Latin name Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott
Family Rosaceae Juss. - pink
Genus Aronia - Aronia
Although it is called rowan, and for the blackness of berries, it is black-fruited, it belongs to a different genus and is known in botany as black-chokeberry. Unlike mountain ash, which grows with a tree, chokeberry is a shrub, something even resembling a currant, except a little taller, up to 2.5 meters. And her leaves are completely different: whole, round, or rather, ovate, dense, smooth, shiny. That's just the shape of the fruit, and even collected in the same as the mountain ash, inflorescence, make it similar to this plant. Aronia fruits contain seeds and therefore, like apple, rowan and pear, it belongs to pome fruit crops. But due to the fact that aronia is a shrub, it conditionally refers to berry crops.
Chokeberry or Aronia chokeberry photo
- Description aronia
- Chokeberry Cultivation
- Choosing a place for landing
- Soil preparation for planting
- Caring for rowan black chokeberry
- Pruning and shaping bushes
- History of development and selection
- Chemical composition
- Organic acids and vitamins in chokeberry
- Healing properties of chokeberry
Description of black chokeberry
Chokeberryor Black chokeberry - Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott perennial shrub 2-2.5 meters tall, with a dense spherical crown.
Root the system is developed, fibrous, deeper (in the horizon 40-60 centimeters) than in currants. Every year new zero shoots grow from the rhizomes, which leads to the gradual saturation of the crown with uneven branches. The bush grows also due to offspring (like raspberries).
amount stalks of different ages and origins can reach up to 80 pieces
Leaves simple, solid, obovate or elliptical, pointed, dense, dark green, up to 7 cm long. Before frost leaves fall off completely.
Aronia fruit bud is mixed. This means that both the inflorescence develops (Aronia is always apical) and the vegetative shoot.
Flowers Aronia Aronia small, white or pink, in many-flowered shields, bisexual, self-pollinating. They reveal quite late leaving from frosts. At this time, new branches of shoots reach 10-15 centimeters and are well leafy. One flower lives up to eight days, the entire flowering period is within 10–15, the fruit is formed 80–90 days.
At the base of the increments of previous years and near the apical buds there are small dormant buds, which is taken into account when rejuvenating pruning of the branches.
The growth of vegetative shoots passes quickly and ends in August.
Fruit large berries up to 0.8 mm in diameter, spherical, apple-shaped, black in color with a bluish bloom, edible.
It blooms annually in mid-May - early June, the fruits ripen in late August (good).
Choosing a place for landing
Black chokeberry grows better on wetter places with good natural protection, because its bushes are rather demanding of moisture due to the shallow location of the roots. For the same reason, closed low places are also unsuitable for it, with constant waterlogging of the upper soil layers and the possible danger of freezing of plants, damage to flowers and ovaries. Moreover, rowan is a light-loving plant and should not be planted as a compactor between fruit trees.
Chokeberry is mostly unpretentious to the soil and, provided it has sustained moderate moisture, it works well on soils of different texture. But still, marshy and saline soils are unsuitable for this crop, and stony and cartilaginous ones are undesirable. The presence of waterproof gley interlayers in the subsoil due to periodic waterlogging may be the cause of poor development of rowan plants.
It is recommended in the creative gardens of all regions and is limited to consumer and commodity first, second, third, seventh and eastern zones of the fourth region.
Like most berry bushes, Aronia can be planted in autumn as well as in spring. It is only important to carry out all the landing work in a timely and thorough manner.
On a permanent place Chokeberry planted in three-year plants. In an effort to simplify pruning, fertilization, weed control, a gardener can significantly reduce the life of chokeberry plantings, bringing it to 10-12 years. But in order to compensate for the shortage of the crop in connection with such a reduction, it is necessary to get more and as soon as possible. This is achieved by a tight fit. In the garden of any type, it is enough to have 2-3 choke-trees. Initially, it is necessary to plant in a row 5 bushes at a distance of 1 meter from each other. When the crowns of neighboring bushes close, the second and fourth bushes are removed. Two-meter spaces will be sufficient to provide good lighting for the remaining three bushes.
A seedling in a pit or furrow is placed vertically and planted to the same depth as it was in the nursery. However, the depth is regulated, bearing in mind the following: with deep planting, most of the base of the branches is in the soil and therefore more will be basal shoots. In the first years it is good, as the bush will be formed faster. But then you have to spend more effort on the removal of zero shoots. Strengthening the growth of the bush is achieved by shortening the aerial part of the seedlings by 5-6 buds. Planted plants are watered, the soil is compacted, mulched, loosened.
In collective and backyard gardens, 3.0 x 2.5 m or 3 x 3 m may be acceptable for black chokeberry. With proper care, the rowan can be planted in rows along the inner paths of the plot or hedge at a distance of 1.5-2 m between bushes.
Planting mountain ash is not different from planting other berry bushes. At the same time, the root neck of seedlings should not be deepened deeper than it was in the nursery. Otherwise, the plants will form a large number of root shoots, which will lead to unnecessary costs of manual labor. In addition, it is important to pay attention to the quality of planting material. Planting well-developed seedlings of the first dissection (that is, with a root neck diameter up to 11–13 mm with 4–5 stems 40–50 cm high and a length of the main root of at least 25–30 cm) makes it possible to get good yields already at 3-4 th year after landing.
In the creative garden, it is advisable to check the ribbon (like a raspberry) way to grow chokeberry. The width of the tape is 70–80 centimeters, the number of shoots per 1 meter of the row is only 15–25 pieces (2–3 different ages).
Chokeberry propagated by seeds and vegetatively: layering, cuttings, grafting in the stem of a mountain ash.
In the amateur garden Aronia Aronia is propagated by horizontal layering, rhizomatous offspring, seedlings can be obtained by hilling and dividing the bush.
It is enough to disrupt the balance between the root system and the crown in order to cause a massive regrowth of shoots on the roots of chokeberry. These annual plants, excavated with part of the maternal root system, serve as planting material. To obtain the layering of the soil (without separation from the parent bush) stacked shoots of zero order, fall asleep, watered, loosen, podozhuyvayut. By the fall, they get a rooted branch with a few annual shoots. It is cut into seedlings.
Horizontal layering Chokeberry breeds almost the same as currants and gooseberries. Pre-selected high-yielding, well-developed bushes. A year before bending down, the bushes are thinned out in order to cause enhanced growth of the stem shoots. Shorten shoots before bending down should not be, because of the apical buds get the best seedlings with a strong root system.
For bending down choose well-developed one-two-year shoots in the peripheral part of the bush. Under each selected shoot in the radial direction to the bush make a groove with a depth of 8-10 cm. The shoots are placed on the bottom of such grooves and pinned with wooden or iron hooks. When the laid shoots reach a height of 5–8 cm, they carry out the first powder with a layer of at least 3–4 cm in the ground. Do not delay this work, as this will markedly reduce the yield and reduce the quality of the seedlings. When the shoots grow to 10-12 cm, the powder is repeated, and the soil layer should not be more than 4-5 cm. If the dry weather was long before the second powder, the grooves with cuttings should be watered and mulched. In autumn, the layers are carefully separated from the uterine bush. Usually from the rooting of one strong layer you can get 3-5 rooted perennials. Cuttings are sorted according to the strength of the root system development - well-developed seedlings are used for planting in a permanent place, while the weaker ones are planted for another year for rearing.
Breeding method rhizomatous offspring pretty simple. Siblings appear near the bush at the beginning of the season and by the autumn reach a height of 30-40 cm and form their own root system. The most developed offspring may be suitable for landing immediately on a permanent place, but still most of them have to grow. Scions can be planted both in spring and autumn. Before planting, the above-ground part of the offspring is cut short to 3-5 buds, and the roots are also shortened to 7-10 cm. Plants that are grown are planted 70-90 cm row from a row and 30-35 cm in a row. To avoid heaving of the roots, before freezing of the soil, seedlings are spud earth to a height of 5-6 cm. Care for offspring is normal, they are dug out in the fall.
