This low evergreen tree belongs to the family of rutovyh and, of course, to the genus of citrus. Lemon leaves are not long, are on short petioles. The lemon root system is different from other citrus fruits: it consists of the “web” of root offsprings, thanks to which this plant receives all the nutrients and water from the earth. White lemon flowers are very large and have a very pleasant aroma. They pollinate themselves. There are flowers of barren flowers (they have no pistil) - such defects of the plant. Lemon fruit - oval, seminal, light yellow in color, has a pointed tip. The flesh of the fruit is very juicy and sour to the taste. Seeds inside the fruit, sharpened on one side. Lemon flowering begins in May, during this period it is abundant. But in summer and autumn lemon blooms weakly. There are varieties of lemon that bloom all year.
The homeland of lemon is Southeast Asia. A fruit with amazing properties known worldwide. Its useful qualities have been used by people for many centuries. Today this fragrant fruit is a component of cosmetic and perfumery products. Tea with lemon helps to get rid of nausea, cleans, tones the work of the gastrointestinal tract. It strengthens the stomach and expels worms. Lemon is rich in solar energy, its smell and taste are healing factors that people accept as a gift from nature. Lemon is shown for atherosclerosis, rheumatism, and for colds. Incredibly useful fruit in violation of the cardiovascular system. His actions are anti-inflammatory, carminative, hypotensive.
The rind of the fruit and leaves of this evergreen is the source of the essential oil, which contains citral, alpha limonene and terpene. The aroma of lemon oil relieves mental and physical stress and fatigue. The daily addition of pieces of pulp or juice to the water strengthens the immune system and allows you to protect yourself from seasonal colds. Lemon exhibits bactericidal properties, contributes to the activation of leukocytes in the body's defense system. Rutin and bioflavin contained in lemon heal blood vessels, making them elastic, eliminating fragility and excessive penetrating ability.
Lemon Essential Oil
Lemon essential oil is obtained by cold pressing the outer part of the plant's pericarp. Since green fruits give little oil, for this purpose only ripe lemons should be used. From 60–70 kg of lemon fruits, only 1 kg of essential oil is obtained. This oil is a light yellow color, with a greenish tinge, and it is not surprising that it smells like lemon. Lemon oil is used to improve the smell and taste of drugs.
Lemon essential oil has bactericidal, antifebrile, tonic and astringent properties. Lemon oil improves the human immune system, is a disinfectant, so it is used for colds, flu, fever and various oral infections. Lemon oil helps with freckles, improves the condition of nails, relieves dandruff on the head and makes hair shiny.
Useful properties of lemon
Lemon contains a lot of useful substances to humans, and therefore it is used in many diseases. One of the uses of lemon is the use of its vitamin properties, which help with scurvy. Lemon is an excellent prophylactic. It is used for avitaminosis, atherosclerosis. Lemon contains a lot of citric acid, water and a whole set of useful vitamins. Lemon has hemostatic properties, so it is used for bleeding from the nose, stomach, and even bleeding from the gums. Lemon is used as an antipyretic and tonic in tuberculosis, pneumonia, Botkin's disease and other infectious diseases.
The juice or pulp of this fruit has a remarkable thirst quenching effect. Lemon juice helps with inflammations in the mouth and throat, for example, with angina. In addition, the juice will be a good helper for frostbite.
Lemon is a natural source of such vitamins as C, P, B1 and B2, D. Lemon is an antioxidant of natural origin, it excites the whole body, and thanks to essential oils it protects it from stress.
Lemon infusion has a tonic effect. Lemon stimulates heart activity, treats the central nervous system, helps with hypotension and neurasthenia. Lemon syrup has antihelminthic effect. Externally, apply a solution of juice with water when rinsing the mouth during inflammatory processes. Also, lemon juice is used for eczema and fungal diseases in the form of lotions.
Juice of lemon can heal cracks in the skin, reduce brittle nails. Lemon peel with honey helps to improve digestion. Lemon is recommended to be used by pregnant women and people with a diagnosis of jaundice.
Lemon is used in folk medicine as an additional remedy for liver diseases, edema, rheumatism, gout and low acidity gastritis.
Cure for worms. You need to take a lemon, peel it off and grind it. To this mass, add the seeds and lemon pulp. Pour all 1 cup of boiling water. There, add a teaspoon of honey and leave to infuse for 2 hours. After strain the finished medicine, it can be used at bedtime as an anthelmintic.
Lemon from rheumatism. This medicine is easy to prepare. For him, take 4 lemons and 3 heads of garlic, pour all 1 liter of boiling water and insist 24 hours. Strain the finished medicine, you need to take 50 grams before meals three times a day.
Face mask with dry skin of lemon. You need to take 1 teaspoon of lemon juice and mix it with 1 teaspoon of honey. In this mass, add 1 tablespoon of ready and still warm oatmeal. The resulting mask is applied to the face, hold for 10 minutes and then washed off with warm water.
Lemon oil for cold or flu. To make it you need to take one lemon with zest and scald it with boiling water. Next, skip the lemon through a meat grinder and add 100 grams of softened butter to it with 1 tablespoon of honey. All mix well and eat instead of butter for sandwiches. In winter, you need to eat this butter at least 6 times a day, after having spread it with a piece of black bread.
Lemon for sore throat. Take a quarter of lemon and squeeze the juice out of it. Connect it with 150 ml of water and rinse the throat with this solution every hour for two days. This solution destroys germs and removes inflammation.
Juice with bronchitis. You need to mix the juice, squeezed from three lemons, with 50 grams of grated horseradish. Ready juice take 1 teaspoon several times a day. The drug should not drink or seize.
Medication for angina. Take 1 lemon and squeeze the juice from it, add to it the juice of two leaves of aloe and half a pound of honey. Everything should be put in the dishes and refrigerated for a week. Take the medicine you need 1 hour before meals, 1 tablespoon three times a day.
Infusion with hypertension. It is prepared this way: you need to take 3 lemons and 5 heads of garlic and put everything in a three-liter bottle, and then pour water to the top. As soon as the mixture floats to the surface of the water, you need to wait two days, and when the mixture settles to the bottom, the infusion is ready. Take an infusion of 100 ml in the morning.
