Eczema is a red rough rash in the form of individual spots on very dry skin.
It causes severe itching, and combing it only aggravates the situation.
Eczema is a cause of concern for many parents. In the UK, symptoms of this disease are observed in 15% of children. Simply put, it is an inflammation of the skin that causes itching and redness (doctors also call it dermatitis). Eczema cannot be cured once and for all.
Causes of Eczema in Children
The causes of eczema are unknown. Perhaps, it occurs under the influence of a genetic factor: it is often those children whose parents or other close relatives also had such a problem. Eczema itself is not an allergic reaction, but its manifestations can be triggered by irritants present in the air (for example, pollen or cigarette smoke) and contact with materials such as wool, or with substances that make up lotions and soaps. In some children, eczema occurs as a reaction to certain foods, although this is rare. In addition, the manifestations of this disease are provoked by stress.
Like hay fever or asthma, eczema is allergic in origin. It may be allergic to food or to certain materials like wool or silk that are in direct contact with skin. Eczema is more often observed in children in those families where there have already been cases of eczema or related diseases - asthma, hay fever or urticaria.
Even if eczema is initially caused by food, external skin irritation can also play a role. In general, eczema is most often observed in winter, because at this time of the year the skin is drier. In some children, eczema, on the contrary, appears in the hot season as a reaction to one's own sweating. If a child has eczema only in those places where the woolen clothes come in contact with the skin, he may have a direct allergic reaction to the wool, although it is possible that food causes an allergy and the wool only acts as an additional irritant. In some children, the rash increases during the period of emotional stress.
Symptoms and signs of eczema in children
A child with eczema almost always has dry skin that becomes inflamed if the immune system fights against any threat. With the exacerbation of the disease appears dry itchy rash. Most often, eczema occurs on the hands and feet.
Most often, eczema begins in young children on the cheeks or on the forehead.
Exfoliating skin scales look like scattered salt in the distance, especially on the ears. A child of about a year of eczema can appear almost anywhere - on the shoulders, arms or chest. In children from one year to three, the most typical places of eczema are the elbow and knee bends.
Eczema treatment in children
The only and most important thing that parents can take is to prevent dry skin of the child. A doctor or pharmacy worker may recommend such a cream to you. In many cases, improvement is achieved through the use of ointments and lotions. If necessary, use these types of soaps that contain moisturizing agents (most doctors recommend using “Dove” soap). It is necessary to bathe the child in warm, but not hot water about 10 minutes. If bathing lasts less, the skin does not have time to absorb water, and if it lasts longer, then itching increases. When wiping the baby after a bath, do not rub it with a towel, but blot it. The best time to apply moisturizers to the skin is 3 minutes after taking a bath.
Caring for a child with eczema is very difficult. Itching can make him mad. Parents also lose their temper, trying to keep the child from scratching the affected places. It is very important that the child has shortly cut nails (it is best to treat them with a nail file, since there are no sharp edges after this). The smaller the child will scratch the skin, the less chance of infection in the wound. Since most often the child combs a sore spot during sleep, you can wear white cotton mittens for the night, but not all children will agree to this. It also helps to reduce itching.
With strong eczema, measures must be taken to establish which food causes an allergic reaction in a child. Very often, cow milk is the cause of the allergy. Sometimes it is possible to cure eczema by switching to artificial milk made from soy, rice and other cereals, as well as to special milk formulas. The search for food allergens is best done under the guidance of an experienced doctor. Independent efforts often fail. In severe cases, a blood test and skin tests are used to identify the irritant. Very often, the source of eczema is wool.
Along with moisturizers for the skin in the treatment of eczema, hydrocortisone is used. It belongs to the class of corticosteroids or, for short, just steroids. (This word confuses many parents, but the steroids used in the treatment of eczema have nothing to do with anabolic steroids used by athletes as doping.) Steroids, in particular hydrocortisone, suppress skin allergic reactions. An allergic reaction is a type of inflammation.
