Viral hepatitis B is a viral pathology with parenteral transmission.
The causative agent of the disease is highly contagious.
Therefore, for the development of an infectious process, a minimal amount of virus particles in the human body is sufficient.
The disease often has a chronic course without the development of severe symptoms.
That is why for its reliable diagnosis requires a laboratory study aimed at identifying the hepatitis B virus or its antibodies - a blood test for hepatitis.
For what purpose is the diagnosis of hepatitis?
Laboratory tests for suspected hepatitis are carried out according to several indications, which include:
Identification and identification of the causative agent of the infectious process (detection of antigens of the viral particle or the genotype of the hepatitis B virus) to confirm or exclude infection.
Determination of viral load - an analysis that determines the amount of virus.
Determining the stage of development of the infectious process.
Determination of structural changes in the liver in order to predict the further course of the disease (prognosis of cirrhosis of the liver, provoked by viral hepatitis).
Each stage of laboratory diagnosis may include several studies.
At the screening stage, a general analysis for viral hepatitis B markers is performed.
Before prescribing treatment (including antiviral etiotropic therapy aimed at suppressing the activity of the virus replication process in the liver cells) or to control its effectiveness, tests are performed to determine the viral load and stage of development of the infectious process.
For the comprehensive diagnosis of infections with parenteral and sexual transmission are performed HIV and hepatitis tests B, C.
What tests for hepatitis
To achieve all diagnostic goals, laboratory tests for viral hepatitis B include several research methods, which include:
Tests for viral hepatitis markers include the determination of specific antibodies in the blood to certain protein compounds that are components of various structures of viral particles.
A study aimed at identifying the genetic material of the hepatitis B virus.
Quantitative analysis of the hepatitis virus - is performed to assess the viral load by determining the number of viral particles per unit volume of blood tested.
The combination of these research methods allows you to determine the presence of a virus in the body, to further assess the viral load, as well as the stage of the infectious process.
Hepatitis also has a complete blood count and biochemical profile.
They provide an opportunity to assess the functional state of the liver and the immune system.
To identify structural changes in the liver, a biopsy is performed.
This is taking a small piece of liver tissue for subsequent histological (tissue) examination under a microscope, which is necessary for the early detection of possible development of cirrhosis of the liver.
All methods of analysis for hepatitis should be carried out in case of detection of the disease, as they are necessary for the subsequent appointment of adequate treatment by a doctor.
Definition of markers for viral hepatitis B
The viral particle of the causative agent of this infectious disease consists of genetic material (represented by DNA) and also several layers of the capsule (nucleoprotein, capsid and supercapsid).
These structures are complex proteins (for the body they are antigens) to which specific antibodies are produced by the human immune system.
To establish the presence of the virus in the body, as well as the stage of development of the infectious process, the antigens of the hepatitis B virus and specific antibodies to them are determined:
HBsAg (Australian antigen) is the main marker of viral hepatitis B. Its detection indicates the presence of the disease at the time of the study or past pathology.
Hepatitis B surface antibodies are antibodies to the HBsAg antigen. By their caption (activity) they judge the stage of the infectious process.
HBeAg is an antigenic marker that indicates active replication (reproduction) of the virus in liver cells.
Anti-HBeAg antibodies are determined to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. An elevated hepatitis B antibody titer indicates a favorable prognosis.
Antibodies to the antigen HBcorAg. The core antigen is not detected in the blood, only in the liver cells. In the blood, the determination of total antibodies, immunoglobulins M and G to this antigen is carried out, the activity of which determines the stage of the infection and the virus replication activity.
A screening test for the HBsAg antigen is performed to screen for the detection of an infection.
Usually performed hepatitis test for pregnant women, potential blood donors, patients before hospitalization in a surgical hospital.
In-depth examination for HBsAg detection includes the identification of all markers and antibodies to hepatitis B.
To obtain the most reliable results before testing for hepatitis, it is important not to consume fatty fried foods, alcohol, as this may cause false positive results.
Identification of the genetic material of the hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as a genetic material.
During the active course of an infectious process with viral replication in the liver, the pathogen appears in the blood.
Genetic material is determined by PCR (polymerase chain reaction), which has high specificity and sensitivity.
This study may be quantitative. His conduct involves determining the number of units of genetic material of the virus per unit volume of blood.
Using PCR is determined by viral load.
Polymerase chain reaction is carried out in conjunction with research on other markers of viral hepatitis B.