Water with lemon
The use of water with lemon has long been proven in practice, with regular use, it relieves headaches, lowers blood pressure, makes the treatment of kidney disease effective.
Water with lemon helps to eliminate toxins from the body, which is beneficial to the general condition and appearance.
Water with lemon on an empty stomach is especially useful: it activates the work of the digestive tract.
Water with honey and lemon is considered to be a fortified drink, which saturates the body with vitamin C and trace elements. 100 g of lemon contains 40 mg of vitamin C, a cup of water with lemon juice eliminates sore throat.
Gargles with a mixture consisting of half a lemon juice, a teaspoon of coarse salt and a glass of water facilitate a quick recovery from a sore throat. Greenish-yellow fruits contain organic acids, sugars, nitrogenous substances, potassium salts, copper, vitamins A, B1, B2, C, phytoncides. The presence of vitamin P contributes to the prevention and treatment of cerebral edema, capillary fragility, pain in the legs. The use of lemon as a food product will help to normalize the work of the nervous system, relieve fatigue, general weakness.
With the expansion of veins, hemorrhoids, trophic ulcers, lemon is also shown. It is also an effective tool in the fight against various viruses. A wonderful product is able to destroy up to 20 varieties of microbes, its substances are effective in dysentery, paratyphoid fever, cholera, meningococcus, scurvy, jaundice, and dropsy. Lemon is prescribed for kidney stones, pulmonary tuberculosis, catarrh of the stomach, gout, lumbago. Nature gave us a wonderful solvent, helping to remove all the excess from the body. Lemon also helps to restore the tissues of organs.
This fruit is suitable for people of any age and is an excellent tool against putrefactive processes.
Obese people can use lemon without a doubt. Cooked in the evening, an infusion of two teaspoons of dry chamomile and a few slices of lemon should be drunk in the morning on an empty stomach. You can simply make it a rule every day after waking up to drink a glass of drink, which includes lemon.
Water with lemon for weight loss - the most beautiful way. Fat, ill-feeling people, who have shortness of breath and a weakened body, can help themselves by using a mixture of garlic and lemon juice.
Recipe for lemon and garlic: chopped garlic (400 g) and juice of 24 lemons must be mixed in a jar with a wide neck, tied with gauze and infused for 24 days. Take the tool should only be at bedtime - 1 teaspoon of the mixture with a glass of water.
Healing lemon perfectly combines with ginger. The beneficial substances of medicinal root and citrus provide a quick recovery from many ailments.
Garlic + honey + lemon
Garlic, honey and lemon are perfectly compatible ingredients of a miraculous medicine, a real elixir of youth. This remedy is best prepared in the autumn when there is a high concentration of useful substances in garlic.
The elixir recipe: 6 large lemons must be crushed, combined with 4 heads of garlic and 350–400 g of honey, filled with a mixture of dark glass bottle, tie with gauze and insist in a dark place for 10 days, then strain and take in the morning for 15 minutes. before meals, 1 tablespoon diluted in a glass of water, and in the evening - after dinner.
It is useful in the home first-aid kit another sedative.
Tincture of lemon peel: crushed lemon peel should be filled with vodka in a ratio of 1:10 and take a few drops.
Compresses with lemon juice or pieces of juicy flesh applied to the forehead and temples help with headaches.
Contraindications to eating lemon
Undoubtedly, lemon has many useful properties and substances, but there are also contraindications to it. For example, lemon should be used in moderate quantities, as if it is used in excessive amounts, it will break the tooth enamel. Many people after prolonged consumption of lemon complain of increased sensitivity to hot and cold water.
People with high acidity of gastric juice, with inflammation of the stomach (gastritis), gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer need to be careful with the use of lemon. It can increase acidity, cause heartburn, pain, cramps and even vomiting.
Also, some people may have an allergy to lemon; it is for this reason that young children need to be given it in small portions, monitoring the condition of the child.
Education: Diploma RSMU them. N. I. Pirogov, specialty "General Medicine" (2004). Residency at the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, diploma in "Endocrinology" (2006).
Lemon is a hybrid plant of the citrus genus. There is an opinion that the ancestors of all known citrus fruits today are citron, pomelo and tangerine. All the others are hybrids that appeared as a result of mixing between these species and their “descendants”. Lemon, as scientists believe, is the “child” of citron and mandarin. It is believed that his homeland is the Deccan Plateau in central India. But when that very first lemon appeared on the planet, scientists still cannot answer.
The first images of citrus appeared on Roman mosaics, and the first surviving written descriptions of lemons date from the beginning of the tenth century (found in Arabic treatises). In the Middle Ages in the Mediterranean countries, lemons were no longer something exotic. The fossilized remains of these fruits are found in the ruins of Pompeii. And in its time in Britain, the Royal Navy escaped from scurvy with this citrus.
Tropical and subtropical lands of Southeast Asia are considered to be native to the plants of the rut family, to which lemon itself belongs. Lemon trees can grow up to 10 m, but as a rule, most plants are much smaller. Their open crown is easily recognizable by the spiny branches and white-purple fragrant flowers. Their leaves are shiny, rich green, elliptical in shape. Fruits are sour, juicy, oval-shaped with aromatic skin, as a rule, yellow. The flesh is divided into slices.
Today, for commercial purposes, these fruits are grown in Italy, Spain, Greece, Argentina, USA.
The nutritional value
One medium lemon without peel (about 58 g) contains about 17 calories, about half a gram of protein, 0.2 g of fat, and 5.4 g of carbohydrates. In addition, the fruit will provide the body with a small portion of thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper and manganese.
|Calorie content||29 kcal|
|Vitamin A||1 mcg|
|Vitamin C||54 mg|
|Vitamin E||0.16 mg|
|Thiamine (B1)||0.05 mg|
|Riboflavin (B2)||0.03 mg|
|Niacin (B3)||0.2 mg|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||0.2 mg|
|Pyridoxine (B6)||0.09 mg|
|Folic acid (B9)||11 mcg|
Lemons contain a large number of different chemicals that scientists believe have properties that are beneficial to humans.