Hydrocortisone is sold without a prescription in the form of ointments with a concentration of 0.5% and 1%. More concentrated drugs require a medical prescription. Often, at the beginning of treatment, the doctor prescribes a concentrated remedy, and then, when it was possible to curb the process, they switch to weaker ones. Recently, new promising nonsteroidal drugs have appeared.
Treatment with antihistamines reduces pruritus. In some cases it is necessary to resort to antibiotics in the form of ointments or tablets.
A mild form of eczema can be treated on its own, using a moisturizing skin cream, 1% hydrocortisone ointment and diphenhydramine. In more severe cases, follow the instructions of the pediatrician or dermatologist.
It must be remembered that eczema is not an infection that can be cured completely. Eczema that began in childhood usually goes away completely, or at least a couple of years goes into a milder form.
Simple solutions and natural remedies
Eczema can cause a baby a lot of discomfort, but there are techniques to alleviate the itching and soreness.
Use the following remedies:
- Regularly care for your skin. In order for inflammation to pass faster and less often, it is important to maintain consistency in treatment. Do not skip bathing: water softens the skin, prepares it to moisturize and promotes the exfoliation of crusts. The bath should be moderately warm, and the cosmetic products used should be gentle. Even if the soap contains only plant ingredients, they could be grown using chemicals that can aggravate eczema. If possible, use only 100% organic cosmetics. If you have any suspicions, discard products containing sodium lauryl sulfate (LSN), parabens, petrochemicals and other skin irritants.
- Treat your baby's skin with care. After bathing, do not rub it with a towel, but dry it thoroughly with blotting movements, otherwise irritation may result.
- Do not forget about hydration! By moisturizing the skin, you reduce itching, which means that you are less likely to scratch wounds and carry bacteria into them. It is necessary to apply a moisturizer to the body of the baby within three minutes after completion of bathing. It is better to use butter than body milk (make sure that the ingredients and preservatives listed above are missing). Well, if the product contains vitamin E, sunflower oil, calendula or jojoba oil - they effectively soothe and moisturize dry itchy skin.
- Have a massage. According to the results of scientific experiments, babies who are massaged daily by their parents, eczema symptoms subside. A simple application of a moisturizer, without massage, may not give such an effect.
- Add a drop of chamomile oil to the bathing water to soothe the skin and enhance its healing process. Chamomile has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Clinical trials have shown that it effectively helps fight dermatitis.
- If you have already taken away the baby from the breast, avoid convenience foods, as they may contain ingredients that aggravate eczema. Try to cook by yourself, using natural products of local origin.
- Include in the child's diet probiotics and products containing them. The effect of intestinal bacteria on human health is being actively studied. It is proven that regular use of probiotics improves skin condition.
- Make sure your baby gets enough fluids. Plentiful drink is necessary for any person, especially a patient with eczema. About 70% of our body is made up of water that we lose daily. Its reserves need to be replenished in order for the skin to be moistened and the general state of health to remain good.
- Dress the child in natural fabrics. The quality of clothes is as important as the quality of cosmetics. It is known that, for example, cotton and silk are very gentle on the skin, which cannot be said of synthetic fibers that can cause discomfort and itching.
- Wash baby's clothes gently: use non-biological powders or powders specifically designed for sensitive skin. Laundry detergent particles remain on the fabric after washing and react with sweat, which can cause irritation.
- Take care of your baby's bed: use non-allergenic cotton underwear. This will help protect the baby from dust mite.
