Guava ordinary (Psidium guajava)

Guava belongs to the psidium plants that grow in the tropical part of our planet. Homeland guava - South and Central America. It looks like low trees, resembling shrubs, having a height of 3 - 4 m. Some types of psidium can reach 15 m in height, but this is quite a rare phenomenon.

Often, guava fruits are small in size - from 4 to 14 cm in length. The unripe fruit has a greenish yellow color and in most cases a rounded shape. Less common is oval. If the peel of a guava fruit is thick, then, most likely it will taste bitter. Choose fruit less dense with thin peel.

Beneficial features

Guava fruits taste reminiscent of raspberries, their flesh is white with a pinkish tinge. Exotic fruit is tasty and useful enough, consists of water and contains nutrients. It consists of: proteins, fats, calcium, iron, phosphorus, vitamins of groups B and C, as well as fiber. It is worth noting that the content of vitamin C in guava fruits is four times higher than citrus fruits, in particular, lemon and orange.

Photo: Guava Fruit

Guava can be used both in mature form and unripe. It is recommended to add ripe fruits to the skin with the skin, as it contains a whole set of useful elements that improve digestion. Daily guava use stimulates the heart muscle and normalizes the pressure.

Unripe fruits are less useful. However, they can be brought to maturity by placing the fruit in a paper bag and putting it in a dark place. In two or three days, the guava will fully mature.

Daily use of guava is an excellent prevention of many diseases. For example, in Thailand and Mexico, local residents regularly feed on unripe fruits. Before eating, they cut the fruit into pieces and sprinkle it with special seasoning made from salt, pepper and sugar.

Harmful properties

It is worth remembering that the fruits of guava should not be abused. The daily rate should not exceed 3 to 4 ripe fruits a day, otherwise there is a risk of diarrhea.

It is not necessary for the purpose of losing weight to get involved in the fruits of an unripe guava. After all, you can earn a serious poisoning. Unripe fruits should appear in the diet no more than once a day.

Also, some guava varieties have a negative effect on kidney function. When transporting guava, each fruit is rubbed with wax so that it retains its presentation. Therefore, before use, wash the fruit thoroughly.

Dangerous properties of guava

Excessive consumption of guava (more than 1 kg at a time) can cause indigestion.

People who are prone to allergies, you need to use guava carefully.

Also, it is impossible to eat the immature fruits of guava for those who are prone to the formation of kidney stones.

Anyone who wants to learn how to eat a guava, as well as see it in the section, will be interested to watch this video.

General characteristic of the ingredient

Guava - an evergreen tree of medium size (height does not exceed 4 meters). The tree gives flowers and, accordingly, fruits no more than 2 times a year, but at the same time, it is extremely resistant to the wiles of the external environment. Guava calmly endures drought and heat, never for a moment distracting from its main goal - to give a harvest. The main harvest is about 100 kilograms. Agree, this amount of fruit is worth a year of waiting.

The ripening period of the fruit (after the formation of flowers) - 150 days. The shape and size of the guava can vary, so the crop is heterogeneous, and each fruit is special. The exotic fruit resembles our traditional green apple with visible tubercles, more dense skin and a specific yellow-green shade. The unripe fruit has a sour taste, but after ripening, it acquires a sweet flavor palette.

The habitat of a tree is a tropical climatic zone (America is considered to be the birthplace). The entire territory, ranging from the tropical regions of Mexico to the northern territorial lands of South America, was littered with exotic trees. Today, the guava was transported to Africa, India, Oceania and Southeast Asia. It is from these geographical points that guava is transported, which humbly awaits the buyer in local supermarkets.

The chemical composition of the ingredient

Nutritional value (based on 100 grams of unprocessed product)
Calories68 kcal
Squirrels2.6 g
Fat1 g
Carbohydrates14.3 g
Alimentary fiber5.4 g
Water80.8 g
Vitamin content (in milligrams per 100 grams of raw product)
Retinol (A)0,031
Beta Carotene (A)0,374
Thiamine (B1)0,067
Riboflavin (B2)0,04
Choline (B4)7,6
Pantothenic acid (B5)0,451
Pyridoxine (B6)0,11
Folic acid (B9)0,49
Ascorbic acid (C)229
Tocopherol (E)0,73
Fillohinon (K)0,0026
Nicotinic acid (PP)1,084
Nutrient balance (in milligrams per 100 grams of raw product)
Macronutrients
Potassium (K)417
Calcium (Ca)18
Magnesium (Mg)22
Sodium (Na)2
Phosphorus (P)40
Trace elements
Iron (Fe)0,26
Manganese (Mn)0,15
Copper (Cu)230
Selenium (Se)0,6
Zinc (Zn)0,23
Additional substances (in grams per 100 grams of unprocessed product)
Sugar8,9
Omega-30,1
Omega-60,3
Saturated fatty acids0,3
Monounsaturated fatty acids0,087
Polyunsaturated fatty acids0,401