General tests for hepatitis
To determine the functional state of the liver and immune system, a general and biochemical blood test is performed.
Hepatitis B virus affects the immune system, so in the general analysis of blood can be:
change in the number of leukocytes (cells of the immune system) with a predominant increase in lymphocytes in the leukocyte formula,
increased ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate).
In biochemical analysis, the activity of ALT and AST enzymes (hepatic transaminases) is determined.
The increase of which is evidence of the active course of the infection process with damage to the liver cells.
What if the analysis showed hepatitis?
In the case of a positive result on HBsAg, a comprehensive study is necessarily conducted to exclude or confirm the infection process.
In the dermatovenerologic dispensary, the patient, if desired, can pass an anonymous analysis for hepatitis.
This should be done as early as possible, because the more timely the treatment, the better the prognosis.
Hepatitis B is treated, so you should not run the disease, waiting for the development of cirrhosis of the liver.
In case of any suspicion of hepatitis, get tested by a doctor, a record for an anonymous testing for hepatitis in Moscow 8 (495) 642-30-37.
One of the characteristics of hepatitis C is the absence or short-term yellowness of the integument. The yellowness (ictericity) of the sclera of the eyes, of the skin is a symptom of liver damage, and more precisely the symptom of an increase in the concentration of bile pigment in the blood.
Acute viral liver damage is a disease of Botkin. Currently, the disease is identified as hepatitis A. The main symptoms of the disease are: weakness, high fever, chills, profuse sweating, icteric staining of the skin and visible mucous membranes, dark color beer urine, colorless feces.
Hepatitis B can only be infected by contact with the biological material of a sick person. In most cases, the infection occurs unnoticed by the patient; therefore, this disease is detected either during a laboratory examination or when the characteristic symptoms appear.
Chronic hepatitis C is a complex infectious disease. In medical circles, this diffuse liver disease has been dubbed the “sweet killer.” This is due to the fact that very often group C hepatitis is asymptomatic (from 6 months or more) and is detected only when conducting complex clinical blood tests.
Alcoholic hepatitis does not develop immediately: with regular use of critical doses of ethanol, the patient first develops fatty degeneration of the liver, and only then alcoholic steatohepatitis. At the final stage, the disease flows into cirrhosis of the liver.
At that moment, when a person becomes ill with hepatitis, other urgent problems for him fade into the background. The main task of the patient is a speedy recovery and return to the usual way of life. Human infection with group B hepatitis can occur not only when in contact with the patient’s biological material.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease that causes severe damage to the liver and is caused by the ingestion of a particular virus. Often it becomes chronic and requires long-term treatment. This is due to the fact that the restoration of the basic functions of the liver, to the violation of which leads.
For any diseases of the liver in folk medicine is a universal remedy. And most importantly, it is available to everyone and safely - this is fresh carrot juice! The fact is that vitamin A, which is found in many carrots, has a positive effect on the liver, gently cleansing it and restoring its cells.
What analysis to pass? Viral hepatitis markers
Anyone can take the analysis. It is also recommended to be examined by persons who have yellowness, discoloration of feces, weakness, nausea, loss of appetite, feverish conditions, joint and muscular pain, heaviness in the right hypochondrium. If the clinical symptoms of viral hepatitis are absent, the basis for the analysis is increased concentrations of intracellular enzymes AsAt and AlAt, cholestasis (reduction of bile excretion in the duodenum) and contact with infected citizens. It is necessary to donate blood to employees of medical institutions, patients who are to undergo surgery, blood donors and pregnant women.
Hepatitis A (Botkin's disease) is transmitted through body fluids, food, water and household items. Pathology can occur in acute, subacute and subclinical (asymptomatic) forms. It is considered the most benign of all forms of infection and practically does not cause chronic liver damage. Mortality is less than 0.4%. Most often, the symptoms of pathology disappear in 2 weeks, and the period of recovery of liver function does not exceed 1.5 months. The incidence in the CIS countries is 20–50 per 100,000 population.
For diagnosis, the following qualitative methods are used to study blood serum:
- identification of specific parts of the virus RNA in the blood by the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in real time - ensures 100% accuracy of the result,
- M-IgM class immunoglobulins are detected at the first clinical symptoms and then for 90–180 days up to complete recovery,
- G-IgG class antibodies begin to be produced during illness and remain in the body forever. The study of serum for these hepatitis A markers may be carried out in order to control the vaccination, as these antibodies show the presence of immunity to the disease.