By the way, the characteristic smell of lemons is the “work” of the terpene D-limonene (carbon class). And citric acid, contained in large quantities of fruit, is responsible for the sour taste.
These yellow citruses are also known for the highest concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), the lack of which causes serious diseases. Interestingly, 100 ml of lemon juice contains almost 50 mg of vitamin C, which is more than half the recommended daily intake. Due to its high content of ascorbicum, lemon has gained fame as a tonic, beneficial to the digestive and immune systems, as well as to healthy skin. But not everything is so rosy. Ascorbic acid in the juice of lemons is very quickly destroyed: after 8 hours at room temperature, lemon juice loses about 20 percent of vitamin C, in the refrigerator, the same amount of vitamin evaporates after 24 hours of storage.
But the flavonoids contained in lemons, as scientists believe, have anti-cancer properties. They inhibit the growth of malignant cells, remove carcinogens from the body. In ayurvedic practice, a glass of warm water with lemon juice is a means for toning the liver and removing toxins from it.
In addition, lemons are useful in preventing diabetes, constipation, hypertension, and stomach disorders, as well as in maintaining healthy hair, teeth, skin, and nails. And urologists believe that lemon juice eliminates the risk of kidney stones, since it contributes to the production of urinary citrate, and it prevents the formation of crystals.
The benefits of lemons due to the rich chemical composition. This fruit supplies the body with such elements as:
Lemon juice is useful for:
- throat infections
- kidney stones
- increased risk of stroke,
- low body temperature
- stomach diseases
- problems with teeth
- arthritis and polyarthritis,
- breathing problems
- weakened immunity.
Reducing the risk of cardio disease
According to American researchers, regular consumption of lemons helps reduce the risk of developing coronary heart disease, and in women the percentage of prevention of the disease is much higher than that of men (about 19%). In addition, it was found that consumption of citrus fiber effectively reduces cholesterol levels in the blood. A similar function in the human body is played by the essential oils contained in lemon.
Protection against anemia
Iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of anemia.
Enhance the body's absorption of this mineral will help food rich in vitamin C, for example, lemons. Studies have shown that the combination of ascorbic acid and ferrum contributes to a better absorption of these beneficial substances. For this reason, spinach leaf salad, seasoned with lemon juice, is extremely effective against anemia.
Maintain a healthy complexion
Lemon, as a source of vitamin C, is essential for maintaining healthy and youthful skin. The fact is that this sour fruit is important for the production of collagen, which, in fact, is responsible for maintaining healthy skin. In addition, antioxidants protect the epidermis from solar radiation and the environment.
The benefits of lemon water
The benefits of this drink are spoken all over the world It is customary to drink it in the form of heat on an empty stomach. It is said that daily consumption of citric water not only strengthens the immune system, but also prevents the development of incurable diseases. You can make this drink in just a few minutes in the morning. It is enough to squeeze half or whole lemon into a glass of warm water.
Already in itself warm water, drunk on an empty stomach, is an excellent start to the new day, as it contributes to the proper "launch" of all organs, especially the digestive system. And lemon juice washes away toxins and slags from the body, activates the work of the liver and intestines, has a slight diuretic effect.
Like whole fruits, lemon water strengthens the immune system, affects the health of the skin, and enriches the body with additional energy. But perhaps the most paradoxical property of this acid citrus drink is that it reduces the overall acidity of the body. This acidic product, getting into the body, becomes alkaline and thus neutralizes the excess acid in the body (for example, uric acid in the joints, which causes inflammation and pain).
Another plus from daily consumption of lemon water is an improvement in mood.
Scientists have proven that citrus fragrance affects brain cells, improving overall well-being and mood, eliminating depression and anxiety.
Also, lemon water contains almost no calories, but it is still a good source of energy.
Use in cooking
First of all, lemon juice is used for culinary purposes. Although zest also found its use, mainly for baking. This fruit serves as a base for lemonades and other drinks, including alcoholic ones. In Italy, lemon citric limoncello is made from yellow citrus. And from boiled lemons make marmalade.
Chefs also like to add this fruit to salads, as a dressing for side dishes and boiled meat. Fresh lemon juice is squeezed into fish dishes, into marinade for meat (in this case, hard fibers are softened).
Some people like to eat fresh lemons with sugar. But after such a sweet and sour meal, it is important to thoroughly rinse the mouth, as the acid destroys the teeth and can cause some dental diseases.
Another way to use lemon juice is as a preservative with a short-term effect. If sprinkled with sour juice, sliced apples, they will no longer darken.
A little trick: to increase the amount of juice, it is enough to send the fruit to the microwave for a few seconds before use or leave it in the sun for a while. But storing fruits at room temperature makes them more vulnerable to mold.
Dried, shredded leaves of this plant have a lemon flavor, but do not contain acid.
Interestingly, lemon grass, lemon balm, verbena, lemon thyme, fragrant geranium and some varieties of mint also have a lemon smell and flavor. So if necessary, they can replace lemons.
Lemon juice, applied to the hair, will help lighten them to tone two. Of course, the effect will not be noticeable immediately, and the platinum blonde in this way, of course, does not become, but still the result will be noticeable. In addition, lemon fresh juice will enrich the hair with many vitamins and other useful substances, make the curls shiny, strong and healthy.
Sour lemon juice with a low pH has antibacterial properties, due to which it can cure acne, epidermal staphylococcus, acne. In addition, lemon cleanses the skin of fat and dirt, removes dead cells, prevents clogged pores, relieves cystic acne, and prevents acne.
Other uses of lemon
And although cooking is the most famous use of lemons (juices, seasonings are made from it, added to salads, meat, fish), but it is far from the only one. This citrus is considered useful in perfumery, cosmetology, for polishing furniture, and also grown as an ornamental tree. By the way, the juice of this fruit contains about 5% acid, which makes lemon available raw material for this substance. Also, lemon juice is an effective remedy for getting rid of ink stains. And in Japan, lemon essential oils are used in aromatherapy, as a means of relieving stress.