Jam or jelly

Exotic fruit contains large amounts of pectin. A substance has the property of combining liquids in a gel-like structure. The obvious advantage is that you do not need to add chemical powders and not always useful substances in order to achieve the effect of viscosity or ductility. People who adhere to proper nutrition, it is necessary to reduce the consumption of sugar and trans fats. Guava jelly / jam is a great option for a second breakfast or dessert for dinner.

Guava juice is an excellent antioxidant that can replace today's detox jars. Do not torment the body, but please with useful and nutritious ingredients.

Syrup, ketchup, sauce, oil

Guava perfectly "fit", and the consistency depends on the accompanying components and methods of preparation. A blender will provide a liquid spreading liquid, and a regular fork will provide a dense mass with tangible pieces of ingredients.

You can grind the guava pulp into flakes, cut off the zest as with citrus fruits or grind to a state of powder and add to your favorite dishes.

Guava is perfect for baking. Guava syrup viscosity can be used instead of eggs in cooking desserts. Exotic fruit is a suitable option for raw foodists and vegans who are looking for vegetable substitute products. Residents of the tropics use guava as often as we use apples. Replacing apples in our culinary practice is quite possible, but not all will find a new combination to taste.

Guava is combined with all kinds of meat, but especially reveals with pork and venison. This combination provides the maximum benefit to the health and pleasure of taste buds. One of the most unusual combinations: guava + dairy products. Low-fat cottage cheese with guava pieces or a whole fruit with a glass of fresh milk creates a unique combination of goodness, taste and unsurpassed flavor.

Strawberry Lemonade Recipe with Guava

Nutritional value (based on 1 portion of ready-made lemonade)
Calorie contentSquirrelsFatCarbohydrates
226 kcal2.2 g0.5 g52.9 g

We will need:

  • guava juice - 8 tablespoons,
  • strawberry - 8 pieces,
  • honey / sweetener to taste
  • lemon juice - 12 tablespoons,
  • ice to taste.

Cooking

Take a wide container, pound strawberries in it to the state of liquid porridge. Add sweetener and mix thoroughly until completely dissolved. Introduce lemon juice, then guava juice. If necessary, add water, lemon / guava juice until you get the desired taste.

Prepare glasses. Put the necessary amount of ice on the bottom. Pour the berry mass in glasses and immediately serve to the table. Think over the elements of decoration or just serve a drink in a large decanter. If you minimize or completely remove the sweetener, then this drink can be drunk throughout the day with purified water. Lemonade will increase the tone of the body, improve digestion and beneficial effects on the skin.

Recipe for Baked Ham in Guava and Rum Frosting

Nutritional value (based on the entire finished dish)
Calorie contentSquirrelsFatCarbohydrates
1633 kcal83 g140g6.7 g

We will need:

  • ready ham (boiled / smoked) - 2 kg,
  • Guava jam - ¾ cup (glass - 250 ml),
  • Clove - 2 tsp,
  • rum to taste - 2 tablespoons,
  • Peach nectar - 1 tablespoon (can be replaced with any other fruit to taste),
  • olive oil - 1 tablespoon,
  • Dijon mustard - 1 tablespoon.

The use of guava in cosmetology

Exotic fruit is useful not only for our body, but also for the skin. Guava serves as:

  • exfoliant,
  • antiseptic,
  • astringent
  • healing component
  • actioxidant.

In cosmetology used oil and guava extract. The tool is indicated for rashes on the skin, acne, post-acne. The product removes puffiness, dries out local inflammation, prevents their reappearance, does not clog pores and tones the face. A remedy with guava is indicated for comedones, atopic dermatitis, various allergic manifestations on the skin.

Guava is the leading ingredient in wrinkle prevention. The tool actively smoothes the skin, evens tone and relieves signs of aging. Leaf extract helps fight hyperpigmentation. In some cases, the patient is sufficient for a course of six months or a year to get rid of spots on the skin without using a laser.