With seed reproduction Main features of the original plant are preserved. Seeds are selected from the fruit and immediately lay on the stratification. Sown after 90 days of treatment. Shoots appear in large numbers. Aronia fruits are stored for a long time, so you can choose the right time to produce seeds. Before sowing, seeds that have undergone stratification are stored at 0 ° C. Seedlings dive.
The yield of Aronia Aronia is largely determined by the good growth of the bushes - the presence of annual growth of shoots of at least 20 cm. To ensure such growth, optimal nutrient and water regimes and soil content in a loose and weed-free state are necessary.
Under the bushes, the soil is kept loose and free from weeds by systematic treatments. Apply and loosen up periodically after each fertilization, heavy rainfall or watering.
On fruit-bearing plantations, all tillage needs to be completed by the time the fruit is poured, by about the beginning of August, when the branches fall to the ground under the weight of the crop and prevent processing.
Pruning and shaping bushes
The black chokeberry bush with a good agrotechnology forms a large number of basal shoots and lateral growths, as a result of which the bushes thicken greatly. This leads to the death of fouling wood inside the bush and a gradual decrease in yield. Thinning of excess shoots should be carried out systematically, not bringing the bush to a strong thickening. When rationing the bush, the strongest and well-located shoots are left to have a well-lit crown with a base of the bush up to 1.0-1.3 m.
Extra shoots are cut at the surface of the soil to reduce the formation of offspring from the root system. It is not necessary to shorten the branches at the mountain ash, since in the adult bush the main trunks branch well and form a sufficient number of lateral growths.
In order to quickly form Aronia bush Aronia, in the second year after planting, almost all zero shoots appeared. In the following years, 6–9 best ones are retained, the rest are removed simultaneously with broken and damaged old branches. With a twelve-year service life, the land already removed from the summer of the eleventh year, so that it does not create shading. There is no need to grow it, because the shoots will not have time to develop to fruiting by the time of stubbing. If all the root shoots froze hard, they still take 6-9 of the best and shorten them to a living bud. All shoots should not be left. With a strong pruning bush for 1-2 years it will become very thick and extra shoots will have to be removed without receiving a harvest from them.
The number of stems of different ages and origins can reach up to 80 pieces, but in culture their sum should not exceed 40-45. Each branch continues its development and fruiting until the age of 13-15 years, but already from the age of eight, the periodicity of fruiting begins to show up, the yield gradually decreases. It is believed that the most productive branches in four - seven years of age. This is due to the presence and productivity of fruit formations. Aronia is distinguished: collar - annual fruit branches 3 centimeters long with fruit, less often with a vegetative apical bud, lance - the same branch is only longer — up to 10 centimeters with a fruit apical bud and several similar fruit buds closer to it, fruit a twig is an even longer branch (up to 20 centimeters) with a similar arrangement of fruit buds on it, a mixed shoot — more than 20 centimeters in length with fruit and vegetative buds. The biennial branches of the main crop are harvested from mixed shoots; other types of fruit formations are still very small; three-year olds are dominated by two types of fruit branches — mixed shoots and fruit twigs; - the main harvest only on kolchatka, mixed shoots are almost absent.
In kolchatok on perennial branches pronounced frequency of fruiting. For it to be annual, the bush should consist mainly of branches no older than seven years. A fruit bud is formed in the year preceding fruiting.
Even with very strong damage to fruit-bearing branches, one should not hurry with their cutting. During the growing season, the plant itself will “show” how and what branch should be cut. Due to the high resistance and resilience of tissues, a gradual improvement in the condition of individual branches or their parts occurs, and growth and fruiting are resumed. And in 2-3 years they are replaced by new ones, formed from zero shoots. To avoid winter damage to aronia, in some areas the bushes bend down to the ground, roll with poles and later cover with snow.
To conditions of non-chernozem band In the formed bush of the black chokeberry, it is desirable to have 40-50 differently aged branches. Subsequent pruning should be reduced to the annual removal of old, sprouting branches (8-10-year-olds), leaving to replace 5-6 young basal shoots and sanitary pruning.
Aronia is highly sensitive to the disturbance of the ratio of nutrients, therefore, if there is no exact information about their content in the soil, it is better to limit the use of organic composites and not to apply mineral fertilizers separately. An exception may be microfertilizers: the condition of the plants will improve, if during the pre-planting period 2 grams of borax are introduced per bush, and in the form of foliar feeding, a combined solution is dissolved in 1 liter of water: urea (20 grams), superphosphate (30), potassium salt (10), potassium permanganate (0.15), boric acid (0.15 grams).
Under the young rowan bushes annually in two terms make nitrogen at the rate of 200-300 g of ammonium nitrate per bush. Half of the norm is added immediately after the snow melts, and the rest is in the phase of enhanced shoot growth.In cases where the general condition of the plants and their growth indicate a lack of nitrogen, it is advisable to give foliar dressing with 0.2-0.3% urea solution.
Fruiting plants are also fed with nitrogen 2-3 times during the growing season - the first time ammonium nitrate immediately after flowering, 150-200 g per bush, the second time - chicken droppings at the beginning of the formation of the ovary. In addition, it is important to periodically (once in 2-3 years) to apply organic fertilizer at 40-50 kg per bush. In the fall (annually), under young and fruiting plants, phosphate and potash fertilizers are applied at the rate of 200 g of superphosphate and 50–60 g of potash salt under the shrub, which are buried during the autumn digging.
In the middle lane, black chokeberry ripens in the first half of September, but earlier ripening is also possible, for example, in the third decade of August. Suitability for collection can be determined by a bluish wax bloom and intense black color of the berries. For processing, the fruits are removed without flaps. For long-term storage, berries are harvested with shields, but so as not to damage the collar located at their base. It is better to pack fruits for storage in boxes with a capacity of up to 8 kg.
With a storage temperature of up to 10 ° C and a humidity of 80-85%, chokeberry fruit can be stored up to two months. Frozen, they are easily preserved throughout the winter. You can store fruits in dried form. Berries are dried in ovens or ovens at a temperature of 50-60 ° C. After drying, the fruit is stored in a hermetically sealed container. Both frozen and dry fruits lose their excessive astringency, become sweeter and more palatable and do not lose their medicinal qualities.
Healing properties of chokeberry
The fruits and juice of Aronia rowan are used to treat a number of diseases, mainly hypertension, atherosclerosis and anacid gastritis. In addition, chokeberry due to its high iodine content is useful for the prevention of thyroid diseases.
According to their technological qualities, the fruits of black chokeberry are very valuable raw materials for processing. For example, when pressing berries, a high yield of juice (up to 80%) is obtained. The fruits of this culture are excellent food coloring. from the juice - various wines and liqueurs. Dried fruits of mountain ash well retain their medicinal and nutritional properties.
In folk medicine use the fruits of Aronia Aronia, which are collected in early autumn. Its fruits and fresh juice, in addition to the inherent properties of the mountain ash, reduce pressure and calm the nervous system, therefore, are used in the treatment of hypertension of stages I and II.
Chokeberry and Hypertension
Brew 1 tablespoon of fruits of mountain ash, black choke 1 cup of boiling water, leave to cool. Take 1/2 cup 2-3 times daily before meals.
Fresh juice of black chokeberry to take 1/4 cup 3-4 times a day between meals for 3-8 weeks.
ATTENTION! Fermented juice of chokeberry loses its ability to reduce pressure!
Chokeberry can also be called a technical plant, since it serves as a source of food dyes that are harmless to health, as well as tannins used in leather production.
It is also of interest as a melliferous plant due to its annual, long flowering.