Hepatitis B caused by the virus Hepadnaviridae, sexually transmitted or through the blood. It occurs in acute and chronic forms. It leads to significant liver damage, and often to cirrhosis or cancer. Currently, about 300 million people on the planet are carriers of this infection. To clarify the diagnosis should do the following tests:
Hepatitis C considered the most common and most dangerous among all varieties of the disease. Often it is asymptomatic in the initial stages and is only detected when serious complications such as cirrhosis or carcinoma appear. The virus is transmitted mainly through body fluids and is difficult to treat. Its carriers are currently considered to be 500 million people.
A positive test for hepatitis C suggests the presence of the corresponding RNA virus in the patient’s blood. The presence of Anti-HCV and HCV IgG in the body, detected by qualitative testing methods, indicates the acute stage of the disease. Quantitative methods for the determination of RNA by PCR are used to assess the effectiveness of therapy. For genotyping of the virus and the choice of treatment tactics, research on interleukin-28-beta is necessary. To test screening tests with a positive result, an antibody test is used - a recombinant immunoblot to detect IgG antibodies to various antigens of the hepatitis C virus.
Hepatitis D, G . Hepatitis D virus activity depends on the presence of type B virus in the body. The disease is very difficult. If infection with two types of virus occurs simultaneously, then the patient is diagnosed with pathology in the acute stage, but if the delta virus (hepatitis D) develops against the background of an already existing hepatic infection, then an exacerbation of the disease is noted. Hepatitis G is presumably activated in the presence of other types of infection, but it does not cause the active form of the disease.
Laboratory testing involves the identification of RNA chains of viruses, as well as the detection of IgM class antibodies, which allow to distinguish the acute form of the disease from the chronic. These studies are qualitative.
Hepatitis E it is similar in its course to the type A virus. It is transmitted through body fluids, is accompanied by severe pain syndrome and can take on fulminant forms. This pathology is especially dangerous for pregnant women. In them, the disease may be complicated by acute liver failure and encephalopathy. In 20-30% of cases, the disease ends in the death of a pregnant woman. If during laboratory testing, antibodies of the IgG and IgM class are detected in the patient, this indicates pathology in the acute stage.
Preparation for testing and blood collection procedure
Biomaterial must pass strictly on an empty stomach. Also, you should refrain from eating fatty foods and alcohol for a day before visiting the laboratory. The results of qualitative tests in most cases are ready within four hours after blood collection. It may take up to one working day to conduct a quantitative study, not counting the day of testing.
Can a hepatitis test fail?
Erroneous results are often recorded when using low-quality reagents, conducting research on obsolete equipment, or violating testing technology. Sometimes the accuracy of the research method involves a certain percentage of error. A false-negative response is possible when testing at a too early stage of the disease, when antibodies have not yet begun to be produced in the right quantity, false-positive - at the last stage of acute hepatitis, during the recovery period.
Cost of analysis
In public clinics in the direction of a doctor you can take a test for hepatitis for free. Research on a fee basis is carried out in most major cities of the country.The price depends on the specific laboratory, the equipment used, the timing, the type of test, the region and a number of other factors.
A qualitative test for antibodies to the RNA and DNA viruses can be done in Moscow and St. Petersburg at a price of 550–900 rubles. The cost of quantitative research varies between 1,200–10,000 rubles, depending on the specific antigen, research method, class of medical equipment. For example, an estimate of the viral load with real-time detection, which is necessary to determine the effectiveness of treatment for hepatitis C, will cost 17,000–22,000 rubles. Identification of antigens by a qualitative method in such cities as Novosibirsk, Murmansk, Kostroma, Makhachkala, Simferopol will cost 300–800 rubles.
Delivery of the analysis for hepatitis allows you to quickly identify the disease and begin its treatment. A timely treatment in most cases ensures complete recovery of the patient or suppression of the activity of the virus. One of the main ways to prevent hepatitis B (along with the observance of the rules of hygiene, as well as with the avoidance of promiscuous sex and refusal to take drugs) is vaccination. It must be carried out by those who are on hemodialysis, often change their sexual partners, work with blood or live in the same apartment with persons suffering from the chronic form of the disease. The most effective vaccines are domestic. They are targeted for those strains (genotypes) of the virus that prevail in our country. In addition, modern Russian vaccines produce no preservative, based on mercury.