This sunny exotic fruit is delicious. And even if he is not the brightest representative of the genus, but the list of useful properties makes him the king among citrus fruits.
Recommendations of experts: how to use lemon in the treatment
The indiscriminate use of lemons does not have a healing effect, but contributes to the development of gastritis and an increase in the acidity of the gastric juice. To get the beneficial effect, you should follow the recommendations of specialists, and it is best to consult with your doctor, so:
- Phlebeurysm and thrombosis treated with compresses and thinly sliced lemon.
- Hypertension in the initial stage is curable, if 3-4 times a day to eat half a lemon with skin. Blood pressure quickly drops to normal values.
- For the treatment of angina prescribe rinsing with a mixture of lemon juice and honey, in equal shares.
- For the prevention of beriberi, enhance immunity and improve appetite; drink diluted or pure lemon juice daily, but not more than 100 ml.
- Toothache removes gargle with undiluted lemon juice.
- Blood from the nose You can stop it by putting a cotton swab dipped in a drop of lemon essential oil into your nostril, or suck in diluted lemon juice and keep it there for a few minutes (a quarter lemon juice is diluted with a glass of cold boiled water).
- Migraine treats fresh peel. When your head starts to hurt, apply the zest to the temples with the wet side and hold until a strong burning sensation begins. Then the peel is removed, as a rule, by this time the headache passes.
- Diarrhea You can stop by drinking the juice of one lemon on an empty stomach.
- Stomatitis treated by rinsing the mouth with a mixture of lemon juice, honey (1 tbsp. l.) dissolved in a glass of water at room temperature.
- Cramps they are treated according to an old Russian recipe: “A person suffering from leg cramps should be smeared with fresh lemon juice in the morning and evening with their soles and not walking and not wearing shoes until the lemon juice dries completely.”
- To lower the temperature body with a cold, use water, which added lemon juice in the ratio of 1 / 3-1 / 2.
Thin slices of lemon treat varicose veins. Photo: Vermont Farm Heart
With gastritis with high acidity and dysfunction of the pancreas lemons can be harmful. Also, lemons can irritate the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines, so lemons are not recommended for stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers, for enteritis and colitis.
Lemon for beauty: application in cosmetology
In addition to treating serious diseases, lemons relieve fatigue, saturate the body with vitamins, restore strength after a hard day and, of course, help preserve youth and female beauty.
Beauticians use juice, pulp and rind of lemon fruits. Lotions and masks with the addition of lemon smooth out wrinkles, remove freckles and age spots, cornified skin, and also treat cracks on the soles and palms. The fight against dandruff occupies a separate place in the arsenal of cosmetology.
Lemon for skin
Solving skin problems takes up most of lemon's abilities:
- For oily skin with enlarged pores, lotion of equal parts of mineral water and lemon juice is also suitable. Unlike the previous recipe, the face is not rinsed after wiping with water.
- To reduce greasiness oily skin of her face before bed wipe with lemon juice, and in the morning rinsed with water.
- Vitamin mask from crushed lemon powder to a state of powder (1 tsp) with the addition of egg yolk and sour cream (1 tsp) it nourishes, vitaminizes and refreshes dry skin of the face. Apply the mask on the face and neck. After 20 minutes, rinse the mask with warm water.
- Rubbing with a mixture of whipped egg white, 1/2 cup of vodka and juice of one lemon is also good. tighten pores.
- Soften dry skin You can use fresh egg yolk pounded with a teaspoon of honey and half a cup of cream. While stirring, slowly pour in a tablespoon of lemon juice and tablespoons of vodka. The lotion nourishes dry skin, it can be used for evening cleansing of the face.
- Skin elasticity neck can be restored by lubricating at night the wrinkled skin of the neck with a mixture of juice of one lemon, one beaten protein and 1 tbsp. l vegetable oil.
- Refresh oily skin can be a mixture of lemon, carrot and cucumber juices, in equal parts. The mixture refreshes oily skin and narrows enlarged pores.
- Refresh and nourish dry skin You can wipe from a mixture of juice of one lemon, a glass of cream, beaten egg, half a glass of vodka or cologne and a teaspoon of glycerin.
- Toning, emollient and cleansing effect on dry sensitive skin has a lotion of lemon juice (1 tbsp), vegetable oil (1 tbsp), one yolk, vodka (3/4 cup) and camphor alcohol (1/4 cup) .
- Fading aging skin rub with lemon juice lotion (1 tbsp), glycerin (1 tsp), cologne (1 tsp) and water (1 cup).
- Well cleanses, disinfects and refreshes normal skin of the face washing with lotion of lemon juice (1/4 cup), egg yolks (3 pcs.), Vodka (1 cup), camphor alcohol (1 cup) and water (1/2 cup).
This plant is one of the species of the genus Citrus and belongs to the family Rutavyh. It is a cute tree, lush spreading or pyramidal crown which always remains green. Lemon growth is not very high - an average of 5-6 meters, but there are eight-meter specimens. Some representatives of the species live to 45 years.
If the tree is young, one-year-old, then the bark on its branches is green and smooth (it is also red-violet), and if it is “aged”, then it becomes grayish and becomes cracked - everything is just like in humans. Very often, lemon branches are studded with thorns, but they may be absent on some trees.
The leaves of the plant are large - up to 15 centimeters long and up to 8 centimeters wide, green, smooth, shiny and as if made of leather. Their shape is oval or ovoid. As I already said, they do not turn yellow, but only fall off about once every three years.
Lemon blooms beautifully - in the spring it is covered with small white or creamy fragrant flowers with 4-5 petals, which reach 2-3 centimeters in diameter and which are located on the branches alone or are collected in pairs.
The fruits of this plant are known to all - these are small and large “bombs” of an ovoid shape with a thick (sometimes thin) smooth or uneven sandpaper of a pleasant yellow color, pierced with microgelats with essential oil. In length, lemons, as a rule, grow no more than 9 centimeters, and their diameter does not exceed 6.