Types of eczema in a child
There are several types of eczema that are diagnosed in a child:
|Coin-shaped||Developed in the form of plaques, externally similar to a small coin. Most often formed in the back, legs, buttocks. Plaques are covered with several layers of horny scales - they are extremely easy to exfoliate, even with normal touches.|
|Viral||This type of eczema is caused by a viral pathogen. The rash can be localized in different parts of the body - cheeks, back, chin, elbows. Antiviral agents with immunomodulators are necessarily included in the treatment complex.|
|Weeping||Accompanied by the formation of bubbles filled with serous exudate. The bubbles burst easily, erosions appear, the skin becomes wet.|
|Microbial||It is a consequence of infection with pathogens. The body's defenses are significantly weakened, and red, inflamed areas appear on the skin. The treatment is a complex with the use of antibiotics.|
|Herpetic||The disease is provoked by the herpes virus. It is characterized by the formation of vesicles filled with sero-blood contents. The disease is accompanied by a serious deterioration in general well-being.|
|Bacterial||Refers to microbial form. Infection usually occurs between the ages of 2-6 months. Treatment also takes place in a complex with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.|
|Eczema Kaposi||It develops as a result of the activity of the herpes virus type 8. It flows hard, occurs at an early age, is characterized by a rash, which quickly turns into erosive foci. There is also an increase in peripheral lymph nodes, a significant increase in body temperature.|
|Seborrheic||In modern medicine, the exact cause of the pathology is not known. Distinguished by the appearance of peeling, yellow plaques on the scalp and hair part. Quite often dandruff may indicate a seborrheic form of eczema.|
All types of eczema are accompanied by severe itching, burning, due to which the psycho-emotional state of the baby worsens.
What is eczema in children?
Skin rashes are common in childhood. Eczema in children is an inflammatory disease of the upper layers of the skin (epithelium), which is characterized by acute onset (hyperemia, edema) and the appearance of a rash. First, these are small nodules that are transformed into blisters, and later into pustules with purulent contents. The disease is characterized by repeated relapses.
The disease brings suffering to babies, children are worried about severe itching, burning sensation. The symptoms of eczema in a child depend on the stage of the disease. Initially, there is swelling and hyperemia of the skin, a rash of various types, the localization of the lesion focus on the cheeks in children. In the process of how the disease begins to develop, the characteristic clinical manifestations change.
Bubbles burst, cracks appear on the skin, erosions form, and fluid is released from them. The lesion begins to get wet and grows in size - it can spread to the eyelids, neck, hands and other parts of the body. Soon the erosion becomes crusted, and the edges of the lesion begin to peel off. Eczema is characterized by a gradual change in periods of relapse, exacerbation, chronic course and remission.
Rashes are an external manifestation of the body's response to an irritating factor - an allergen. Irritants are internal and external. Allergic reactions in children can cause:
- chemical preparations used in the washing of underwear,
- aromatic and flavoring additives in products,
- inhalation of pollen from flowers, dust or mold particles,
- insect bite.
The causes may be metabolic disorders of the body caused by impaired activity of the liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, abnormalities in the nervous and endocrine systems in the background of reduced immunity. Eczema can occur:
- after nervous stress (fright)
- with worm infestations,
- with infections in the body (sore throat, inflammation of the ear or maxillary sinuses, dental caries),
- with fungal diseases,
- with dysbacteriosis.
Eczema in infants
Pathology can develop in the first months of a baby’s life. The cause of eczema in infants are allergic factors or heredity, when there were cases of atopic dermatitis of one of the parents. Eczema in newborns occurs during artificial feeding, when immunity decreases due to the lack of mother's milk and an allergic reaction to infant food develops.
Overdosing of a baby, its overcooling or overheating, exposure to sunlight on the delicate skin of an infant can cause a rash. The cause of the disease of the newborn may be the improper nutrition of the mother during pregnancy, excessive consumption of foods that cause allergic reactions (citrus, sweet and flour foods).
Types of children's eczema
Clinical manifestations of the disease depend on the causes and stage of the disease. There are these types of children's eczema:
- True. It is characterized by such features: it can manifest itself at an early age, from two months, is able to proceed with complications. The onset of the disease is characterized by acute manifestations: on the hyperemic skin, multiple point rashes appear, which soon turn into bubbles filled with pus.At the opening of the bubble erosion is formed, from which the serous fluid is released - the lesion begins to get wet. It begins with the face, neck, but can later cover other areas of the body.
- Plaque eczema is a true variety. It occurs on the hands and is characterized by a mono-like scaly eruptions.
- Seborrheic Occurs on the scalp, in the auricles. It is not characterized by the formation of purulent pustules, cracking and weeping. It looks like pink nodules with flaky surface.