If the clinical symptoms indicate functional impairment of the liver, but the serum test for viral hepatitis is negative, an additional ultrasound of the liver and biliary tract should be performed, as well as tests for intracellular enzymes AlAt and AsAt. You must exclude not only the infectious, but the mechanical nature of liver damage, for example, hepatosis of various etiologies.
When should you take a blood test for hepatitis?
Periodic screening for hepatitis is necessary for everyone, especially if a pregnancy is planned or a sexual partner has changed, the epidemiological situation has worsened in the community around you, a virus has been found in someone from relatives, you have found chronic forms of any diseases, with any symptoms resembling food poisoning , or with pathological fatigue and fatigue. For prophylactic purposes, the annual virological study is considered the gold standard. You should be checked immediately if you accidentally cut yourself or injected with a dubious object that you could use before you - for example, if you found a used disposable syringe in your mailbox and managed to get hurt.
Your doctor will give you a blood test for hepatitis if you come with complaints of the following symptoms:
- yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes,
- heaviness, tearing, pain in the right hypochondrium,
- intolerance to fatty foods,
- urine brown, discoloration of the chair.
Hepatitis tests are included in the list of necessary studies in the design of medical records for the staff of medical institutions, maternity hospitals, children's hospitals and children's clinics, children's homes, boarding schools, and special treatment facilities. Blood donors and persons who are registered in drug treatment and venereal and skin clinics and offices are subject to mandatory testing.
When do I need to be tested?
Periodically, it is recommended for all people to donate blood for viral hepatitis, especially if a pregnancy is planned or a sexual partner has changed, someone from their relatives has been diagnosed with viral pathology, against the background of characteristic symptoms.
The gold standard in medicine is an annual preventive study that allows you to diagnose the disease in a timely manner. We urgently need to pass tests, if a person accidentally cut himself or injected, there was contact with the blood of an infected patient.
A medical specialist must prescribe a blood test for hepatitis, when a patient complains of such a clinic:
- Yellowing of the skin, whites of the eyes.
- Severity, discomfort or pain in the right hypochondrium.
- Discoloration of urine, urine.
- Periodic nausea, vomiting.
- Disruption of the digestive tract.
- Weakness, chronic fatigue.
- Bitterness in the mouth (especially in the morning).
- Tongue on the tongue, bad breath.
- Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver in size).
The analysis of hepatitis appears to be an obligatory research in the design of a medical book for employees of hospitals, kindergartens, schools, boarding schools, etc.
Hepatitis Research and Training
Blood sampling is carried out in the morning, on an empty stomach. It is important not to eat for 6-8 hours before the study. In the laboratory, tests are carried out with venous blood (taken from a vein), since it is more qualitative as a biological material when compared with capillary.
On the eve, it is recommended that a few days follow a diet, reject excessive physical activity, emotional stress, taking medications (steroids, blood-thinning drugs, etc.).
Antibodies are represented by immunoglobulins, which are produced by human immunity in order to detect and eliminate alien objects - viruses, bacteria. Antigens are called protein molecules that are formed in response to the appearance of antibodies. On the basis of such an organism reaction, research methods of viral hepatitis have been developed.
Mostly transmitted by household, in unsanitary conditions. The acute form of Botkin's disease delivers a lot of discomfort to the patient. However, the disease is rapid, often self-healing (that is, without treatment).
The table presents tests for hepatitis A:
|Anti-HAV-IgG||Positive - there is a disease, or the patient suffered a disease, which means that immunity is present. Negative - lack of immunity, the risk of infection.|
|Anti-HAV-IgM||There can be 3 results. Positive - acute pathological process, negative - no immunity, it is doubtful - it is possible that the disease will develop in the near future.|
|Detection of RNA (HAV-RNA) in serum||A positive conclusion suggests that fragments of RNA that are specific to the pathogen were identified. Negatively - the absence of RNA or their number below the limits of susceptibility of the test.|
Research for Hepatitis B
Infection occurs during unprotected sexual intercourse, parenterally, rarely - by household.