Do not self-medicate acne. To therapy using guava gave the result, you must contact a qualified dermatologist.

Contraindications and dangerous properties

Each person independently determines the allowable consumption rate. As soon as the body feels full - you need to give up food, focus on physical activity or rest. With guava, the same rules apply. There is a conditional restriction: you can not eat more than 1 kg of fruit per day. Increasing the dose may cause an upset stomach. If you feel the strength to eat 100-200 grams more than the norm - do not deny yourself the pleasure, provided that you feel your body and can recognize its brake lights.

Exotic ingredient is forbidden to eat to people with individual intolerance to the product or components that make up. To exclude from the diet of fruit and patients suffering from kidney disease. It is especially important not to eat over-ripe fruits, since they stimulate secretion and can aggravate the course of the disease.

In medicine

In official medicine, guava is not used. However, guava is widely used in traditional medicine in some countries, using almost all parts of the plant as an astringent, antipyretic, antispasmodic, and bactericidal agent.

Contraindications and side effects

Food allergy to guava is a strict contraindication, otherwise it is practically a safe fruit. The guava fruit contains many hard seeds that can irritate the throat.

Guava is best not to combine with sour and half-acidic fruits: sea (blackberry), lulo, passion fruit and tamarillo. Eating more than a kilogram of guava fruit can lead to indigestion.

It is better not to use the unripe fruits of guava, since they contain arabinose and ether hexahydroxydiphenic acid, which negatively affect the functioning of the kidneys. It is also recommended to consult with a specialist before eating guava fruit, if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or are going to feed the baby.

In cooking

The maximum benefit from the fruits of guava is obtained by using them fresh. Guava pulp taste sweet and sour, the fruit is very juicy and fragrant. Guava seeds are quite small and it is almost impossible to clear the fruit of them, so they eat the guava with them. Ripe guava fruits can be eaten even with the skin.

Calorie guava is low, about 68 kcal per 100 g of product, so you can not be afraid that its use will cause excess weight.

Also get guava juice, which perfectly quenches thirst, prepare jams, jam, syrups. The guava has a rather sugary consistency, therefore the fruit is combined not only with sweet, sour-sweet “brothers”, but also with all dairy products. Most often, guava is added to salads, waffles, puddings, ice cream, milkshakes, and marmalade.

When canning or freezing, guava also retains its beneficial properties. In a conventional refrigerator compartment, intact and ripe fruits can be stored for about two weeks.

When buying a guava, pay attention to the peel so that there is no damage on it. The fruits are better to choose a little soft and very yellow.

In cosmetology

Extracts of leaves, fruits and guava seeds are used as ingredients of various cosmetics, enhancing their tonic properties. Due to the useful substances contained in guava, creams based on it restore collagen in the skin cells, restore elasticity, smooth facial wrinkles, and nourish the skin. Freshly squeezed guava juice can be used as a hair rinse, and face masks are made from guava pulp.

Guava has both astringent and anti-inflammatory properties. Thanks to this, effective anti-acne cosmetics have been developed based on extract and guava oil.

In other areas

Guava is a fairly widespread unpretentious plant and is grown in almost all subtropics and tropics: in Asia, Israel, India and Africa.

Guava unpretentious and not particularly pretentious to environmental conditions. The plant can grow in almost any climate, as long as there is no severe frost. Heavy clay, sand, gravel and even limestone are suitable for growing guava. Because of the shallow root system, the plant is demanding for watering. Guava trees are self-pollinated (however, there are species that need cross-pollination), the fruits ripen in 3-5 months. Fruiting plants occurs in several "waves": one main crop can bring up to 100 kg of fruit from the tree, and then 2-4 additional, much smaller crop.

In other areas

Guava wood is used for interior decoration. Combs, pens, engravings are also made from it. The leaves of the plant are used as raw materials for black paint.

The ripe fruits of guava have an incredibly strong and pleasant smell, which can even muffle the smell of tobacco in a smoke-filled room.

Botanical description

A guava is a small evergreen or half leafed tree of the Myrta family. Usually it grows in height up to 3-4 m, but there are specimens up to 20 m. With growth it spreads branches widely.

Guava leaves reach 10–15 cm in length (in cultivars cultivated in Israel, about 6–9 cm), opposite, entire, oblong-ovate or oval, weakly pubescent below, glabrous above, dark green.