- Microbial. Occurs due to ingress of coccal infection in the body through damaged skin. At the beginning, one or several purulent pustules are formed near the wound, which open, merge and form erosion. The wound becomes weeping with a thick layer of suppuration and crusts.
When a rash is detected, parents should contact the child with a pediatrician or dermatologist for examination. Diagnostic methods include:
- visual inspection,
- study of the history of the disease,
- blood test,
- allergen test,
- differential diagnosis in order to exclude other diseases, sampling scales for the presence of fungus or bacteria.
Before prescribing drugs, the doctor must determine and eliminate the factors that caused the allergic reaction of the body. The primary treatment of eczema in children, in the presence of evidence, consists in normalizing the activity of the liver, kidneys, and the gastrointestinal tract, eliminating disturbances in the endocrine and nervous systems. At the next stage, medical procedures and treatment are aimed at eliminating inflammation and relieving symptoms. Patients are prescribed:
- complex of vitamins to strengthen the immune system
- antihistamines that have antiallergic, antipruritic effect (diphenhydramine, diazolin, suprastin, calcium preparations),
- preparations for cleansing the body
- antibiotics (erythromycin, ampicillin) in the microbial form of the disease,
- in severe forms - hormonal agents taking into account the age of the patient (prednisone, urbazon),
- hemotherapy, plasma therapy.
With a slight reddening of the skin, powders are used. In the case of a moist form of the disease, children are prescribed cooling compresses and lotions with the use of astringent and antiseptic solutions. In the chronic course of eczema, warming compresses, warm baths, ointments and fat-based creams are used. Treatment must be accompanied by strict diet and hygiene rules. It is necessary to exclude products that cause allergies from the diet of the child and the nursing mother (citrus, sweet, flour foods, fatty foods, milk).
When bathing, you can not wet the affected areas of the body, you can wash the rash in a child with special, prescribed by the doctor means. For children, it is necessary to use clothes made of natural cotton fabrics, because wool and artificial fibers irritate the affected areas. You can not overly bundle a baby - overheating, overcooling, overfeeding a child can aggravate the course of eczema. To prevent illness, a diet should be followed by a pregnant woman.
Treatment of folk remedies
Use medicinal herbs should be carefully, under the supervision of a specialist. When treating eczema in children, folk remedies use decoctions of valerian, motherwort, chamomile for internal use - they soothe the itch. When soaking, it is recommended to use Kalanchoe juice for compresses, and for baths - an astringent extract from the bark of oak and elm (properties) pour boiling water over the boiling water, cook for half an hour, cool it. In the dry form of the disease, compresses with sea buckthorn oil, St. John's wort, and black cumin have a favorable effect. For ever make lotions of broth birch buds.
Video: Viral Eczema
Elena, 28 years old For a long time tormented eczema in a child. Tried a large number of drugs, and helped us a natural remedy - black cumin oil. Lubricated sore spots with oil. Soon, a crust began to peel off on the wounds, all was tightened by a new skin and the rashes no longer appeared. An effective tool, I recommend to everyone.
Alina, 30 years old A child on the skin found multiple red spots that itched and then began to peel off. I turned to a dermatologist, he diagnosed: a disease of eczema. We underwent a prescribed course of treatment, but there was no result. Neighbor recommended grease. Smeared spots daily in the morning and in the evening - it took two weeks.
Lyudmila, 36 years old Daughter had eczema for a long time. The drugs did not help, they prescribed hormone ointment, but we did not buy it. A friend suggested making an ointment of baby cream, tar and sulfur. A miracle happened. Immediately after applying the ointment, the skin stopped scratching, and a month after regular lubrication it was completely cleansed.
What it is?
An acute inflammatory allergic reaction that occurs in the skin layers when specific allergens get into them is called eczema. The adverse symptoms of the disease can develop in a child at any age. Usually the most severe course occurs in infants.