For the diagnosis of pathology conducted the following studies:
|What is the name of the analysis?||Description|
|HBs antigen (Australian antigen definition)||There is qualitative and quantitative research. The reference figure is 0.5 IU / l. With a smaller value of the test is negative, more - positive. When detected, they speak of an acute or chronic course of the disease, or carriage. A negative can also be interpreted as the absence of the disease if other studies are not positive. Very rarely, “negatively” in conclusion is a lightning form with an unfavorable prognosis.|
|Hbeag||Qualitative analysis. Positive - acute or chronic form of the disease, on the background of high replication intensity. Negatively - the absence of the disease, when other tests also (-). Sometimes a negative result is in the incubation period. When in doubt, it is recommended to do an analysis in a couple of weeks.|
|Anti-HBc-total||Allows you to identify hepatitis, but does not answer the question about the course - acute or chronic, which stage of the disease. Negatively - the absence or chronic course.|
|Anti-HBc IgM||Positive - in 99% acute form, 1% chronic variant. Negatively - the absence of the disease in the patient, or the period of incubation, the time of transition to a chronic course. It is doubtful - it is necessary to conduct another study after 14 days + additional tests for more accurate diagnosis.|
|Anti-HBe||Positive is the period of recovery after an acute course or a chronic form of the disease. Negatively can be interpreted in different ways - there is no disease, there is, but as long as there are not enough virus particles for diagnosis, the carriage of HBs antigen with low replication is not excluded.|
|Anti-HBs||Quantitative research. Reference indicator 10. If the figure is greater, is it a vaccine or recovery period or a chronic form of pathology with a low viral load (that is, the body itself actively fights the pathogenic agent).|
Additionally, DNA is determined in the patient's serum. Infection is observed against the background of a positive result (from 40 IU per liter). A negative result - up to 40 IU per liter - the infection corresponds, or the number of pathogens in the sample is lower than the susceptibility of the test.
Hepatitis C tests
A common type of disease, most often transmitted by parenteral means, that is, blood-to-blood. There are 6 types, therefore complex diagnostics is practiced.
An anti-HCV-total study is underway. With (+), it is a disease or a healing process, or a recovery period.
The form and stage cannot be identified. When (-), then the incubation period or infection is absent.
The detection of RNA (HCV-RNA) is carried out in a qualitative and quantitative way, the results can be the following:
Features of analyzes and preparation for them
Blood for biochemical analysis is given strictly on an empty stomach, in the morning, from 8 to 11. This is due to circadian rhythms that affect the content of hormones in the blood. A hepatitis virus test (antigens and antibodies) can be taken at any time of the day, but also on an empty stomach: it is important not to eat for 4–6 hours before taking blood. In both cases, venous blood is used, which as a biomaterial is better than capillary.
On the eve of any blood tests, it is recommended to avoid physical and emotional stress, alcohol intake and heavy food. Drinking mode should be normal.
Hepatitis A tests
Hepatitis A, transmitted by the household, is also called Botkin's disease. Most often outbreaks of hepatitis A occur in crowded conditions, with low sanitation. Hepatitis A does not turn into a chronic form and gives the least complications. However, in acute form, it is capable of causing significant discomfort to the infected patient.
Required qualitative analyzes:
- Anti-HAV-IgG (IgG antibodies to hepatitis A virus). The result can be positive if the patient has been vaccinated against hepatitis A, is currently ill or has just had a disease. In this case, he develops immunity. A negative result means the absence of immunity to hepatitis A and the possibility of infection.
- Anti-HAV-IgM (IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus). Variants of results - “positive”, “negative”, “doubtful”. In the first case, we are talking about acute or recently transferred hepatitis A, in the second case, no immunity to the virus has been identified and infection is possible in the near future if there is an infection site at home or in a team. Questionable results are considered to be close to the threshold value. In this case, it is necessary to monitor the patient's condition during the week. The results of the anti-HAV IgM study must be used in combination with other hepatitis markers and patient health data.
- Determination of RNA (HAV-RNA) in serum. The result “detected” means that a fragment of RNA specific for the hepatitis A virus was found in the blood sample, it is possible to diagnose infection with hepatitis A. A negative result indicates the absence of fragments of harmful RNA or that their concentration is lower than the sensitivity of the test.
Hepatitis A is generally considered a childhood disease, but its effects affect health for the rest of your life. Therefore, in the event of an outbreak of infection, it is important to isolate patients and monitor the condition of other people who were at the site of infection.