Decorative dark green leaves, autumn, painted in orange-red tones, white flowers, shiny black fruits. Decorative durability 30–40 years.
Especially beautiful in autumn, when the leaves get bright purple color, against which black fruits stand out.
Aronia Aronia is recommended for hedges, for planting in parks and squares singly and in groups, as well as for home gardens, as a fruit plant.
History of cultivation
Aronia is black-fruited, known as black-fruited mountain ash or, in common, the black chokeberry, actually has nothing in common with the mountain ash, these are different sorts of the same family. The whole physiognomic appearance, the composition of chemical elements and the requirements for the environment distinguish mountain ash from the black ash fruit from the mountain ash. Aronia was singled out in a separate genus already in 1935.
Aronia Aronia, called Aronia, does not have anything in common with Rowan, except for similar fruits.
Historically, the black wilderness has grown along the banks of rivers and lakes in eastern North America, where at least 20 species of shrubs can be found. In Europe, black chokeberry was bred as an ornamental culture until the XIX century, and only I.V. Michurin was noticed unpretentiousness chokeberry. They derived a species of chokeberry - Aroniya Michurin, which was obtained as a result of the crossing of chokeberry and mountain ash itself.
Thanks to the selection work of I.V. Michurin and natural unpretentiousness of Aronia itself, the culture has spread en masse to various parts of the globe. Chernoplodka successfully grown in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, the Baltic States and Belarus. On the territory of Russia it is found in the undergrowth and edges, most widely distributed in the Volga region, the Central region and in the North Caucasus, grown in the Urals, in Siberia. Commercially cultivated in the Altai.
The grade recommended for cultivation in any climatic zones. This is a tall shrub, which is characterized by powerful shoot formation and a height of up to 3 m. The diameter of the crown can reach 2 m. The bark of young shoots has a light reddish tint, which disappears by the second year, being replaced by a dark gray color. Flowers bisexual. Berries are large (weight one to 1.2 g), purple-black, covered with a grayish bloom. The taste of the fruit is sweet-sour, slightly astringent.
The fruits of chokeberry Aronia varieties Black Pearl sweet-sour, slightly astringent to taste
A variety of Finnish selection. It stands out for its cherry-like leaves. In autumn, they become maroon. The inflorescence consists of twenty white-pink flowers, blooming in May. Fruits of anthracite color, flat-round, not more than 1 cm in diameter, mass ripening occurs in early autumn. Aronia Viking is an extremely decorative variety that can serve as an element of landscape design.
Variety Viking different leaves, like cherry
Large-fruited variety of German selection. Aronia Nero is compact, with shrub sizes up to 2 m, but it is distinguished by rapid growth rates - annual growth is on average 0.3–0.5 m. The branching is strong. Inflorescences are white flowers with reddish stamens. The leaves turn red by autumn. Fruits weighing 1–1.2 g, are collected in more dense than other varieties of the brush, blue-black. It tastes sweet, juicy. Mass maturation occurs in August - September. The variety is one of the most cold-resistant.
Aronia Nero is one of the most cold-resistant varieties
Aronia Chernoukaya is a melliferous, extremely unpretentious and frost-resistant variety, remarkable also resistant to various types of diseases. Fruits are round, up to 1 cm in diameter, ripen in early fall, the least tart of all varieties of chokeberry. Authorship is attributed to the breeder TK Poplavskaya.
The variety Chernoukaya was allegedly bred by TK Poplavskaya
Variety of Swedish breeding. The height of the bush is up to 2 m. By the end of the season, the leaves turn from dark green into bright scarlet. The berries are large, glossy, with rich black skin. It is recommended to approach the pruning of the variety with care so as not to lose the decorative effect.
Hugin - a variety of Swedish breeding
Honey variety of Danish selection. The diameter of the fruit reaches 1 cm, mass ripening is observed in the second half of August - early September. Inflorescences varieties of white flowers with reddish stamens.
Aron - honey variety bred in Denmark
Nadzeya and Venisa
The varieties of the Belarusian breeding are included in the State Register of Belarus in 2008. Shrubs are medium tall, sprawling, not requiring pollinator varieties. Entry into fruiting is recorded from 3-4 years after planting. The average weight of a berry is 1.3 g. The fruits are slightly oval, collected in 18 pieces. The varieties of Venis and Nedsee are relatively resistant to diseases and insects.
Aronia Venisa does not require pollinator varieties
In general, the plant does not impose requirements on soil conditions, it takes root well and bears fruit on almost all soil types. The only exceptions are saline soils. The most lush flowering and abundant fruiting is observed on illuminated wet loamy soils with a neutral reaction. The blackflood root system is preferably located no deeper than 0.6 m, therefore groundwater does not have any influence on the crop.
Aronia has low soil composition
Aronia grown as a tapeworm (a stand-alone plant) should be planted taking into account its growth - 3 m from tree-shrub plantings and structures. When forming a hedge saplings are planted every 0.5 m.
Like any fruit and berry crop, the wolfberry has two main planting dates: spring (until the last days of April) and autumn (from late September to early November).
- Landing in the spring. A mixture of soil, a bucket of humus, 0.3 kg of ash and 0.15 kg of superphosphate is placed in a 1/3 depth prepared in advance prepared pit with dimensions 0.5 x 0.5 m. Then the fertile substrate is filled up to half the depth and 10 l of water is poured out. The seedling is centered, the root system is evenly distributed along the bottom. During the backfilling of the seat, it is necessary to constantly ensure that the root collar of the shrub is not too deep into the ground (the maximum allowable value is 2 cm). 10 liters of water are poured into the compacted rainbow space and 5–10 cm of the mulching material is poured. In the pit before planting, you can install a peg for binding a young bush. It is recommended to shorten the shoots by 1/3, leaving 4–5 buds on each.
- Autumn planting is not much different from the spring. However, many gardeners prefer it because the plant spends strength on survival rate, rather than on the formation and maintenance of leaves, which guarantees active development in the next season.
Reproduction of a plant in a generative way (parts of shoots, root suckers, whiskers, dividing a bush) is one of the keys to success. In generative reproduction, in most cases all the signs of the mother plant are preserved, while in seed it is extremely rare.
Propagation by cuttings can be carried out in two ways, depending on the type of harvested cuttings.
Table: requirements for planting chokeberry chokeberry
|Lignified cuttings||Green cuttings|
|Cuttings requirements||Cuttings 15–20 cm long (5–6 buds), cut from the middle part of well-matured shoots from two or four year old branches. The upper cut is oblique to the kidney, the lower straight line is under the very eye.||Cuttings 10–15 cm long from the apical parts of the shoots. The lower leaves are removed completely, 2-3 upper leaves are shortened by a third. In the lower part of the stalk on the bark, several cuts are made, in the upper - one (under the kidney).|
|Deadlines for Procurement||Second half of september||June|
|Substrate Requirements||A layer of large washed river sand of 10–15 cm, the basis of clean loose soil||A mixture of garden land with compost and wood ash|
|Environmental Requirements||Optimum temperature 20 ° C, constant humidity|
|The process of planting and rooting||Landing in a cold greenhouse. The landing angle to the soil surface is 45º. The distance between the cuttings is at least 10–12 cm.||Landing in a cold greenhouse. Before planting, cuttings for 8 hours descend into the root formation stimulants (for example, Kornevin). The landing angle to the soil surface is 45º. The distance between the cuttings is at least 4 cm.|
|Care for cuttings||Constant moderate soil moisture, loosening the soil, thorough weeding, hilling seedlings as needed|
|Transfer||Planting cuttings in open ground is carried out in ten days, at permanent places in the fall of the second year.|
Chokeberry Aronia is a culture that actively forms root shoots that can be used to propagate a plant.
Root growth is separated by a sharp shovel from the parent plant along with the root system. Shoots are cut so that they remain 2-4 buds.