For the development of eczema in the baby requires a special predisposition. Scientists have shown that in babies whose parents suffer from various allergic diseases, the risk of getting eczema exceeds the average incidence rates by more than 40%. If both mom and dad have allergies at the same time, then the probability of this disease in a baby increases to 60%. This hereditary feature is due to the special functioning of the immune system in allergy sufferers.
Some specialists use a different term for this disease. They believe that it is more correct in young children to speak about the presence of not eczema, but “exudative dermatitis”. In this condition, the local sensitivity of the skin to various specific allergens is increased, the body's resistance to many infections is reduced, and there is also an increased tendency to form inflammatory exudates.
Usually doctors record cases of eczema. in the smallest patients. In older age, the incidence is somewhat reduced. The development of the disease contribute to a variety of factors. These include: the presence of diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency states, pathologies in the thyroid gland, chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, allergic diseases.
The treatment and diagnosis of this disease are engaged in children's allergists and dermatologists.
A variety of causal factors lead to the appearance of a child's disease. To date, a single cause of the disease does not exist. In some cases, causal factors can act simultaneously, which leads to the emergence of various clinical forms of the disease in the same child.
Doctors identify several main causes leading to the appearance of adverse symptoms on the skin in babies:
- Heredity. All genes that encode a tendency to increased allergization, to date, not installed. However, it is statistically proved that in families where close relatives have allergic diseases, eczema in children occurs twice as often.
- Pathological conditions of neurohumoral regulation. Typically, these conditions arise as a result of various pathologies and failures in the nervous system. In some cases, the symptoms of eczema occur in a baby after a strong psycho-emotional shock or stress. These include: frequent travel to a new place of residence, divorce of parents, death of a close relative (especially at an early age).
- Increased individual skin sensitivity. This condition is not a pathology. Usually, the high susceptibility of the skin to the action of various substances is present in some babies from birth. These children, as a rule, have light and delicate skin, which is prone to the appearance of redness and any irritation.
- Immunodeficiency states. Can be congenital and acquired. The impaired work of the immune system contributes to the bright course of allergic reactions with the appearance of numerous symptoms that bring pronounced discomfort to the baby. Quite often, immunodeficient pathologies occur in premature babies and children with numerous chronic diseases.
- Secondary foci of chronic infection. The presence of an infectious process in the body is always a "time bomb." With a decrease in immunity as a result of exposure to adverse environmental factors, the growth of microbial flora is activated, which contributes to the appearance of clinical signs of eczema in a child.
- Increased propensity to any allergic reactions. In this case, the allergen that has entered the child’s body easily causes a cascade of inflammation in the child, in which exudative edema develops, and specific inflammatory elements appear on the skin.
- Improper hygiene careespecially in newborns. The use of products containing dyes and chemical fragrances, can cause the appearance on the skin of a child of specific lesions.
- Artificial feeding. Rapid abandonment of breastfeeding often leads to a decrease in passive immunity in the baby. Incorrectly selected adapted mixture, which cannot compensate for the entry into the children's organism of all the nutrients necessary for its growth and development, causes the child to have an increased tendency to form allergic reactions.
Doctors distinguish several clinical forms of this pathology. This difference is due to different reasons that lead to their appearance. Each clinical form of eczema has its own distinctive features and preferential localization. There are also some differences in the treatment and diagnosis of such pathologies.
There are several clinical forms:
- Coin-like. It causes the child to have elongated plaques on the skin that resemble a coin in shape and medium size. Usually, skin rashes are located on the back, buttocks, and legs. Outside, skin plaques are covered with several layers of horny scales, which easily peel off from the surface with any contact with them. Most often, this form occurs at an older age.
- Viral. Various viruses provoke the appearance of adverse symptoms. Often, the causative agents of influenza, chicken pox, rubella, herpes simplex and herpes zoster and others become familiar to many parents of the disease. The rash can be located on various parts of the body: on the cheek, on the back, on the chin, on the elbows and other anatomical zones. To eliminate adverse symptoms, it is necessary to include antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs in the treatment regimen.