The bark of trunks 2-4 cm thick, smooth, pale pink outside, in cracks.

Flowers solitary with four to five petals, or collected in groups, in the axils of the leaf, fragrant, greenish-white or pure white, up to 2.5 cm in diameter. Guava flower formula - * Ч5Л5Т∞П (3). Guava blooms almost all year round. Some varieties require cross-pollination, and some self-pollinated. The main pollinators are honey bees.

Guava fruit is usually round, sometimes oval or pear-shaped, has a pleasant musky smell. The thin skin can be yellowish-white, bright yellow, reddish, greenish-white or green. The shape, size and other characteristics of the fruit vary depending on the type and growing conditions.The fruit mass of cultivated varieties is usually from 70 to 160 g, the length of the fruit is from 4 to 6.5 cm, the diameter is 4.8-7.2 cm. The pulp of the guava fruit is white, yellowish, pink or bright red, there are several hundreds of small hard seeds, up to 3 mm long. However, there are types of guava with pulp without seeds.

Spread

South and Central America, presumably the territory of Peru, is believed to be the birthplace of guava. After the Spaniards found the plant in Peru and Colombia, it spread almost throughout the tropical region of South America. Some guava species are found in Africa, India, Southeast Asia and Oceania. The main guava exporting countries are India, Brazil, Mexico, USA, Israel, Pakistan, Colombia and Egypt.

Preparation of raw materials

The guava has a rather long flowering period, therefore the season duration of the fruit is almost year-round. Fruit picking is done by hand.

Guava fruits are harvested unripe, then they are stored longer. Fresh guava is a perishable product, so collected fruits should be stored in the refrigerator. Only it is necessary to take into account that guava absorbs unwanted odors very easily. The fruit can be frozen, although it loses a significant part of vitamin C, but the taste is preserved completely.

In addition to unripe fruits, the bark of this shrub is also valued. Fresh leaves are also used for medicinal purposes, but most often dry herbal preparations from leaves, flowers, bark and twigs are made from guava.

Pharmacological properties

Despite the fact that guava has no use in official medicine, it still has some healing properties, such as astringent, bactericidal and antispasmodic. But first and foremost, guava is a valuable food product. Eating guava fruit improves digestion, has a positive effect on heart function and normalizes blood pressure.

Due to the high content of vitamin C, this fruit is used to strengthen the lymphatic system and improve the tone of the body. For the same reason, nutritionists recommend including guava in the diet of nursing mothers and children, however, only after consulting with a specialist.

Tannins that are included in the chemical composition of guava, can have a fixing effect that allows you to take the fruit during an upset stomach. Guava fruit helps to remove phlegm from the bronchi, diluting it and making it easier to breath. Fresh guava leaves also contain a large amount of tannins and essential oils, giving them healing properties. It is this that determines the expediency of the external use of the decoction of guava leaves for skin diseases, boils, inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, toothache, sore throat and cough.

Extracts of leaves, guava fruit and essential oil of the plant have pronounced nourishing, moisturizing, astringent and soothing properties. Lycopene contained in the essential oil of guava, has a powerful protective effect that prevents damage to skin cells by free radicals.

Guava oil, used in aromatherapy, has high antimicrobial properties.

Use in traditional medicine

Guava is widely used in traditional medicine of the countries where it grows. Healers use the leaves, bark and flowers of the plant for medicinal purposes. A decoction made from guava leaves is used as a remedy for cough, for rinsing the mouth and sore throat. A decoction of guava is used for skin diseases or as a febrifuge.

In Brazil, guava is eaten by diarrhea, in Panama - against asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia and throat, on the islands of the West Indies - against epileptic seizures and convulsions, in the Philippines - from heart disease.

Tea made from guava leaves also helps with dysentery, stomach upset and dizziness, and also helps regulate menstrual cycles.

The crushed leaves are applied to fresh and tear wounds. The leaves also chew to reduce toothache. A decoction of the leaves is used for skin diseases and as a febrifuge.

History reference

The first mentions of guava are found in the 1553 book of the Chronicle of Peru by Ciez de Leon. Archaeological excavations carried out in Peru showed that local people grew guava several thousand years ago. In the distant past, the scent of a guava tree made the Spaniards think that they were in earthly paradise. Since then, historians, travelers and scientists are trying to describe and repeat this wonderful smell.