Caring for such planting material is not at all different from caring for any other seedlings: from time to time it is necessary to loosen the soil, maintain cleanness in the tree circle and carry out regular watering.
The procedure is carried out in spring, the soil under the plant at the same time dug up to a depth of about 15–20 cm. For breeding, select strong healthy shoots of the past year, which are bent to the ground and secured with studs. Pinch the top of the shoot. Care of future layers is the same as for an adult plant: weeding from weeds, timely watering.
To obtain layering shoots bend down to the ground and secured with pins
When reaching new shoots from the layering length of 12 cm they must be sprinkled with humus. The procedure as they grow is repeated several times. Separating and replanting the daughter plant is recommended next spring.
Aronia is black-fruited with a shallow root system, the greatest concentration of roots is observed at a depth of about 0.6 m in the near-stem circle. In April, the plant is excavated and divided so that each new plant has young roots and several new shoots. At the same time, it is recommended that age shoots be removed, and the areas of cutting of roots and trunks must be treated with crushed coal.
Landing is carried out in advance prepared pits, on the bottom of which a mixture of humus and superphosphate is placed. Each new copy of chokeberry should not be closer to the other than 2 m. In general, the procedures of planting and caring for the dales do not differ from the care activities for the seedlings.
Aronia is inoculated in the spring, before the sap flow begins. As a stock, young rowan saplings are used. On the graft in the place of the cut with a sharp knife is split. The graft shoot is cut in wedge shape, after which the cut-off areas are combined as closely as possible and tightly wrapped with an elastic material.
Experts recommend the place of fusion to wrap with plastic film to create a greenhouse effect. After about 30 days, the film is removed.
The pledge of abundant harvest are regular feeding. Aronia, which grows on fertile soils, almost does not need fertilizers, it is enough to add 50 g of ammonium nitrate in the spring and fill the tree trunk circle with a layer of organic fertilizer as a mulching material (manure, compost, or humus).
Ammonium nitrate is used as a chokeberry food in spring.
Plants on poor soils need to be re-fertilized after spring feeding. So, at the beginning of summer, the wilderness introduces to each bush:
- Bucket of mullein solution in a ratio of 1: 5.
- A bucket of bird droppings in a ratio of 1:10.
In the autumn, after harvesting, the plant is fertilized with a mixture of 0.5 liters of wood ash and 100 g of superphosphate.
Aronia is a black chokeberry prone to thickening of the crown, because of which yields are rapidly reduced. Without pruning, it stretches upward and expands in breadth, forming fruits only on peripheral shoots, which get at least a drop of light. Pruning of almost all fruit trees and shrubs is carried out in two main terms: in spring and autumn.
Aronia pruning scheme
In spring, young Aronia saplings are pruned at a height of about 0.2 m. The following year, some of the strongest shoots are selected in the seedlings that appear, they are leveled one height, and the rest are removed. The procedure is repeated annually, until the number of branches reaches ten.
In order to prevent crowning of the crown, thinning pruning is regularly carried out, they are tried to be combined with the sanitary ones: all diseased, weak or drying, low-value shoots, on which the fruits are not fastened, as well as those that grow inside the crown, are removed.
Pruning chokeberry Aronia should be carried out annually
Fruiting in chokeberry is believed to occur only on branches younger than 8 years. The branches that have reached this age must be removed from the bush, cutting as close as possible to the base; instead of such a branch, it is worthwhile to leave a pair of strong shoots from the root growth. Every year, it is recommended to carry out 2-3 such replacements, rejuvenating the bush. In addition, age bushes can be subjected to anti-aging pruning. The whole bush is cut to the base of the branches, that is, "planted on a stump." The next spring from the emerged overgrowth begins forming, like a young sapling.
Additional sanitary pruning is carried out after harvest. During it, all broken, shrunken or infected branches are removed. Sections of large branches are recommended to be treated with garden pitch or crushed coal in order to prevent the penetration of infections into the plant organs.
Aronia formation in one trunk
Aronia is black-fruited - a plant that has the original appearance of a bush, massively forming shoots at the roots. To give the chokeberry a small tree species, all shoots of the root shoots except the strongest are removed. Every year, several apical buds are left on top of this leader. After the boom has reached the desired height, the growing point on the top of the shoot is removed, which stimulates lateral branching. Further work on the formation of the crown.
The formation of a shtab is not recommended by many experts, although the culture perfectly tolerates molding trimming: such an event is fundamentally contrary to the nature of chokeberry itself.
Pest and disease protection
Aronia is considered extremely resistant to insect colonization. In addition, it is almost not subject to any disease. However, climatic conditions, proximity to infected plants and illiterate agrotechnology can lead to a general weakening of the plant, which will affect its immunity.
As a preventive measure, the bushes are treated with a 1% Bordeaux liquid before blooming. A fall is allowed to be treated again with the same preparation or 7% urea solution in the fall.
As a preventive measure, in spring and autumn arion is treated with Bordeaux liquid
In addition, in the autumn it is recommended to carefully cut and immediately burn damaged and diseased shoots, scrub lichens and any growths from the bark, remove leaf litter and talis from the tree circle, dig the soil in the tree trunk. Weeding and weed control, construction and other debris can also significantly reduce the risk of plant diseases in the garden.
Table: pests and control
|Pest||Description||Methods of struggle|
|Hawthorn||A bright daytime butterfly with a wingspan of up to 7 cm. The caterpillars of this insect feed on the leaves of fruit trees and shrubs, their activity begins in spring, with bud swelling. The caterpillars of the hawthorn devour them, after throwing on the young leaves, the flower buds also suffer. In the middle of summer, eggs are laid (the laying of one butterfly per season is about 500 eggs) - laying can most often be found on the upper side of the leaves. The spread of flowering weed plants in the garden contributes to an increase in the hawthorn population.||As a preventive measure, it is recommended to spray the plant with insecticides before starting flowering (for example, Zolon, Nexion); treatment with Nitrafen should be carried out before leafing.|
|Different types of weevils||Beetles eating chokeberry leaves.||As a preventive measure, treatment of the plant with karbofos or chlorophos is envisaged.|
|Cherry slimy sawfly||Insect larvae, initially parasitizing on cherries, cause more harm. Mass eats leaves, leaving only the largest veins. Damaged leaves roll up, dry out and fall off. The peak of activity usually falls on the 20th of July, when the larvae hatch (sawfly larvae hibernate in leaf litter, pupating in May and laying eggs in June). The adult female sawfly lays about 75 eggs per season.||At detection of infection, it is recommended to spray the bushes with a 0.2% solution of Chlorophos or Karbofos, irrigation with a 0.7% solution of soda ash is effective. Re-treatment is recommended every 7-10 days.|
|Rowan moth||Pest laying down two generations. The caterpillars of the first, highlighting a thin web, weave several flowers from the inflorescence, which they feed on until they retire (the buds dry out over time). Pupation of these caterpillars occurs by the end of June or the beginning of July, almost simultaneously with which the departure of adult individuals that lay eggs on healthy fruits occurs (1 egg from 1 butterfly). The end of July - the beginning of August - the period of emergence of second-order caterpillars that feed on fruits woven into the web.||In May, treatment with 0.2% Chlorophos or Karbofos will eliminate 95% of pests.|
|Green Apple Aphid||Small sucking insects, up to a maximum size of 2.5 mm. The pest feeds on the sap of young leaves, which is why they quickly dry out. Aphid colonies suffer more young seedlings.||In the period from bud break to flowering, plants are treated with Carbofos or Nitrafen.|
|Rowan and apple miner moth||Butterflies feed on the fruits of the shrub, which eventually become worthless, which significantly reduces yields.||As a preventive measure, it is recommended to remove leaf litter, dig up the trunk circle, and also clean off lichens and mosses from the trunks. Anti-insect treatment (for example, Nitrafen) is effective only on young caterpillars.|
|Red apple and brown fruit mites||Small insects that actively feed during the swelling of the kidneys and the appearance of young leaves. In the process of molting, pelts are dropped, which give the branches of chokeberry a silver sheen.||To destroy ticks, it is necessary to regularly change the drugs, since insects quickly develop immunity to one substance. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to remove the fallen leaves and regularly dig up the soil in the tree trunk circle.|
|Fruit Saplings||The bark beetle is about 4 mm long, the flight of which begins in June. It lays larvae and feeds in vertical passages between the bark and sapwood. A clear sign of settlement is the holes that have appeared on the trunks and large branches blocked by the drillmeal.||As a preventive measure, it is recommended to cut out the drying out branches and uproot the dead plants, timely treat other pests that weaken the plant (the sap colonies inhabit only damaged plants, the sap flow in which is broken). In addition, the enemies of beetles are woodpeckers, tits, nuthatch, as well as other types of insects (from the order riders).|
Infection of a plant with a virus and insect colonization are interrelated. A rare insect is capable of settling on an intact, completely healthy specimen. Aronia chokeberry most often diagnosed the following types of diseases:
- Peripheral rot - a sign that accompanies the colonization of mushrooms. Strongly affected specimens of a plant must be removed from the root and burned, treating the soil with fungicides. Processing only infected bushes is 1% Bordeaux liquid and any fungicides.