- Soaking. It is characterized by the appearance of large bubbles, inside of which is a serous fluid. These skin lesions are easily traumatized with the expiration of the exudate, and therefore are called "weeping." Often unfavorable symptoms are found in the half-year-old babies. Primary localization - on the hands, buttocks, lower limbs.
- Microbial. Caused by various microorganisms. The development of adverse clinical symptoms is preceded by a pronounced decrease in immunity. Manifested by the appearance on the skin of red inflammatory skin rashes. To eliminate the clinical signs of the disease, complex treatment is required.
- Herpetic The development of this clinical form is caused by infection with various subtypes of the herpes virus. It is characterized by the formation of bubbles on the skin, filled with sero-bloody fluid. These formations can easily be injured and ulcerate. The disease can occur with a rather severe course and significantly impairs the well-being of the child.
- Bacterial. Also called microbial. It is not difficult to guess that infection with various bacteria leads to the development of this clinical form. The peak incidence occurs at the age from two to six months after the birth of the baby. To eliminate the adverse symptoms of sick babies, modern antibiotics are prescribed that have a systemic broad spectrum of action.
- Herpetiform or Kaposi's eczema. Develops due to infection with the herpes virus type 8. It occurs in babies, especially young children, quite hard. It is characterized by the appearance on the skin of numerous skin rashes, which easily turn into erosion. With Kaposi's eczema, peripheral lymph nodes increase and body temperature rises significantly.
- Seborrheic The cause of this pathology is not yet established. This form is characterized by the appearance of scaly yellow plaques, which are usually located on the face, scalp and less often on other anatomical zones. Often the appearance of dandruff in babies can be due to the presence of seborrheic eczema in the child.
Skin rash may be accompanied by a slight itch.
The initial stage of eczema is the same for all babies - various skin rashes appear on the skin. The severity of symptoms may be different. This largely depends on the initial state of the child, the presence of concomitant chronic diseases and immunodeficiency, as well as at what age the disease develops. The appearance of rashes on the skin usually leads parents in real horror. Panic is not worth it! When the first adverse clinical signs appear, it is very important to immediately consult a doctor.
The doctor will conduct a clinical examination, during which he can establish whether the child has signs of eczema or is it another disease that occurs with similar symptoms.
The presence of a large number of clinical variants of the disease causes a variety of different forms of skin rashes. So, some forms of eczema occur with the appearance of bright red spots on the skin. They can reach in size from ½ to several centimeters. To the touch stains are hot. The child may feel pronounced itching.
Frequent scratching of the damaged areas of the skin leads to the fact that the secondary bacterial flora easily gets into its surface layers. This greatly aggravates the prognosis of the disease. Skin rashes can fester with the expiration of pus out. To eliminate this adverse symptom requires the mandatory appointment of antibiotics. In severe cases, they are administered by intravenous or intramuscular administration.
During the entire acute period of the disease, the sick child looks very bad. The baby appears weakness and apathy. The child plays less with his favorite toys, can avoid contact with other children and even parents. Severe itching of the skin violates the behavior of the baby. The baby is becoming more capricious.
Often, ill children sleep poorly. When eczema is disturbed, the duration of both day and night sleep. They can often wake up in the middle of the night due to severe itching of the inflamed skin. Some babies have impaired appetite. Infants may refuse breastfeeding.
In some cases, the course of eczema in babies can be chronic. Then it is characterized by a change of periods of exacerbation and unstable remission.Usually adverse symptoms reappear in the cold season or after a strong psycho-emotional stress. Separate cases were noted when the clinical signs of eczema appeared in an allergic child after age vaccination.
Usually the severity of symptoms by three years gradually decreases.
Eczema may have a mild course. In this situation, only small reddenings appear on the skin, which usually do not even itch. After an acute period of the disease, such skin elements disappear completely, and the skin regains a healthy appearance. Most often, such rashes appear in a baby after washing, with teething, during active and excessively intensive classes in school, after adding new unfamiliar food products to food. These clinical signs do not bring the child discomfort and after several days pass by themselves.