Hepatitis B tests
The hepatitis B virus is transmitted in everyday life, sexually or with blood. It is very stable and can persist in the external environment for about a week, even in dried blood, on a razor blade or at the end of a needle. He infected 350 million people worldwide, and every year 1 000 000 people die from the effects of hepatitis B. Due to widespread vaccination, these numbers tend to decline. The following tests are needed to diagnose hepatitis B:
- Analysis for HBs antigen, or Australian antigen. This test for the hepatitis virus can be both qualitative and quantitative. The reference value is 0.5 IU / ml. If a smaller result is obtained, the test is negative, if the larger one is positive. If an antigen is detected, it may indicate acute or chronic hepatitis B, as well as a carrier of the virus. A negative result can be interpreted as the absence of hepatitis B only with negative test results for other markers. Chronic hepatitis B with low replication intensity is not excluded. In rare cases, a negative result is obtained with the fulminant, malignant course of the disease or with hepatitis B with a defective HBs antigen.
- Study HBeAg (HBe-antigen of the hepatitis B virus). Quality test. A positive result is diagnosed with acute or chronic hepatitis B with a high intensity of replication. A negative result means the absence of hepatitis B only in the absence of other markers. It can be obtained with acute or chronic hepatitis with low replication intensity, as well as during the period of incubation or recovery.
- Determination of Anti-HBc-total (antibodies of the classes IgM and IgG to the HB-core antigen of the hepatitis virus). A qualitative test, which, with a positive result, makes it possible to diagnose hepatitis B, but does not make it possible to clarify whether it is acute or chronic and in which phase it occurs. A negative result in the absence of other markers may indicate the absence of hepatitis B, its incubation period, or the chronic form.
- Anti-HBc IgM assay (IgM class antibodies to HB-core antigen of hepatitis B virus). Qualitative analysis, with options "negative", "positive", "doubtful". If the result is questionable, it is recommended to repeat the analysis after 10–14 days. A positive result is always given for acute hepatitis and sometimes for chronic. A negative result in the absence of other markers may indicate the absence of hepatitis B, its incubation period, or the chronic form.
- Determination of Anti-HBe (antibodies to the HBe antigen of the hepatitis B virus). Quality test. A positive result may indicate a phase of recovery from acute hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B, or chronic asymptomatic carriage of the virus. A negative result can be obtained both in the absence of hepatitis, and in its chronic form or in the incubation period of the acute form. It is also impossible to exclude the carrier of HBs-antigen with low replication.
- Detection of Anti-HBs (antibodies to HBs antigen of the hepatitis B virus). Quantitative test. The reference value is 10 mU / ml. If the rate is higher, it can mean successful hepatitis B vaccination, recovery, or chronic hepatitis B with low infectivity. If the rate is lower, this means that the effect of vaccination has not been achieved or the disease has not been postponed earlier. It is also possible that the patient is experiencing an incubation or acute period of acute hepatitis B, a chronic form of the disease with high infectivity, or is a carrier of HBs antigen with low replication.
- Determination of DNA (HBV-DNA) in serum.A positive result (more than 40 IU / l) indicates an infection with the hepatitis B virus. Negative (less than 40 IU / l) indicates the absence of infection or the concentration of the pathogen in the blood sample below the sensitivity limit of the test.
Being the most common, hepatitis B can be prevented only with high public awareness and organization of vaccination. For people at risk, vaccination is the main method of protection.
Hepatitis C Blood Test
This type of hepatitis is transmitted with blood and other body fluids. It has six varieties, so the tests must be carried out in a complex. The risk group includes people who take intravenous drugs, promiscuous sex workers, health workers, and patients who have been prescribed hemodialysis or blood transfusions.
If hepatitis C is suspected and prophylactic, the following tests are taken:
- Analysis of anti-HCV-total (antibodies to antigens of hepatitis C virus). Qualitative analysis, which with a positive result means infection or recovery period after it. It does not allow to distinguish the shape and stage of hepatitis C. With a negative result, an incubation period or variant of hepatitis C, which is insensitive to this analysis, is possible.
- Determination of RNA (HCV-RNA) in serum or plasma.The analysis can be qualitative and quantitative. In a qualitative analysis, the “detected” result allows diagnosing hepatitis C infection. A negative result indicates the absence of fragments of harmful RNA or that their concentration is lower than the sensitivity of the test.
In the quantitative analysis of blood plasma:
- "not found": Hepatitis C RNA was not detected or the value is below the sensitivity limit of the method (15 IU / ml). The result is interpreted as “Hepatitis C RNA not detected”,
- 100,000,000 IU / ml: the result is interpreted as: "Hepatitis C RNA was detected at the indicated concentration, which is outside the linear range, the test was set at a dilution of 1: X".