- Monilioz - fruits affected by fruit rot, soften, and after mummified and partially preserved on the branches. Any fruit with signs of disease must be destroyed. Infected trees are recommended to be treated with solutions of Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate.
- Septoria - diseased leaves become covered in July with light brown spots with a dark border, the inner part of which “falls out” over time, forming through holes. At the end of the growing season, fallen leaves are removed from the circle of the trunk and burned. At the beginning and end of the growing season, the soil beneath the plants and the aronia bushes themselves are treated with Bordeaux mixture.
- Brown spotting - the disease manifests itself in the form of small brown spots on the leaves, which form a whitish coating on the underside. Heavily damaged leaves dry out and fall off. At the first signs of the disease it is recommended to treat the bushes with 1% Bordeaux liquid, and to remove leaf litter.
- Bacterial necrosis (cancer of the cortex) - aronia is affected by necrosis much less frequently than bone stones. Manifested in the form of areas of wetting and falling bark, which at the same time exudes an unpleasant odor. All affected areas should be cleaned 8–10 cm below damaged tissues, disinfected, treated with garden bar. Severely affected bushes are cut and destroyed.
- Rust - a fungal disease, which is a yellow spot, on the back side of which (the bottom side of the leaf) are spores. The affected branches are destroyed, as well as leaf litter at the end of the vegetative season, Aronia bushes are treated with 1% Bordeaux mixture.
- Mealy dew is a fungal disease that affects young shoots and leaves. It is a whitish plaque that darkens by autumn. The disease is spreading rapidly in thickened landings, the development is facilitated by wet, warm weather. For treatment, spray the solution with colloidal sulfur.
- The comb is a thin, leathery, grayish-brown fungus, which is often a sign of root rot. Upon detection of the bodies of the fungus, a double treatment of the bushes with solutions of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate is carried out during the season.
Features of cultivation in the regions
Observations of black chokeberry grown in different climatic zones show that it is most productive in the following limits:
- in the north - in the Leningrad, Novgorod, Vladimir, Ivanovo, Perm, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen, Novosibirsk, Kemerovo Regions, in Gorno-Altaisk,
- in the south, the area is limited to Kursk, Voronezh, Saratov, Samara, Orenburg.
The process of growing chokeberry in the Moscow region is not very different from growing in the Central region. This area is located in climatic conditions, where aronia is the most productive. In addition, the climate in the region is much milder than the Siberian. The danger can be only a snowless winter, as the roots of chokeberry begin to freeze out at a temperature already -11 ° C. The following varieties are the most popular among Moscow gardeners: Chernookaya, Nero, Dabrovitsa, Viking.
Siberia, the Urals and Yakutia
Introduction to the culture of shrubs in the region was initially engaged in the Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia named after M. A. Lisavenko.
Aronia Aronia can withstand temperatures as low as -30–35 ° C, which allows it to be grown in harsh Siberian conditions. In order to prevent the shoots from freezing above the snow level, it is recommended to bend them to the ground before winter (practiced in the areas of Petrozavodsk, Vologda, Perm, Ufa, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Omsk and Barnaul). However, you should carefully monitor the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers, which will not allow the bushes to prepare for wintering in time, and accordingly will lead to freezing or death of the plant. Most often aronia in this area is affected by brown spot. Mass ripening occurs in late August - early September.
Chokeberry Aronia is freely grown in Altai and Siberia.
Ukraine and Belarus
In Ukraine, the black chokeberry is cultivated in Donetsk, South-West and other regions. Successfully culture grows in Kazakhstan and almost all of Belarus. Aronia grown in Ukraine is often diagnosed with colonization by pests uncharacteristic of other regions - the raspberry beetle, the scarecrow, the May beetle. Fruit ripening occurs in September, harvesting may be delayed until the beginning or middle of October. In Ukraine, some experts have noticed a tendency to use chokeberry in gardening yards.
In Belarus, the total area of plantations of chokeberry is more than 400 hectares. Local varieties of Venice and Nadzeya are considered the most resistant. The harvest begins in the second half of August.
Still, it is more shade-tolerant than in the description. Penumbra is not a problem for her. For example, if there is sun after dinner, the harvest will be necessary. For the harvest, the lack of constant moisture is most likely critical. We need not just watering, but it is constant moisture, even for an adult plant. The farm lives in the lowest part of the site, in partial shade. There is always a harvest. It is better not to plant her near the garden because she is an aggressor. Strong and prolific in the wilderness.
And the black wolf just saves me from the neighbors, the only thing to wait for is when the foliage blooms a little in the spring ... That's all. Wall. About 2.5 meters high.
We have aronia (unknown variety) is grown just in the form of dwarf trees, on the trunk, but without vaccination. It turned out by chance: when planting a delenok (they were very high), the tops were cut off, the trunks stopped growing up, thickened, only lateral branches develop. It grows like an umbrella. My neighbor's cottage grows in the form of a trunk, he has long planted a one-meter branch of chokeberry, bought at the bazaar. This is not a vaccine. It grows almost in full shade, and for some reason it does not give basal shoots. Height is about 2.5 .. under 3 meters. Anomaly. But, I noticed, the yield is small, and the taste is more sour than that of the spray form.
Chokeberry at first could not grow, froze out and that's it. Then I planted it among the bushes, but so that it had enough sun, and things got going, it began to grow, the crops every year delight, now one concern - what to do with the berries. / ... /. Fresh do not eat a lot, the other berry and that's it. I would like to try to cook jam from a black wolf, while there is no experience. In the cultivation of chokeberry special care does not require. I form it in the form of a bush, so it is easier to collect berries.
Anna Zakharchukhttp: //xn--80avnr.xn--p1ai/%D0%96%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B5_%D0%B8_ % D1% 80% D0% B0% D1% 81% D1% 82% D0% B5% D0% BD% D0% B8% D1% 8F /% D0% A7% D0% B5% D1% 80% D0% BD% D0% BE% D0% BF% D0% BB% D0% BE% D0% B4% D0% BD% D0% B0% D1% 8F_% D1% 80% D1% 8F% D0% B1% D0% B8% CC% 81% D0% BD% D0% B0
Exceptional decorativeness and condescension to growing conditions emit black chokeberry as an excellent plant for creating seasonal accents of trees and shrubs in the garden, as well as for use in hedges. A black wolf at any time of the year will be a garden decoration. In addition, the plant will delight its owners with delicious fruits.