From a clinical point of view, microbial and seborrheic types of eczema are most common in children. In babies with a strong sensitivity of the skin to the action of various allergens, there is a tendency for mass appearance of skin rashes, as well as for their draining into large areas.
The prognosis of the disease in most cases is conditionally favorable, since there is a tendency to chronicity of the process. Only weakened children with eczema can have very unfavorable complications.
There are also quite rare types of eczema. These include: varicose and post-traumatic. When a varicose form of inflammatory skin changes appear in the veins of the lower extremities. This clinical form is associated with the presence of individual disorders of the vein trophism in the child, as well as excessive sensitivity to the effects of various bacterial flora. Varicose eczema is accompanied by the appearance on the skin of various weeping ulcers, which are poorly epithelized.
Even after healing, residual changes may remain on the skin for a long time. Usually they manifest as increased dryness and thinning of the skin. In some areas there is a strong peeling, which disappears after a few months.
Post-traumatic eczema appears after various injuries, burns, and open damage to the skin.
Children's allergists and dermatologists are engaged in the treatment of various types of eczema. If the disease has arisen due to a chronic disease, then additional consultations of other specialties, such as a gastroenterologist, dentist or otolaryngologist, may be required.
Assignment of treatment tactics is carried out only after carrying out all the necessary tests that allow to clarify the severity of clinical manifestations, as well as determine the severity of the disease. The scheme of eczema therapy includes the appointment of a whole complex of various therapeutic methods. Treatment of the disease is usually carried out in the acute period of the disease.
During remission, doctors recommend rehabilitation and sanatorium-resort treatment, which contributes to a longer remission.
The following methods are used in the treatment of the disease:
- Normalization of the day regimen. In the daily routine of a sick child a day rest must be present - at least three hours. At night, the baby should sleep at least 8-9 hours, babies - more. This helps the immune and nervous system to work more productively, and the baby to recover faster.
- Observance of a hypoallergenic diet. All highly allergenic foods are excluded from the diet of an allergic child. These include: sweets, chocolate bars, citrus fruits, seafood, tropical fruits and berries. If a child has an individual immunity of milk protein or gluten intolerance, then any food containing these ingredients is also excluded from his menu. Observe a hypoallergenic diet baby should be throughout life.
- Local treatment. To eliminate inflammations on the skin, lotions with 2% boric acid, 0.25% solution of amidopyrine, 0.25% solution of silver nitrate and others are suitable. It is necessary to apply them according to the recommendation of the doctor. In case of severe and persistent disease, various hormonal ointments and creams are used. These include drugs based on prednisone and dexamethasone.
- Antibiotic prescription. These medicines are used to treat microbial eczema, as well as in the secondary infection of other skin lesions with the bacterial flora. Selection of antibiotics is carried out taking into account the child’s age, weight, and the presence of chronic concomitant diseases in the baby, which may be a relative contraindication for the administration of these drugs.
- Systemic drug administration. It is used in case of severe disease or in case of ineffectiveness of previously performed treatment. Antihistamines have a good anti-inflammatory effect. These include: Suprastin, Claritin, Loratadin and others. Dosages, frequency of use and duration of the course are chosen by the attending physician based on the individual initial well-being of the child.
- The use of gentle means household chemicals and special children's cosmetics. For the hygienic daily procedures for babies suffering from various forms of allergies, you should use gentle means. They should not contain strong fragrances and coloring additives, which can cause the appearance on the skin of a child of new allergic rashes.
- The appointment of immunomodulatory therapy. It is carried out according to strict indications to all babies with signs of immunodeficiency. Both tablets and injection forms of medicines are used as treatment. The duration of treatment is usually 10-14 days. During the year, usually 2-3 courses of such therapy.
In the next issue of Dr. Komarovsky’s program, you will learn a lot of useful information about the treatment of eczema, as well as other children's skin diseases.
Eczema in a child is a chronic disease of the skin caused by the influence of internal and external allergens.
According to the features of the course of eczema is divided on the following types:
- dyshidrotic eczema,
- microbial eczema,
- seborrheic eczema,
- true eczema,
- Kaposi eczema.
Children have all kinds of eczema.