Under the rough peel of these fruits lies the tender flesh of a light yellow or greenish-yellow color with a strong aroma, divided into 8-10 lobules and representing microscopic bags filled with lemon juice. Inside the fruit there are almost always small, white, ovate or flattened seeds.
A characteristic feature of a lemon is its thermophilicity. This tree is constantly growing, and therefore does not tolerate frost - unlike other citrus counterparts, sharp frosts can destroy it. But this plant also does not like strong heat.
Best of all lemon fruit in coastal areas, where summer is not hot, but rather cool.
Despite its selectivity to temperature conditions, such a tree grows quite unpretentiously even on poor soils - loamy, sandy, black. Fruiting usually occurs once a year, but Sicilian craftsmen have been harvesting a double crop from their lemons for almost a hundred years.
An unambiguous version of the origin of this plant from the researchers. Presumably, it is home to China, India and the subtropical islands in the Pacific. The first official mention of it is dated to the 12th century AD (although it is known for certain that lemons were used in cooking and in traditional medicine 3,000 years ago). It was at this time that thanks to the Arabs from India and Pakistan, the fruits spread further - to the countries of the Middle East, North Africa, and also to Europe - in particular, to Italy and Spain.
In Russia, this specific fruit appeared much later - in the second half of the XVII century. The first lemon tree was brought from Holland and planted in the Moscow Kremlin greenhouse. And at the beginning of the next century, every self-respecting Russian landowner had in his garden his own plant, giving sour fragrant fruit.
There is an assumption that a lemon is not a single biological species, but a natural hybrid, which somehow emerged as a result of the crossing of two other cultures.Be that as it may, in the wild today these fruits practically do not occur (except at the foot of the Himalayan mountains), and are actively cultivated not only by the countries listed above, but also in the subtropical regions of Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Mexico, USA, Spain, Greece, Italy, Lebanon, Turkey.
Presumably the word "lemon" has Malay roots and in this adverb it sounds like "lemo". Hindus call him "lima", and the Chinese - "limung" (which translated from Chinese means "useful for mothers").
I once heard or read a story that someone really wanted to spoil one actor, and therefore showed up for his performance in the theater with a whole package of lemons, sat down in the first row in the middle, right in front of the victim, and began to eat before her eyes these sour fruits.
The unfortunate actor could not articulately read his long monologue, since his mouth from the described spectacle was filled with saliva. And there was a failure, which an attacker who eats lemons so much wanted.
True or not, I can hardly find out now, but for some reason this story has sunk into my soul. Perhaps it is precisely because the very idea that someone can eat lemons like that causes such sensations in my mouth.
The taste of lemon - a very big fan. The flesh of these fruits is very sour, tart, although pleasant in texture, juicy and fragrant, like in other citrus fruits. Few people maintain such a concentration of natural acids within a single fruit.
Knowing about this unique feature of lemons, two witty and cheerful photographers David Wyle and April Macebick performed an unusual photo session, which she called “Pucker,” which means “fold” or “wrinkle” in English. The heroes of their photographs are small children who, for the first time in their life, tried lemon slices at the cameras' sights. Needless to say that the frames turned out to be touching and ridiculous? So funny little faces frowned from the sour taste! 😆
photos of children (http://www.blogbaster.org/kakov-na-vkus-limon/)
The use of lemons in the household
For me, this section of the article is the most interesting part of it, since I have been actively using lemons for a long time in my own farm. I have a small one, I still live in an apartment, but I have long since abandoned the means of modern household chemicals.
Firstly, I am allergic, and I do not tolerate chemicals in the house. Thanks to raw food, I cured my disease, and the love for everything natural remained! And, secondly, there are two children in my house, and I would not want them to breathe chlorine and other filth contained in household chemicals. Although she and household, but still chemistry.
In addition, I just feel sorry for spending money on something that can be easily replaced with penny and, pay attention, with safe means of health! In short, this topic is very extensive and requires a separate article. As part of this, I will only talk about how I use the fruit of interest to us in my farm.
Where ads offer chlorine-based scouring powders, I use regular soda, which I sprinkle with a few drops of lemon juice.
With the help of such a simple chemical formula, the toilet, tile, sink, and stove are perfectly cleaned. In addition, after cleaning, all of these objects pleasantly smell sweet lemon, and not chlorine. Yes, and protective gloves are not particularly needed!
And with the help of lemon juice, I lighten my hair. I do not use chemical paints. I used to paint strands with henna, but the red color for 15 years was wildly bored, I let go of my blond hair and now with the onset of the hot season I make them noticeably lighter. This helps me all the same lemon juice, to which is added the usual pharmacy 3% hydrogen peroxide. Personally, I mix them 2: 1, that is, twice as much juice, so as not to damage my hair.
Pour this mixture in a spray bottle and go with him to the beach. There, I spray my natural dye on all my hair and just tan. Under the influence of lemon juice strands begin to intensively fade. Only 2-3 such sorties in the sun, and you have beautiful blonde hair without damage. They burn out beautifully, naturally, unevenly, as if you made an expensive multi-layer highlighting.
I want to warn you right away: I do not know if lemon juice will be taken on dark hair. And, besides, if your strands are already dry, brittle, damaged, there are inflammations and crusts on your head, I would not risk it. This mixture dries the hair, which in my case is only a plus - mine is prone to fat.
I know that my girlfriend, whose face is covered with freckles, did some kind of a miracle mask on the basis of a lemon, and the brown specks really brightened. This property of lemons is actively used in cosmetology to create whitening masks, lotions, creams.
Since olden times, lemons have been used as an effective remedy for scurvy, hypertension, beriberi, disorders of the body’s mineral metabolism, rheumatism, a variety of diseases of the digestive system, urolithiasis, colds and infections.
Medieval healers were convinced that this fruit is an excellent remedy for a snake bite and protects a person who regularly uses it from the development of the plague.
Avicenna himself recommended the inclusion of lemon in the diet of pregnant women (it increases the appetite, acts as an antiemetic and sedative), as well as people suffering from jaundice and heart disease. Modern medicine uses lemon juice and oil extracted from its skin or seeds as a natural flavoring for medicines.