For medicinal purposes use the fruits of chokeberry. Back in 1959, chokeberry juice was recommended by the Pharmaceutical Committee for the treatment of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Due to the content in the fruits of Aronia significant amounts of biologically active substances, it is prescribed for various allergic diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system, hemorrhoids, radiation injuries, weeping eczema, as well as lesions of capillaries associated with the use of anticoagulants, arsenic compounds, salicylates. A useful property of chokeberry fruits is the high content of iodine, thanks to which it is used in some diseases of the thyroid gland. The increased content of vitamins in chokeberry fruits ensures its use in diseases of the circulatory system and digestion. The effectiveness of taking drugs derived from black chokeberry increases with simultaneous use with preparations from plants containing ascorbic acid (rosehip, black currant).
Contraindications and side effects
It should be borne in mind that the intake of fruits and juice of chokeberry for therapeutic purposes with increased blood clotting is contraindicated, with arterial hypotension, gastritis with high acidity, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, as well as with hyperacid gastritis, their use is also not recommended.
Arnica fruits are used in food. At zero temperature, they are well preserved throughout the year, without losing the taste and medicinal properties.
Fresh chokeberry fruits are widely used in cooking and confectionery. From them, thanks to the content of pectic substances, juice, syrups, marmalade, jam, jelly, preserves, jelly, compotes, wine, tincture and liqueur are made. Chokeberry fruits are eaten fresh and dried. They have a sweet-sour, somewhat tart taste and retain their vitamin activity until late autumn.
Aronia Aronia (lat. Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot) is a species of the genus Aronia (lat. Aronia) belonging to the apple-tree subfamily (lat. Maloidae) from the family Rosaceae (lat. Rosaceae). The genus includes about 15 species, growing mainly in wet places. We have chokeberry Aronia has several names: Black Chokeberry, Aronia Michurin or "Black Carp" due to its black fruit.
Shrub up to 2-5 m. Old trunks are grayish-black, young branches are cherry-red, and annual shoots are dark green. The leaves are petiolate, alternate, elliptical or obovate, pointed up to 8 cm long and 4 cm wide, with ganged cloves along the edge and dark glands along the main vein. In the summer, the leaves on top of the dark green below are lighter, and in the fall they are red. Flowers bisexual, white or pinkish, collected 10-15 in corymbose inflorescences. Formula flower chokeberry Aronia - CH5L5T∞P∞.
Fruits - apples are almost black or dark purple, with a bluish bloom, juicy, with a diameter of up to 1.5 cm. It blooms in May and June, the fruits ripen in late August - September. The yield of chokeberry Aronia: 5 - 8 kg from a bush. Aronia is propagated by root suckers and cuttings.
The homeland of chokeberry Aronia is the eastern part of North America. In our country in the wild does not occur. Mass cultivation in culture began from the beginning of the 50s. In Europe black chokeberry as a fruit plant appeared only after the Second World War.
In the Altai Territory in the years of Soviet power, there were aronia kennels. There were bred wintery, more productive varieties of chokeberry (chokeberry), resistant to fruit pests and diseases. From Altai Aronia spread on the territory of the Soviet Union, and later in Europe.
Now chokeberry is grown in many regions of Russia with a temperate climate: in Moscow, Leningrad, Kaluga, Sakhalin regions, Altai Krai. Basically, chokeberry is bred as an ornamental and fruit plant in gardens, parks, and garden plots.
The area of distribution of chokeberry Aronia
The east of North America, where wild chokeberry grows under natural conditions, is considered to be the place of its origin. The range of chokeberry chokeberry covers temperate zones around the globe. It is successfully grown in Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan. In the Russian Federation it grows in separate bushes in forest glades, forest edges, in the undergrowth of the forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part. The “black chokeberry” is widespread in the Central, Volga regions, in the North Caucasus. Winter-hardy culture grows in almost every household in the Ural region, West Siberia, North-West, even in Yakutia and other regions of the Asian part of Russia. In zones characterized by winter temperatures above -35 ° C, black chokeberry for the winter is bent to the ground, covered with spruce branches or snow.
The genus of aronia has 15 species, but it was introduced into the culture and served as the basis for breeding and introducing varieties into different climatic zones, only one - aronia.
The cultivated varieties of chokeberry as a valuable medicinal raw material grown in commercial quantities in the Altai. Significant areas are occupied by culture in Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States. It is used as a valuable ornamental plant for the decoration of landscapes of parks, squares, recreation areas, natural fencing of plots.
Preparation of raw materials
Fruits are commonly used as a medicine. Harvesting takes place as they ripen in September - the first half of October. Fruits or shields with fruits are torn off with their hands or cut with secateurs, put into baskets or boxes. Store in a cool place no more than 3 days from the date of collection, and at a temperature not higher than 5 ° C - up to 2 months. Dry, scattering in a thin layer, in air or in dryers at a temperature not higher than 60 º C.
Aronia - Medicinal Raw
In chokeberry Aronia medicinal raw materials are the leaves and fruits in fresh and dried form.
Chokeberry Aronia, or Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)
Chokeberry fruits contain up to 10% of sugars, as well as malic and other organic acids - 1.3%, pectin substances - 0.75%, tannins - 0.6%, ascorbic acid (vitamin Q - 15 mg /%, citrine ( vitamin p) - 2000 mg /%, carotene - 2 mg /%, riboflavin - 0.13 mg /%, folic acid - 0.1 mg /%, nicotinic acid (vitamin PP) - 0.5 mg /%, vitamin E, tocopherols - 1.5 mg /%, phylloquinone - 0.8 mg /%, pyrodoxin - 0.06 mg /%, niacin - 0.3 mg /%, thiamine - 0 , 01 mg /%, as well as amygdalin, coumarins, rutin, quercetin, quercitrin, hesperidin, catechins, cyanidin and its glycosides, sorbitol, anthocyanins, flavonoids and other compounds. Among macro- and microelements, iron -1.2 mg per 100 g of pulp, manganese - 0.5 mg, iodine - 5-8 μg per 100 g, as well as salts of molybdenum, boron, manganese, and copper are highlighted.
Useful properties of "black chokeberry"
Chokeberry Aronia forms up to 7-9 kg of berries from a bush. Crop is removed before the onset of frost. They can be used fresh, as well as processed into juice, wine, liqueurs, compotes. From berries prepare jam, jam, syrup, marmalade, marshmallow, jelly. Dried berries in the open air and in dryers at a temperature of +50 .. + 60 ° C. Dry fruits are stored in paper bags for up to 2 years. To use medicinal teas dried leaves harvested after flowering. Fresh berries of "chokeberry" at zero temperature are stored for up to a year, without losing taste and healthy qualities.
From fresh and dried fruits prepare medicinal extracts and infusions that are used at home with reduced immunity, diabetes, as a prophylactic agent for oncology, hypertension. They are used to treat allergic vasculitis, with vitamin deficiency, which is very valuable, especially for children with metabolic disorders. The fruits of choke-choke-chop cholesterol reduce the functioning of the endocrine and respiratory systems. Fruits - a good antiseptic. Drugs from fruits and leaves are widely used in diseases of the liver, gallbladder, cardiovascular system, hypertension.
Be careful! It is impossible to use chokeberry Aronia as a food product and a therapeutic drug under reduced pressure, exacerbation of gastrointestinal diseases, increased blood coagulation, thrombophlebitis.
Juice from fruits of chokeberry excites appetite, increases acidity and the digestive power of gastric juice. It keeps vitamins well and increases the body's defenses. Fresh fruits of chokeberry chokeberry and its juice also exhibit medicinal properties, significantly reducing blood pressure in hypertension, while in people with normal pressure, this action is usually not observed.
