 1.5 liters of water. Food for dysentery should be taken about 6 times a day, warm, bed rest is mandatory.
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What you can eat, and what not?
When diet No. 4 is recommended to eat the following foods:
- dry wheat bread, galette cookies,
- veal, beef, chicken (without fat),
- fish without fat
- soft-boiled eggs or fried without oil,
- cottage cheese, sour kefir,
- natural oil
- mucous, light soups,
- baked apples.
From the diet in dysentery, it is recommended to exclude everything that may adversely affect the settlement of the digestive process, restoration of bowel functions. Any food that can lead to microtraumas of the stomach walls. Special attention should be paid to the exclusion from the diet of the following: butter dough, rye bread, fatty meat and fish, milk, fatty dairy products, young kefir, fresh fruit, dried fruits. It is forbidden to drink sparkling water, sweet water, any drink containing milk, kvass, alcohol, most juices (if desired, juice can be diluted in large amounts of water). To the benefit of the patient will go such drinks: tea, mint and green, decoction with the addition of black currant, quince.
Diets number 4 in and number 4 b
Diet number 4b can be used after diet number 4, the key difference is the calorie intake (it can reach up to 3600 kcal per day) and a wider choice of products, among them: chicken meat, keta and black caviar, rice, boiled vegetables, jam and jams It is allowed to add spices to dishes - cinnamon, bay leaf, vanilla, greens. Under the ban are: grape juice, soda, hot spices and sauces, barley, buckwheat, milk, as well as all fatty, fried in butter and smoked meats.
The transitional stage to the normal diet is carried out with the help of ration 4 B. It is recommended to eat food up to 5 times a day. It is worth adding butter to each meal, about 15 grams. Allowed to use vegetable oil, but in very moderate quantities. Vegetables are not allowed to eat white cabbage, turnips, onions, sorrel. You can not drink kvass and carbonated drinks.
Diets number 2, number 3
They are used to stimulate the motor function of the stomach and intestines, reduce fermentation and gas formation. The energy value of the diet can reach 2900 kcal. Excluded are recipes that require the use of breading, boiled eggs, whole milk, sour cream, cream, coarse fiber (solid, with stones or with a thick skin of fruits and vegetables). You can drink drinks containing milk in moderation.
Ingredients - minced pike perch 200 g, rice 20 g, butter 20 g, water 70 g. Preparation:
- Mix the prepared, cooled rice porridge with minced pike perch.
- Add butter, salt to taste. To stir thoroughly.
- Roll the balls, steam them for about 20 minutes, depending on the size.
From the allowed products prepare simple and tasty dishes that are useful for dysentery.
4 tablespoons of dried rosehip berries pour a liter of hot water. Tea should be infused from 10 minutes to several hours. The infusion should be boiled at least twice in an enamel bowl. Add sugar or honey if desired. It is recommended to use 30 minutes before meals. As an addition, apple jelly is recommended, which is prepared by cooking 35 g of sliced apples in 2 cups of water with 20 g of sugar. To achieve the desired consistency boiled apples fray and add 2 tbsp. l potato starch.
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It is important to understand that when dysentery symptoms appear, a doctor or ambulance team should be called to the doctor’s house in case of severe illness. However, if a patient has a mild form of dysentery and he sees no reason for concern, then it is necessary to know that in the course of treatment a special diet must be observed, since dysenteric sticks affect the intestinal walls (its mucosa).
In the first days of the disease, accompanied by severe intoxication, it is recommended to take liquid food every few hours: various compotes, jelly, meat broths, fruit juices, jelly. Do not eat carbonated drinks, dense food (even mashed potatoes) and milk. This will not burden the digestive tract and help prevent the accumulation of gases.
After the disappearance of signs of intoxication, it is necessary to eat often, in small fractional portions up to seven times a day. At the same time, it is necessary to give preference to protein foods, but not to abandon fats and carbohydrates. Meals should remain mixed and complete.