By the way, lemon oil is widely used in aromatherapy, as it has a pronounced antiviral effect, and also helps the body cope with stress, elevates mood and has a beneficial effect on the nervous system. To obtain 1 kilogram of this unique product, at least 60-70 kilograms of raw materials are cold pressed.
Lemon oil in their work used by cosmetologists and perfumers. They are flavored not only with colognes, perfumes and skin care products, but also with various industrial drinks.
From lemon juice, as you have probably guessed, citric acid is also produced, which is widely used in baking (it makes the dough elastic and lush), and also as a regulator of the acidity of products when they are canned.
Interestingly, the so-called technical lemon juice - this is such a thick black slurry - was produced by the Italians for some time by evaporation of ordinary juice obtained from squeezed lemons, and then widely used for dyeing fabrics.
Lemon is often used as an ornamental plant, which, moreover, to the great joy of its owners, is capable of producing fruits even at home. If you want to get a small tree to run to the store for lemons not so often, just collect the remaining bones from the fruit, rinse, dry, sprout them and put into a voluminous pot. It is important to remember that this subtropical plant does not tolerate cold and requires a lot of light, then it will delight you with flowers and little lemon.
Lemon ripening season and storage conditions
You have probably already noticed that we can buy these fruits of a cheerful yellow color in the store year-round, as they are brought to us from warm countries where calendar winter is not a hindrance to harvest.
Rip off the lemons, naturally, immature, so that she could get to us in the presentation. During transport and storage, fruits become softer and more ripe. And our task is to learn how to choose such fruits.
If a lemon has a smooth and shiny skin, then, most likely, it is ready to eat.
Matte skin speaks of the immaturity of a particular individual, which you do not need to take home. In some cases, haze may indicate that such a lemon has long been bored on the counter.
Try the fruit you like to the touch - it should be soft enough, not wooden-hard, but not fall apart under the touch of your hands. Just push lightly with your finger on the skin and look at the reaction of the lemon - if a dent appeared, but then almost immediately disappeared, then this fruit can and should be taken.
If you plan to use a lemon not immediately, but, say, bought in advance for some kind of celebration, then it is better to put it in the fridge - in the lower compartment, that is, where greens, fruits and vegetables are usually placed. At room temperature, the fruit, as a rule, ripen, which is important for immature lemons and can be detrimental to the correctly selected individuals.
Somewhere I met the advice of storing this fruit in a glass jar or other high-capacity container filled with cold water. In this case, the water must be changed quite often - about every half day. This method personally seems doubtful to me - not very convenient and devoid of special meaning.
Lemon, which you have already cut, it is better to use immediately, as its beneficial properties begin to be lost immediately after processing. In extreme cases, you can put the remaining half or a quarter of the fruit in an airtight glass container with the pulp down. I remember my mother had a special "limonnitsa" - a saucer with a cap. You can also wet the cut with a few drops of natural vinegar - this measure will prevent the quick drying of the pulp.
Types and sorts of lemon
Over the centuries that people cultivated lemons, they got a lot of different varieties of this amazing plant. All of them belong to either a tree or a bush group. At the same time, the first ones are significantly higher (up to 6 meters in height), more productive, and their fruits are hidden in a dense crown. The latter rarely exceed 4 meters, their crown is less dense, the fruits are located at the tips of the branches and not in such large quantities as those of tree varieties.
The most common types of lemons:
His second name, "Portugal", he received under the name of his homeland. However, "lisbon" comes from "Lisbon", and this is the name of the capital of Portugal. It is from this country that the representatives of this variety in the 20s of the XIX century came to Australia, and then on to other countries. Lemons "Lisbon" can be grown in both natural and at home, while the fruit of this plant several times a year. It gives yellow oval fruits, the weight of which can vary from 150 to 500 grams.
This type of plant is the real pride of Sukhumi breeders. He saw the light relatively recently - in the middle of the last century, but in such a short time he managed to win the recognition of botanists, amateur gardeners and simple admirers of these fruits.
In nature, a Novogruzinsky variety tree is capable of reaching 5 meters in height, and at home it grows two meters high, although there are also higher individuals. This variety produces fruits 2-3 times a year, and they can be both rounded and oval. The rind of such lemons is thin, shiny, glossy, light yellow in color, and the flesh is juicy and fragrant. They weigh, as a rule, no more than 150 grams.
This is the brainchild of the union "Novogruzinsky" and "Tashkent" varieties, characterized by rapid growth, tolerance to shade, low temperatures, poor soil. This variety was bred in Uzbekistan. Fruits are medium in size with thick, dense skin.
This type of plant came to the USSR from the USA in the late 30s of the last century and has since got acclimatized in the country. Despite its short stature, representatives of this variety are distinguished by good yield and excellent quality of oval-shaped fruits. Such lemons have a delicate, juicy, fragrant pulp that is not concentrated, tart, but pleasantly sour. You can also eat the soft, acidic skin of these fruits.
He is very loved by those who prefer to grow lemons right in his apartment. Even in such unnatural conditions, these sprawling bushes produce large-fruited crops. Their weight varies, as a rule, from 300 to 55 o grams. The skin of the Pavlovsk lemons can be both smooth and rough, and the flesh is certainly juicy and fragrant.
Some other varieties of this plant:
Slightly above, I began to list the numerous healing properties of these fruits. They really have a very beneficial effect on the human body:
- Alkalize it and saturate it with a whole range of nutrients.
- Normalize the digestive process, provided that the organs of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively healthy.
- Effective with urolithiasis.
- Beneficial effect on the heart and blood vessels.
- Thins the blood and lowers blood pressure.
- Promote excretion of toxins from the body, and, therefore, are indispensable for losing weight.
- Possess antifungal properties.
- Stop the inflammatory processes in the body.
- Provide the body with powerful antioxidant protection.
- The sour taste of lemon allows you to get rid of nausea, which is very important during the first trimester of pregnancy, as well as for people who are swayed in transport.
- This natural source of vitamin C helps to cope with viruses and gently lowers the heat.
- The disinfecting properties of lemons are widely used in the treatment of skin diseases.