Later, the plant was cultivated in all tropical and some subtropical regions of the world.

It is noteworthy that the indigenous peoples of North and Latin America — the habitat of guava — used oil and parts of this plant as an anesthetic and repellent.

Literature

1. Bernd Novak, Bettina Schulz Tropical fruits. Biology, application, cultivation and harvesting. - M .: BMM, 2008. - 240 p.

2. Larina T.V. Tropical and subtropical fruits. - M .: DeLi print, 2002 - 254 p.

3. Nikolaev, M.A. / Commodity Studies of Fruits and Vegetables: A Textbook for High Schools. - M .: Economy, 1990 - 228 p.

4. Pugacheva, EA, Serebryakov, S.R. Malaysia. Tropical fruits. - M., 2008. - 300 p.

What does a guava look like?

If we consider the fruits of the plant, they resemble small balls, the average diameter of which varies in the region of 10-15 cm. They are covered with wrinkled skin, which outwardly may seem rather dense. In fact, it is very thin and is considered useful. Inside the pulp is a huge number of small bones. Trying to calculate their number, the botanists came to the conclusion that in one fruit can contain from 100 to 535 kernels.

Depending on the variety of guava, the color of its skin can be modified, varying from pale green to rich crimson. The pulp of ripe fruit is found in white and in all shades of red.

Guava Season in Thailand

Due to the fact that guava gives several harvests per year, the season for this fruit never ends. Going to Thai markets, you can always be sure that you will find the fruits of this tropical apple there, and at the same time the average price per kilogram does not exceed 25-30 baht. Of course, in the tourist regions, the pricing policy is usually overstated and can rarely reach 60-70 baht.

However, Thais generally prefer the immature solid guava. For the year of my stay in Thailand, I have never seen soft ripe fruits. A real masterpiece of cooking among the Thai people is guava, sprinkled with salt or hot pepper, which is unlikely to please the guests of the country. But even though guava in Thailand is always immature, I really liked it.

If you want to bring home a guava, then before going on the road, read my article on how to take out fruits from Thailand.

Guava taste

Guava is quite interesting and at the same time mysterious fruit. It is very difficult to accurately describe its taste. Slightly soft and ripe fruits will always be considered the most delicious. Their taste can be compared to raspberries with a slight taste of pine needles, which is due to the peel.

The most common type of guava is strawberry. Here is her taste entwined with pineapple and strawberries.

Harm to guava

This is not to say that guava has many harmful qualities. Mostly it fits almost everyone, but there are cases when you still need to be careful:

  1. If you try guava for the first time, do not abuse it. Still, this is a tropical plant and it is not known what the reaction will be. The most common cases are indigestion.
  2. In rare cases, guava can cause an allergic reaction, so you need to be careful if you have a tendency to allergies.
  3. Fruits in immature form have a negative effect on the kidneys and adrenal glands.
  4. You need to be careful with the hard bones of the plant, if you crack them, you can damage your teeth. Bones can be swallowed whole, they are an excellent scrub for the stomach.

How to store a guava?

At room temperature, ripe fruit can be stored for several days. If you bought a greenish guava, then it can lie for up to 2 weeks. In the refrigerator, the shelf life is extended to 3-4 weeks. Guava perfectly preserved in the freezer, and at the same time it does not lose any of its beneficial qualities or taste characteristics. There you can even keep it for several months.

How to clean and eat guava?

The easiest way to use guava is to divide it into slices with a knife, after removing the peel. You need to be very careful with the bones, it is better, of course, to remove them.

Also, the fruits of guava can be eaten as a whole, along with its bones. For convenience, the fruit is divided into two parts with a knife, and then eaten like an apple. In its ripe form, it can be eaten even with the skin. It will be slightly bitter, but it also has a beneficial effect on the digestive and cardiovascular systems.

The fruits of guava are wide in use, you can make delicious salads, juices, desserts, jelly or jam from them. Juice is added to sherbet and ice cream. Marinated guava goes well with meat dishes.

Guava, like many other fruits of Thailand, is a very tasty and at the same time useful fruit. When traveling to a tropical country, try to introduce guava into your daily diet. Not only will you succeed in strengthening your immune system, you will also discover new taste limits. And the most important thing is that you don’t have to choose a certain period to get acquainted with a tropical apple, because you can get it at an affordable price absolutely at any time of the year.

Watch the video: Growing Guava Ruby Supreme in a Container (December 2019).

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