It is recommended to use mucous soups with cereals on a decoction of vegetables, boiled buckwheat, rice and oatmeal porridge, rubbed through a sieve, eggs, steamed or boiled soft-boiled, low-fat fish and meat in the form of mashed potatoes or souffles, moderately acidic berry mousses. Eat more foods that contain the following vitamins: ascorbic acid, retinol, phylloquinones (K1), and B vitamins. A few days later you can eat solid food: dry white bread, boiled grated fish or meat, cottage cheese, baked apples.
It is also important to drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration. Dieting helps speed up the healing process, has a positive effect on the outcome of the disease and prevents the occurrence of chronic dysentery.
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - “Medicine” in 1991, in 1993 “Occupational diseases”, in 1996 “Therapy”.
Possible ways of infection
Bacteria have a high viability. In a favorable environment exist in foods up to 6 months. Transmitted from an infected person with pronounced symptoms or from a carrier who does not have any special signs of the disease. The carriers of bacteria are often flies and cockroaches. You can become infected by drinking raw water, contaminated food, unwashed vegetables and fruits. Promote the penetration of infection and dirty hands. The second name of the infection is “the disease of unwashed hands”.
Special danger is represented by workers of public catering and water supply. In their environment, the infection spreads quickly and in large quantities. Even an epidemic is possible.
Stages and forms of the disease
The disease is characterized by acute and chronic stages. The acute stage is characterized by mild, moderate and severe degrees.
In the first case, the patient recovers himself within a week, sometimes without even knowing that there is a dysenteric bacillus in his body.
However, there is a probability of transition from acute to chronic because the treatment was carried out unprofessionally.
The main symptoms of dysentery are:
- Lack of appetite.
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Frequent or continuous rumbling.
- Frequent diarrhea with blood.
The greatest danger is caused by complications, since the intestinal walls are affected, digestion is disturbed, intestinal bleeding occurs. The disease leads to dehydration, intoxication, loss of vitality.
Dysentery is diagnosed using laboratory tests - bacterial culture. Treatment is prescribed on the basis of the overall clinical picture and analyzes.
Along with medication, a diet is prescribed, which in each case may be different.
After a severe disturbance, the body requires unloading and recovery. First of all it concerns the digestive organs.
General dietary guidelines
On the first day of illness, you need to drink more fluids. Replenishment of the body with water should occur every 3 hours. You can use compote, jelly, tea, especially medicinal, non-carbonated mineral water. From juices, carbonated drinks, coffee, strong tea, milk should be avoided. You can eat broth from poultry meat, and the first fat should be drained.
After the acute symptoms pass, food can be varied. There is a need often, but in small portions. Porridges, vegetable soups with grits, mashed potatoes, eggs, boiled poultry meat, boiled fish are allowed.
After a few days, you can enter solid foods: black bread, biscuits, cottage cheese, baked apples.
The body should be replenished with vitamins of group B, ascorbic acid, retinol, phylloquinones. Food for dysentery should be light and balanced. Preference should be given protein foods, but to give up carbohydrates and fat is not worth it.
This stage of the disease is characterized by the absence of acute symptoms and constant discomfort in the intestine. Exacerbation cause various diseases of the digestive system. The diet should accompany the person constantly. Products must be boiled, baked and steamed. Categorically you can not eat food that irritates the intestines and causes flatulence. The list of prohibited products include the following:
- whole milk,
- fat meat,
- Fried fish,
- smoked meat
- canned food
- spices and flavors,
- mayonnaise, ketchup,
- wholemeal bread
- carbonated drinks,
In adults, the diet continues until the state normalizes and the digestive organs begin to work normally. Parents need to control the nutrition of children. New products are introduced into the diet of the patient with the permission of the doctor.
The principle of a children's diet for dysentery is not much different from the features of an adult. It also excludes foods that increase flatulence and cause fermentation. On the first day of illness, the child is not forced to eat. Give a lot of fluid: tea, compote, decoctions. From the second day add meat broth, porridge, boiled egg. The milk is completely excluded, the butter is added in a small amount. Limit sugar and all sweets.After the symptoms disappear, a protein diet is prescribed, which has been described for adults. Eat 5-7 times a day. Meals should be fresh and chopped, the temperature - comfortable. Do not give too hot or cold food.