- Massage of the temples with lemon juice will allow to get rid of a headache, and a warm bath with it for the legs - from their swelling.
- If you have oily hair, rinsing them with lemon water after washing will slightly dry the strands and give them a healthy, non-greasy shine.
Like any citrus fruit, lemon can cause an allergic reaction in the body, so those who are prone to this disease should eat this fruit carefully. The same applies to the use of lemons for cosmetic purposes. If the skin is sensitive and dry, it is better to choose a more benign remedy to restore it.
Serious diseases of the digestive system, such as ulcers, gastritis, increased acidity of the stomach, pancreatitis - these are obvious contraindications to the consumption of these fruits. The presence of inflammatory processes in the oral cavity also makes eating lemons impossible. The same applies to excessive sensitivity of the teeth - if the enamel is thin, then sour lemon juice will cause teeth discomfort.
And in general, even if you have a healthy oral cavity and strong teeth, let them remain as long as possible. To do this, after eating lemons, be sure to rinse out your mouth or even brush your teeth to surely protect them from the damaging effects of fruit acids.
Interesting facts about lemons
- Despite the fact that one lemon contains a large amount of vitamin C, this is just one third of what we need to receive per day to satisfy the body’s need for this nutrient.
- It is now we wash our hands with soap to get rid of germs, and the people of the Middle Ages did not have such an opportunity. For this reason, they rinsed the hands with lemon water, and also disinfected the water for drinking with the juice of these fruits. It was believed that so they protect themselves from various infections, including from the plague and cholera.
- The ancient Greeks were very fond of lemon flowers for their beauty and fragrance, but because they included them in bouquets that decorated wedding celebrations.
- The Spaniards, though they actively use lemons in their national cuisine, have made this fruit a symbol of unrequited love. A girl who was tired of courting an unloved don could hand him the fruit of a lemon, and the unfortunate cavalier understood that he no longer had a chance to win the heart of a beautiful woman.
- The famous navigator James Cook, before the natives ate him, managed to save the English navigators from scurvy. He believes that a number of researchers believe that the idea was to include lemons in the diet of sailors to save them from this “professional” disease.
- And the tradition to eat a lemon slice from tea originates from the great Soviet composer Dmitry Dmitrievich Shostakovich, who, being at a reception at the Queen Elizabeth II of England, after tea drinking, ate a slice of lemon from a cup. The queen, in order not to discredit the guest in the eyes of high society, repeated this ritual after him, and after her all the other members of the feast. So supposedly there was this cute habit.
As you can see, the sour taste of lemon is not a reason to refuse so much useful product in your diet. Just skillfully combine it with other plant foods in its original form, and get your set of "lemon" nutrients. But maybe you have your own special way of eating lemons?
Lemons are consumed fresh, cut into slices in tea, coffee, produce lemon juice from them and make drinks from it, including non-alcoholic drinks. Also lemon is used in the confectionery industry. As part of dietary nutrition, lemon juice is used as a seasoning.
In scurvy, freshly squeezed lemon juice was used as a natural source of vitamin C. At elevated body temperatures, it was recommended to add lemon to the drink.
In the case of alkaline poisoning (soda, potash), lemon acid was used as a poison neutralizer.
Now lemon juice and lemon oil are introduced into the composition of some drugs to improve their taste and smell. The drug, isolated from lemon - synthetic citral - is used in various fields of medicine (dermatology, ophthalmology) and in hypertension.
Contraindications and side effects
Taking lemons is contraindicated in peptic ulcer disease. The bitterness contained in the seeds when ingested can irritate the mucous membranes of the alimentary canal, especially in the presence of inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract. Lemon is extremely harmful with high acidity, it can also cause heartburn. In addition, lemon is often an allergen as a representative of citrus.
It is better not to use lemons for people with hypertension and pancreatitis. Lemon juice has an effect on tooth enamel. In people with particularly sensitive enamel, even after several tea drinking with a few lemon slices, the sensitivity of the teeth may increase.
Lemons are eaten fresh, as well as added to pastries and soft drinks. Lemon is a part of many beverages in the alcoholic beverage industry. Lemon is added as a spice to various fruit salads, sweet dishes, biscuits, sauces, fish, poultry and rice dishes. Jam, creams, syrups are also refined by the taste of lemon. Thin slices of lemon are the decoration of the second course. Lemon cakes and pies are also very tasty.
Lemon slices are added to black tea; this drink in the West is called “Russian tea”.
In Russia, vodka and brandy are traditionally eaten with lemon. On the round slice of lemon preparing a snack for cognac - "Nikolashka".
Lemon juice is the basis of the sour lemonade drink, which is widely used.
In other areas
House cultivation of lemons is widespread almost throughout all Russia. The cultivated culture of lemons — Pavlovsky Lemon — has been known since the beginning of the twentieth century. From each lemon tree grown in a tub, you can get from 20 to 200 fruits. Homemade lemons are not inferior to the southern varieties.
In addition to the "Pavlovsky" lemon, the following varieties are suitable for indoor breeding: "Ponderoza" ("Skerniewitsky"), "Genoa", "Lisbon", "Lunario", "Novogruzinsky", "Maykopsky", "Chinese Dwarf (Lemon Meyer) and others .
In open ground, lemon grown in creeping and trench cultures. Propagation in the ground occurs by grafting on seedlings of lemon, poncirus and other citrus fruits, or cuttings of varietal lemons.
Lemon does not have a special frost resistance; during short frosts up to −3 ... −4 ° C, frostbite can be frosting; when −8 ... −9 ° C, the roots frost over and the plant may die. Lemon fruits are already damaged at −2 ° C.
When grown in trenches, the lemon can already die at −5 ° C.
Lemon is very picky about soil moisture, so in dry subtropics lemons are artificially watered.
To the light, the lemon is undemanding, but does not like acidified, alkaline and marshy soil.
In other areas
Technical lemon juice dyed fabric.
Lemon oil is used in perfumery (cologne), in cooking (as a flavoring additive to liqueurs), as well as in the manufacture of tooth powders, lipsticks and hygiene products.