Eczema and its symptoms
Despite the large variety of clinical features, it is possible to identify common features of the course of eczema in most children.
During the inflammatory reaction, bubbles form on the skin of the child, grouped together. In the acute process, papular eruptions appear on the background of extensive reddening of the skin and edema, very quickly turning into blisters.
Bubbles open, forming a wound surface on which bacterial or viral infection quickly builds up. After the soak process is reduced, crusts form. The child is worried about itching.
Primary foci of rash may appear on the cheek, near the bezel area, gradually moving to other parts of the face. When the process spreads, the lesions grow and become symmetrical.
Dyshidrotic eczema in children
Eczema on the hands of children in most cases is represented by the dyshidrotic type. Place of destruction - palms and feet. The disease is observed in predisposed persons (suffering from allergic diseases) against the background of emotional stress, weakening of the immune system, during the period of recovery from a serious infectious disease.
Bubbles open to form a wet surface, which, on drying, forms crusts and peeling, accompanied by burning and itching. Eczema on the legs of a child, represented by a cluster of bubbles, also refers to the dishydrotic form.
Occurs as a result of skin hypersensitivity to the microbial antigen. Most often there is an increased sensitivity to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus. Rashes have a clearly limited shape, located asymmetrically. Often these lesions surround the site of injury with signs of purulent inflammation.
Characterized by peeling, itching. Most often affects the scalp with the formation of yellowish crusts.
A typical clinical picture without distinctive features is characteristic of true eczema — vaguely defined groups of vesicles with a clear liquid, which are usually located on the face, body, flexor surface of the arms and legs.
The nature of true eczema is skin autosensitization.
Herpetiform eczema Kaposi
Herpatiform eczema Kaposi is found in children against the background of a common herpes virus infection in conditions of reduced immunity. Eczema in infants due to herpes infection may occur after six months of life.
This is due to the fact that the immunity against the herpes virus, obtained from the mother, to this period of the child's life is weakened. Herpetiform eczema in infants may appear after contact with a sick person. The herpes virus is able to multiply in the epidermis, which leads to the death of the affected cells. The virus is able to live for a long time in the ganglia of the sacral and trigeminal nerve, causing frequent exacerbations of the disease in children.
Eczema in newborns is often caused by a herpetic infection. Adults who have herpes sores in the mouth or on the face can infect a baby.
Bubbles open to form a wet surface, then becoming covered with crusts. The disease is severely tolerated by young children. Primary infection lasts up to 1.5 months. Subsequent relapses are not accompanied by high fever and general disturbances.
- To eliminate itching, histamine receptor blockers are assigned: Suprastin, Zyrtec, Zodak, Claritin.
- Local therapy.
On the lesions of the rash cause cream with glucocorticosteroids: Advantan, Lokoid, Elok.
For microbial eczema apply complex cream with the addition of antibiotics: Pimafukort. The course of hormonal creams should not be more than 10 days.
With soak, use lotions, aerosols with topical glucocorticoids.
For skin care, it is advised to use emollients of medical cosmetics: Lipocrem, Lokobeyz Repea, Physiogel.
For microbial eczema, in some cases it is advisable to use antibacterial drugs.
Memo to parents whose children suffer from eczema
- Your baby needs to follow a hypo-allergenic diet.
- Avoid dressing your child in clothes made of synthetic and wool fabrics.
- Daily use hypoallergenic medical cosmetics for skin care: Lipikar products, Toleran laboratories La Roche-Pose, Atoderm products from Bioderma, A-derma line with Realba milk (Dükré laboratory), Uryazh products on thermal water.
- Pillows and blankets should be made of hypoallergenic materials.
- For washing clothes are used only hypoallergenic detergents.
- Do not use cosmetics with fragrances and fragrances.
- Do not start pets.
- After water procedures, be sure to apply moisturizers to the skin of the child.
- When exacerbating the disease is sure to consult with your doctor.
Treatment of chronic eczema in children is associated with a number of difficulties, which can only be overcome if the doctor’s instructions are strictly followed.