In our country black chokeberry became known as a fruit plant at the beginning of the 20th century thanks to the works of I. V. Michurin. Chokeberry became widely spread in Russian gardens only since the 1950s, when the healing value of its fruits for the treatment of hypertension was proven. Over time, aronia was caught by gardeners as an unpretentious high-yielding fruit crop.
Use in traditional medicine
In folk medicine, chokeberry is taken in hypertensive disease (to maintain normal permeability and elasticity of blood vessel walls) in both fresh and dried form. It is also used for various bleeding, hemorrhagic diathesis, capillary toxicosis, diabetes, kidney disease, gastritis with low acidity, measles, typhus, scarlet fever, rheumatism, allergic conditions, hepatitis, poisoning, eczema and some other skin diseases, weeping eczema and some other skin diseases. When using fruits of chokeberry decreases the cholesterol in the blood of patients with atherosclerosis. The fruits of chokeberry are also used for the prevention and treatment of hypo-and avitaminosis R.
1. Blinov KF and others. Botanico-pharmacognostic dictionary: Ref. manual / Ed. K. F. Blinova, G. P. Yakovlev. - M .: Higher. school, 1990. - p. 187. - ISBN 5-06-000085-0-0.
2. State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR. Eleventh edition. Issue 1 (1987), Issue 2 (1990).
3. State Register of medicines. Moscow 2004.
4. Ilina TA Medicinal plants of Russia (Illustrated Encyclopedia). - M., "Eksmo" 2006.
5. Zamyatin N.G. Medicinal plants. Encyclopedia of nature of Russia. M. 1998.
6. Kuchina N.L. Medicinal plants of the middle zone of the European part of Russia - Moscow: Planeta, 1992. - 157 p.
7. Medicinal plants: Reference manual. / N.I. Grinkevich, I.A. Balandina, V.A. Ermakova et al., Ed. N.I. Grinkevich - M .: Higher School, 1991. - 398 p.
8. Medicinal plants of the State Pharmacopoeia. Pharmacognosy. (Ed. By IA Samylin, VA Severtsev). - M., "AMNI", 1999.
9. Medicinal plant raw materials. Pharmacognosy: Textbook. manual / Ed. G.P. Yakovlev and K.F. Pancake. - SPb .: Spec. Lit., 2004. - 765 p.
10. Lesiovskaya EE, Pastushenkov L.V. "Pharmacotherapy with the basics of herbal medicine." Tutorial. - M .: GEOTAR-MED, 2003.
11. Maznev V.I. Encyclopedia of medicinal plants -.M .: Martin. 2004. - 496 s.
12. Mannfried Palov. "Encyclopedia of medicinal plants." Ed. Cand. biol. Sciences I.A. Gubanova. Moscow, Mir, 1998.
13. Mashkovsky M.D. "Drugs". In 2 t. - M., LLC “Publishing House New Wave”, 2000.
14. Novikov V.S., Gubanov I. A. Rod Yel (Picea) // Popular Atlas-determinant. Wild plants. - 5th ed., Stereotype. - M .: Drofa, 2008. - p. 65-66. - 415 s. - (Popular atlas-determinant). - 5000 copies - ISBN 978-5-358-05146-1. - UDC 58 (084.4)
15. Nosov A.M. Medicinal plants in officinal and traditional medicine. M .: Publishing house Eksmo, 2005. - 800 p.
16. Plants for us. Reference book / Ed. G.P. Yakovlev, K.F. Pancake. - Publishing house "Educational book", 1996. - 654 p.
17. Plant resources of Russia: Wild flowering plants, their component composition and biological activity. Edited by A.L. Budantseva. T.5. M .: Partnership of scientific publications KMK, 2013. - 312 p.
18. Sokolov S. Ya. Medicinal plants. - Alma-Ata: Medicine, 1991. - p. 118. - ISBN 5-615-00780-X.
19. Sokolov S.Ya., Zamotaev I.P. Handbook of medicinal plants (herbal medicine). - M .: VITA, 1993.
20. Turov A.D. "Medicinal plants of the USSR and their application." Moscow. "The medicine". 1974.
21. "Herbal medicine with the basics of clinical pharmacology" ed. V.G. Kukes. - M.: Medicine, 1999.
22. Chikov P.S. "Medicinal plants" M .: Medicine, 2002.
Botanical characteristics of chokeberry Aronia
Aronia Aronia - a perennial shrub with many branches. The young crown is small, becomes sprawling with age, reaches a height of 2.5 meters, and is 1.5–2 m in diameter. The next leaves on short petioles have an obovate shape and a short sharp tip. The leaf has an upper leathery, glossy, dark green surface. The lower part of the leaf is with weak pubescence and whitish tinge. In the autumn season, the leaves of chokeberry change their color to bright purple-red tones.
The shrub has a beautiful flowering (May – June), bisexual flowers of white or pink make up dense corymbose inflorescences. Spherical black fruits are covered with a waxy coating, sour-sweet, with an astringent taste, juicy, gathered in clusters. Mature fruits (August-September) practically do not crumble, thanks to the dense skin they retain their juiciness and freshness for a long time.
Homeland chokeberry is North America, today this beautiful plant can be seen in many regions of the world. It is planted in gardens, parks, squares. Fruits are carefully cut and stored in boxes in a cool room, but the shelf life is limited, so they are mostly dried or they make jam, rub with sugar, etc.
Useful properties of chokeberry
Substances contained in fruits block the growth of cancer cells, negatively affect the formation and development of polyps. The presence of tocopherols, phylloquinones, pyridoxins, niacin, thiamines, which are important for many processes in the body, has also been proven. You can list a long list of useful substances aronii. Amygdalin, coumarins, rutin, quercetin, hesperidin, catechins, cyanidin and other compounds have a positive effect on human functional systems. Among the trace elements emit iron, manganese, iodine, salts of molybdenum, boron, manganese and copper.
Aronia Aronia refers to honey plants, in traditional medicine mainly its fruits and leaves are used.
Tea from chokeberry: 6 tablespoons of leaves need to pour 1 liter of boiling water, insist half an hour. It is recommended to accept means on 1 glass 3 times a day. This tea helps reduce blood pressure, increase blood clotting.
Broth of chokeberry: to prepare a decoction that can strengthen the immune system, give strength and energize, you need to take 20 g of dried fruit, pour 200 ml of boiling water over them, cook for a slow fire for 10 minutes, then infuse for 20 minutes, strain, squeeze. Take a decoction 3-4 times a day for 0.5 cups.
Aronia infusion: 2-4 tablespoons of dried fruit insist in a thermos with two cups of boiling water. The next day, the infusion is consumed in 3 doses for 20-40 minutes before meals.
Also bark has healing properties.
Broth of chokeberry: 5 tablespoons (with a slide) of crushed bark is required to pour 0.5 liters of water, boil for 10 minutes, cool, squeeze and take as an anti-sclerotic agent, effective in atherosclerosis of blood vessels.
Chokeberry are used in hemorrhagic syndrome, vitamin P has a vasoprotective effect. Berries are useful in case of lesions due to radiation sickness, beriberi, to recover from serious diseases or operations. Endocrinologists advise the use of berries in violation of the thyroid gland. Aronia is incredibly effective in treating and preventing cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, for example. It has a strengthening effect on blood vessels, relieves insomnia, normalizes metabolic processes and the immune system.
A useful plant contributes to the removal of radioactive substances from the body, will help with various bleeding, capillary toxicosis. Gastritis with low acidity, kidney disease, measles, typhus, scarlet fever can proceed without complications if the use of miraculous berries is introduced into the diet. With a high content of vitamins, aronia can help in the treatment of weeping eczema and other skin diseases. The use of folk remedies increases the body's defenses, whets the appetite and has a choleretic effect. It is recommended to take berries with mental fatigue.