Lemon pulp juice is used as a stain remover and cleaner for metal utensils.
Lemon is a small evergreen fruit tree up to 5-8 m high, having a sprawling or pyramidal crown. The plant can be up to 45 years old.
The bark is grayish, slightly fissured on perennial branches and green or reddish-purple, smooth on annual shoots, often with prickles, occasionally without them.
Leaves with a lemon smell, leathery, green, 10-15 cm long, 5-8 cm wide, glossy on top and light green and dull on the bottom. Whole, with venation, when viewed in the light, punctate (from translucent essential oil receptacles), broadly oval or oblong-ovate, pointed at both ends.
Flowers axillary, solitary or paired, small (2-3 cm) with an obscure-toothed calyx and five-membered corolla. The color of the petals is pure white or slightly creamy, pinkish or purple outside. The formula of a lemon flower is: * P4-5L4-5T5 + 5… ∞P (5… ∞).
Lemon fruit 6–9 cm long, 4–6 cm in diameter, ovoid or oval hesperidium, narrowed at both ends, with a nipple at the apex, light yellow, with difficult to separate tubercular or pitted crust. Inside the fetus - eight to ten spongy nests and sacciform hairs that fill the nests. The flesh of a lemon fruit consists of such hairs of a greenish-yellow color, sour to the taste. Seeds with a single embryo, ovoid, yellow-green or white, greenish in section. Lemon blooms in spring. The fruits ripen in autumn.
The homeland of lemon culture is considered to be India, China and the Pacific Tropical Islands. In the wild state does not occur, most likely, the lemon is a hybrid, has long developed as a separate species. It is widely cultivated in countries with a warm subtropical climate. In the CIS, it is grown in Transcaucasia (Azerbaijan, creeping culture) and Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, trench culture).
Lemon fruit pulp includes organic acids (including citric acid, malic acid), pectins, sugars (up to 3.5%), carotene, phytoncides, and thiamine vitamins, riboflavin, ascorbic acid (up to 0.085%), rutin, flavonoids , coumarin derivatives, galacturonic acid, sesquiterpenes, hesperidin, eriocytrin, eridictiol. Seeds produce fatty oil and the bitter substance limonin. Fatty oil is also found in the branches and leaves (0.24%). In the bark of lemon, the substance glycoside citronin is found. The characteristic smell of lemon causes essential (lemon) oil. Its main components are terpene, α-limonene (up to 90%), citral (up to 6%), geranyl acetate (1%).
Lemon juice has a lot of organic potassium, which helps the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system and kidneys. Citrine, contained in lemon juice, in combination with vitamin C, has a beneficial effect on the body's redox processes, metabolism, and also strengthens and makes the walls of blood vessels elastic. Therefore, taking lemon juice is recommended for atherosclerosis.
Lemon is an excellent bactericidal agent that helps to destroy up to 12 types of various bacteria.
Lemon helps digestion, removes toxins from the intestines. It is used in the treatment of infections of the throat and respiratory tract, as well as oral hygiene.
Lemon juice and peel are a natural antiseptic. A decoction of lemon leaves relieves heat. Lemon is very rich in vitamin C, which strengthens the immune system and acts as an antioxidant.
Citrus fruits, especially lemon, are a good remedy against the putrefactive processes in the body, especially in the liver. In many cases, lemon removes those deposits of toxic substances that cannot be removed in any other way.
Lemon is widely used as a preventive and therapeutic agent for atherosclerosis.
Use in traditional medicine
In folk medicine, lemon is used as a remedy for scurvy, liver disease, edema, urolithiasis, rheumatism, gout, and gastritis with low acidity, smear diphtheria in the throat.
Lemon syrup was used by doctors as an antihelminthic; a juice solution was used for rinsing in case of sore throat and inflammatory processes of the oral mucosa. Outwardly, the juice was prescribed by folk healers for lotions for fungal skin lesions and eczema. Nosebleeds were stopped with fresh lemon juice.
Lemon peel boiled in honey helps digestion.
Tea with lemon adds energy and improves body tone.
Lemon in folk medicine is considered a preventive and therapeutic agent for hypo - and avitaminosis, atherosclerosis.
Lemon culture was first mentioned in the XII century in India and Pakistan. From here, lemon began its journey to the Middle East, North Africa, Spain and Italy.
The annual world crop of lemons is about 14 million tons. The first place in the number of lemons is occupied by India and Mexico (approximately 16% of the world supply of lemons).
In the Middle Ages, miracles to protect against plague and antidote for snake bites were attributed to lemon. In eastern medicine, lemon was considered a remedy for the treatment of wounds and lung diseases and an antidote for various poisonings. In the XI century, Avicenna recommended eating lemon to pregnant women and with jaundice, as well as medicine for heart disease.
In ancient Greek legends about the exploits of Hercules, lemon appears as golden apples in the garden of the Hesperides. This feat was accompanied by adventures, and it was Golden apples that gave the forces to Hercules.
In the Scandinavian legends, “golden apples of immortality” are mentioned, and in Russian fairy tales, “golden youthful apples” are often mentioned. It is possible that this is said about lemons.
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5. Ovsyannikov I.V. Fruit plants in the room .- M .: Selkhozgiz, 1957.-S. 71
Lemon for treating hair problems
Cosmetologists recommend using lemon not only to eliminate problems with the skin of the face, but also for hair, hands, feet.
- When oily seborrhea helps wiping greasy hair with lemon juice in between washing. Lemon juice effectively eliminates dandruff.
- For washing dry, split ends, use a mixture of a tablespoon of lemon juice, one yolk, a tablespoon of vegetable oil and half a glass of warm water.
- Shine and silky hair can be restored by rinsing the hair with water and lemon juice, 1 tbsp. l per liter of water.
- Lemon juice softens dry, rough skin of hands. To soften lubricate your hands with a mixture of juice of half a lemon, a tablespoon of glycerin, half a glass of water
- The cuticles, the skin around the nails, are easily removed if you add a little lemon juice to the warm water of the bath
- Foot sweats eliminate regular foot baths from citric acid, with the addition of thymol and boric acid.