In the quantitative analysis of blood serum:
- "not found": Hepatitis C RNA was not detected or the value is below the sensitivity limit of the method (60 IU / ml). The result is interpreted as “Hepatitis C RNA not detected”,
- 2 IU / ml: the result is positive with a Hepatitis C RNA concentration of less than 102 IU / ml,
- from 10 2 to 10 8 IU / ml: the result is positive. The resulting value is within the linear range,
- 10 8 IU / ml: The result is positive with a Hepatitis C RNA concentration of more than 108 IU / ml.
Hepatitis C is the second most common after hepatitis B, therefore, if you suspect liver pathology, tests for these two viral diseases are most often performed. However, less “popular” viruses can also cause significant harm to the liver.
Hepatitis D, G tests
The hepatitis D virus has hepatitis B protein in its envelope, therefore it develops only in people infected with hepatitis B. The impact on the body of two viruses at once leads to severe and chronic inflammation of the liver.
Hepatitis G virus occurs in 85% of injecting drug users, is also sexually transmitted, and often accompanies hepatitis B, C, and D. The following tests are used to diagnose hepatitis D and G:
- Determination of RNA (HDV-RNA) in serum. The result “detected” means that a fragment of RNA specific for the virus was found in the blood sample, and infection with hepatitis D can be diagnosed. A negative result indicates the absence of harmful RNA fragments or that their concentration is lower than the sensitivity of the test.
- Determination of RNA (HDV-RNA) of hepatitis G in serum. The result “detected” means that a fragment of RNA specific for the hepatitis G virus was found in the blood sample, and infection can be diagnosed. A negative result indicates the absence of fragments of harmful RNA or that their concentration is lower than the sensitivity of the test.
- Analysis for the presence of antibodies of the class IgM (Hepatitis delta virus, IgM antibodies, anti-HDV IgM). A qualitative analysis, with a positive result, speaks of an acute course of hepatitis D virus infection. In rare cases, non-specific serum interference can give a positive result. A negative response can be obtained in the absence of acute infection, in the early incubation period and one to two years after recovery.
- Total antibodies to hepatitis D (Hepatitis delta virus antibodies, anti-HDV total). Qualitative analysis. “Positive” is an acute or chronic infection, current or past. In rare cases, non-specific serum interference can give a positive result. A negative result is obtained in the absence of an acute infection, in the early incubation period and one to two years after recovery.
After the end of the acute period, antibodies to hepatitis D and G can persist in the blood for up to two years. Therefore, if a positive result of the analysis is usually assigned to re-study.
Where can I get tested for hepatitis?
Tests for antigens and antibodies to viral hepatitis can be done in most public and private clinics. Faster conduct research in private laboratories, because they use more modern equipment and reagents. In addition, you can sign up for any day convenient for you.
For example, modern analyzers and test systems manufactured by Becton Dickinson, Abbott, DPC, Instrumentation Laboratory (USA), BIO-RAD (France), F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. (Switzerland), Olympus and Sysmex Corporation (Japan) are used in the INVITRO independent laboratories. The results are ready the next day and can be received in the form of a printout by hand, fax, e-mail. Urgent analysis is done within two hours and is paid at a double rate. The price of a blood test for hepatitis in INVITRO ranges from 300 to 5,000 rubles - depending on the method of investigation, blood sampling from a vein costs 199 rubles. On INVITRO cards discounts of 5 or 10% are provided.
License for medical activities No. LO-50-01-009134 dated October 26, 2017
Hepatitis viruses can be stimulated by adverse biochemical findings on AlAt (alanine aminotransferase) and AsAt (aspartate aminotransferase), direct and common bilirubin, GGT (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) and alkaline phosphatase. But the opposite scenario is also possible: to clarify the clinical picture of the disease, the doctor will prescribe a liver screening test for these indicators. In any case, virological and biochemical tests complement each other, because they have different objects of study.
Preparation for testing for hepatitis and the procedure
For tests for all types of hepatitis B, blood is taken from a vein. Blood sampling is done in the morning on an empty stomach. The procedure does not require special training, but the day before it is necessary to refrain from physical and emotional overload, to stop smoking and drinking alcohol. Typically, test results are available one day after blood sampling.