Sour milk products are gradually introduced. Begin with cottage cheese, then add natural yogurt, kefir. Vegetables should also be present in the diet, but it is necessary to exclude cabbage and peas. Fruits can be almost anything. Not recommended only grapes, plums and sour cherries. You can prepare vitamin juices from fruits or vegetables. Good effect on the digestive organs compotes of dried fruit.
To sweets need to start last. All products must undergo a thorough heat treatment: steaming, boiling, boiling water.
Newborns have their own characteristics. Since babies feed only on milk, the mother must follow the diet. This will change the composition and nutritional value of milk.
For any manifestations or suspicions of dysentery, the child must be shown to a doctor. It is possible that the disease may begin with a mild stage of the disease, and then go into a severe one. Risk is not worth it and even more delay with treatment.
Disease prevention measures
No person is immune from dysentery. Both adults and children are infected with it. But in children, it is much more common. The reason for this is unwashed vegetables, fruits and hands. The disease can be prevented by following certain rules:
- Vegetables and fruits process hot water.
- Always wash your hands before eating.
- Do not buy food in questionable places and with poor sanitation.
- Store food in closed packaging, in lockers and in the refrigerator.
By hygiene, dysentery can be avoided. If infection has occurred, it is recommended to immediately consult a doctor to prevent serious complications.
Symptoms of dysentery
General malaise, weakness, chills, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea (stool may look like yellowish-white mucus, sometimes with bloody discharge), frequent painful urge to stool, not accompanied by a bowel movement.
Medical therapy for dysentery involves an integrated approach.
In mild dysenteryone of the following medications is prescribed, which is accompanied by secretions of blood and mucus in the fecal masses:
- Nitrofuran (Furazolidone).
- Oxyquinolines (Intetrix).
The doctor may change the dosage of a drug, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient, his age and associated symptoms.
Moderate course of the disease involves the use of Ofloxacin or Ciprofloxacin, as well as:
- Intetrix three times a day.
- Co-trimoxazole twice daily.
Severe disease implies the use of:
- Ofloxacin or Ciprofloxacin.
- Fluoroquinolines in combination with aminoglycosides.
- Aminoglycosides in combination with cephalosporins.
Flexner and Zonne's dysentery treatment is carried out using a dysenteric bacteriophage.
- Replenishment of lost fluid occurs with the use of Regidron.
- Severe intoxication involves intravenous administration of albumin (10%), hemodez (Trisol), or glucose (5–10%).
- In order to remove toxins from the intestines, enterosorbents are used (Activated carbon, Polysorb, Smektu).
- Enzyme Drugs: Pancreatin.
- To eliminate spasms: Drotaverine or Papaverine.
- Probiotics: Linex, Bifidumbacterin.
Treatment continues until the patient's general well-being improves, stool normalization and body temperature decrease:
- The moderate form of the disease - up to 4 days.
- Severe form - up to 5 days.
Severe course of the disease involves strict adherence to bed rest.
Appointment of physiotherapy is carried out in the acute course of dysentery. The tasks of physiotherapy are: the elimination of pain, improvement of blood circulation, reduction of intestinal motility, normalization of stool.
During treatment, the following procedures are recommended:
- Electrophoresis with Novocain and Calcium Chloride.
- The imposition of ozokerite applications (waxy mass) on the abdominal area.
Physiotherapy is contraindicated with increasing body temperature.
Brief description of the pathological condition
Under dysentery, it is necessary to understand an infectious disease that affects the large intestine and leads to disruption of the functional ability of the digestive system (suppression of the secretion of gastric juice). The course of the disease may be acute or chronic and may be of various forms of severity. Cases of dysentery in adults and children are diagnosed in almost equal numbers.
Manifested in the form of:
- pain that is localized in the lower abdomen,
- increase in body temperature
- urging to stool, with pain,
- symptoms of intoxication of the body in the form of a feeling of general weakness, pain in the head, loss of appetite.
The pathological condition is accompanied by the formation of ulcerative processes in the intestine.
Dysentery requires treatment and dietary compliance, because it will minimize the risk of complications.
Use of a diet for dysentery in childhood
First of all, it is necessary to focus attention on the fact that the peculiarities of dietary nutrition will depend on the age of the patient and the severity of the pathological state. If the disease is severe or has a moderate course with the presence of vomiting, it is recommended to apply the water-tea break, its duration will be determined by the attending physician. If the disease is diagnosed in a premature or weakened child, then the indicated pause is prescribed for a short period of time.
The basis of therapeutic nutrition is destination:
- Rehydron or Glucosolan, which before use must be dissolved in a liter of water,
- 5 or 10% glucose solution,
- strong tea, which you can sweeten a little and add lemon,
- broth made from rice,
- broth made from raisins.
In this case, the use of liquids must be alternated and given to drink every 15 minutes. A single serving of the drink should be a small volume.
If a case of dysentery is diagnosed in an infant, then after a water-tea break, it can be given expressed breast milk or formula (if the child is on artificial feeding).
The amount of food consumed should be a third of the normal portion. The duration of the intervals between feedings should be determined by the attending physician. In order to supplement the physiological need for food, the child is given to drink vegetable decoctions, tea, Regidron or glucose solution.
After 2-3 days the child can begin to apply to the chest, but this is considered possible in the absence of vomiting. Together with the increase in the duration of feeding should increase and the intervals between them.
After the age of one year old children, the water-tea break begins with the appointment of 50 ml of lactic acid mixture, it is taken every 2 hours.
If the pathological condition is not accompanied by vomiting, over time, the amount of food consumed and the intervals between feeding increase and bring to the age norm.
Starting from the third or fourth day (everything will depend on the state of the child), the diet is diversified with such foods and dishes as:
oatmeal cooked in vegetable broth or water,
- mashed potatoes,
- pureed soup to obtain a mucous consistency,
- steamed fish or meatballs,
If the course of the disease in infants is uncomplicated, several feedings are skipped, and then expressed milk or kefir is given, but not in full, but only 2/3, and one third is filled with liquid. Over time, the amount of food consumed is adjusted to the age requirement.
If the course of dysentery is considered to be easy in a child over one year old, then he is given to eat:
- slime soups,
- rice or oatmeal,
- mashed meat
- grated apple and banana.
Please note: in any case, regardless of the severity of the pathological condition, it is prohibited to conduct malnutrition for a long period of time. This is explained by the fact that such actions can provoke the development of hypovitaminosis and protein starvation.
The diet of the patient should not contain products that are endowed with the ability to increase gas formation and enhance intestinal motility, namely:
- black bread
- products that contain a lot of fiber.
The duration of the transition to the usual daily diet lasts about two months.
Dietary nutrition in adults
As already noted, diet plays an important role for the effectiveness of treatment. It aims to:
- recovery of metabolic processes,
- stimulation of reparative processes,
- reduction of intoxication,
- preventing the transition of the pathological state to the chronic form,
- fast recovery.
Food should contain all necessary for the normal functioning of the body. The severity of the diet will depend on the course of the disease.
If the patient’s condition is severe and is accompanied by vomiting, then on the first day of treatment he can only be served with strong tea, rice tea or without gas. On the second day, you can eat mucous soup cooked in a light broth, rosehip tea, apple sauce. Very useful is the use of baked apples.
When improving the general condition of the patient and suppressing the intensity of intoxication manifestations, it is recommended to switch to diet table No. 4. The multiplicity of food intake at the same time must be at least five times. It is also necessary to adhere to the drinking regime, the amount of fluid consumed per day should not be less than two liters.
- soups cooked in weak fish or meat broth with meatballs or ground meat,
- various porridges cooked in water,
- steam flasks cooked with meat or fish,
- scrambled eggs,
- crackers with white bread,
- small amount of butter (up to five grams),
- jelly and berry jelly,
- fresh cheese and kefir.
It is forbidden to eat pasta and legumes.
If it comes to recovery, then the patient is transferred to the diet number 4 in. It is necessary to adhere to its requirements within sixty days. Over time, the calorie content of food increases and the list of allowed foods expands. For three months, it is necessary to avoid the use of sharp and smoked products, canned food, seasonings and fried foods.
Summarizing the above information, it should be noted that the observance of dietary nutrition in dysentery allows you to speed up the process of recovery and return to normal rhythm of life. Follow the state of your body, follow medical recommendations, eat only high-quality food and be always healthy.