Chokeberry juice is taken at elevated and low pressure. Pleasant to drink can provide the body with vitamins and trace elements, increase resistance to colds, stimulate the stomach, pancreas and liver. But it must be remembered that aroniyu can not be used in acute ulcerative manifestations and gastritis with high acidity.Bioflavonoids, sorbitol and hydroxycinnamic acids show a choleretic effect.
Recipe for preparing chokeberry juice: to make natural juice, fresh fruits must be chopped, heated up the ready-made pulp (1 kg in 0.5-0.75 cups of water) to 60 ° C for 10 minutes and put under a press. Then the pressed raw material should be placed in an enameled pan, pour boiled, slightly warm water (1:10), stand for 3-4 hours, stirring, and again squeeze. After you need to combine the juice of the first and second spin, filter through cheesecloth, heat to 80–85 ° C, fill the sterilized jars. Pre-need to pasteurize half-liter jars for 10 minutes, liter - 12-15 minutes, two-liter - 18-20 minutes.
Recommendation No. 1: Use 50 g of fresh juice and a tablespoon of honey 3 times a day half an hour before meals for 10–45 days to treat hypertension.
Recommendation No. 2: Drink black chokeberry juice 50 ml 3 times a day for 30 minutes. before meals for 10 days or 100 g of fresh fruit 3 times a day.
Recipes from chokeberry
Infusion of dry berries: 2-4 tablespoons pour two cups of boiling water, insist in a thermos, drink three times 1/2 cup for 30 minutes. before meals.
Pectic substances can get rid of heavy metals and radioactive substances. Due to the bactericidal properties of black chokeberry, they rid themselves of various pathogenic microorganisms. Pectins normalize the work of the intestines, eliminate cramps.
Chokeberry helps with anemia, reduced immunity and loss of strength after suffering diseases. Also, the plant has a beneficial effect on the increase in hemoglobin. If you eat 1 cup of mashed rowan and currant, adding sugar or honey to taste, you can avoid health problems.
Preparation of tincture
Recipe number 1: 100 g of berries, 100 cherry leaves, 1.5 liters of water must be combined and simmer for 15 minutes, then strain, add 1/3 tbsp. sugar and 700 ml of vodka, insist.
Recipe number 2: required to boil 1-2 tbsp. l dry berries in two glasses of boiling water over low heat for 10 minutes and insist 5-6 hours. Drink remedy 3 times a day with honey.
Eating fresh berries more efficiently.
Recipe number 1: it is recommended to take 100 g of fruit for two to six weeks, three times a day, half an hour before meals. Additionally, it is good to drink the infusion of mountain ash - it is useful for the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Recipe number 2: it is useful for goiter and sclerosis to take 2-3 times a day 100 g of grated berries at the rate of 1 kg of berries per 700 g of sugar.
Recipe number 3: for asthenia, anemia and hypovitaminosis, 2-3 grams of fresh fruits should be eaten 2-3 times a day, along with black currants, dogrose decoction or ascorbic acid dragees.
As a large-fruited fruit crop, chokeberry was first grown by I. V. Michurin. As a result of painstaking work, new plants began to bear larger fruits. Aronia varieties were bred under the names of "Siberian", "Michurin", "Viking", which you can read about later in this article.
Syrup recipe: the fruit must be poured with sugar and put in the sun in order to form a syrup. After a month, it should be drained, squeezing out the berries soaked in syrup, add alcohol, so that the syrup does not ferment (25 ml of alcohol per 500 ml of syrup). Take the remedy in the morning on an empty stomach with water. Useful syrup for gastric disorders.
Aronia is often called "Siberian blueberries". It is resistant to frost and therefore is associated with the Siberian cold climate. Its birthplace is North America - the region is quite harsh in climatic features. In ancient times, aronia was used by people as a product, having studied its healing properties, they began to prepare infusions and decoctions, squeeze out juice. It is prepared for the future, the fruits are dried, boiled jam.
As an ornamental shade, aronia has taken root in Russia at the time of Michurin.
This plant can decorate any garden. In May, you can already admire the beautiful white flowers, and in August - to pick berries. In autumn, the tree changes the green color of the leaves to a reddish-purple color. Eating daily 30 grams of berries, you can provide the body with protection against tumors and colds, to prevent cancer.
The hybrid fruit of the shrub from the genus Aroniya of the pink family was bred by the famous scientist I. V. Michurin in the 90s of the XIX century. Fruit, berry, medicinal and honey culture became useful for people as a nutritious, vitamin product and therapeutic raw materials. Aronia Michurin is developing rapidly and bears fruit. This culture is characterized by late flowering. The berries ripen to the very first frost, do not crumble, from one bush can be collected 7-10 kilograms. Fruits juicy, apple-like, sour-sweet taste, spherical shape, flattened at the top.
Aronia Michurina loves lighted areas, when planting bushes have at a distance of two meters. Sandy loam, light loam and good watering are the most important factors for the excellent development and productivity of chokeberry Michurin.
Aronia Viking is the result of Finnish selection. It has erect branches, hanging slightly down in an adult plant, the leaves are elliptical, with serrated edges, dark green above and silky, with weak pubescence and whitish undertones. It has juicy, sweet and sour fruit with an astringent taste. They are red, flat-rounded, flattened from the sides, ripening, become purple-black. The fruits ripen in September, have many useful properties.
The plant is characterized by winter hardiness, high yield. High blood pressure is an indication for the use of chokeberry Viking. It normalizes the state of the vessels. Therefore, as a preventive measure for many vascular diseases, the plant is prescribed as an excellent adjuvant in general complex therapy.
Contraindications to the use of chokeberry
Aronia is contraindicated during the exacerbation of peptic ulcer that affects the stomach and duodenum. Gently need to take berries, decoctions and infusions with increased blood clotting, varicose veins and chronic constipation.
Education: A diploma in medicine and treatment was obtained at the NI Pirogov University (2005 and 2006). Advanced training at the Department of Phytotherapy at the Moscow University of Peoples' Friendship (2008).
Black chokeberry is not very demanding on environmental conditions. The culture is hardy and shade tolerant. But in the shaded places practically does not bear fruit and can be used, basically, only as an ornamental culture. Easily tolerates frost -30 ..- 35 ° C and even -40 ° C. During the growing season it forms higher yields with irrigation and good lighting. If you comply with agrotechnical requirements, the bush grows to 3 m and forms up to 50 trunks of different ages.
Aronia black-fruited to the soil is undemanding and normally grows and develops even on depleted soils. Does not tolerate saline and stony soils, flooding the root system. Delivers acidified soil, but the most optimal neutral soils. The acidic soil is neutralized with ashes or dolomite flour, it can be lime.
For planting chokeberry saplings need to buy in specialized nurseries or use seedlings of known varieties.
Saplings are best planted in the fall before the onset of extreme cold or in the spring after the snow melts (if winters are very cold). Aronia Aronia refers to the fast-growing crops and, 1-3 years after planting, begins fruiting.
In Aronia seedlings of Aronia, before planting, shorten the roots to 25-30 cm and cut the stem to 5-6 buds. A sapling stand for several hours in a solution of root or water.
Preparation of planting holes spend for 2-3 weeks before planting seedlings. Planting pits are dug 50x50x60 cm in size. The distance between the landing pits is 2-2.5 m. If the landing is intended for fencing or with a decorative purpose, then you can thicken the planting and land through 1-1.5 meters.
If the soil is depleted of nutrients, the excavated soil is mixed with a bucket of organic matter (not fresh), add 2-3 tablespoons of nitrophoska, a spoon of potassium sulphate and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate. On fertile soils, you can limit the bucket of humus and from mineral fertilizers - nitrophoska. If the soil is dense, you need to make a 0.5-1.0 bucket of peat or sand.
Aronia chokeberry planting is carried out similarly to other root-bearing bushy berry crops. When planting track the location of the root collar. It can not be deepened, since this technique leads to the formation of a large number of basal shoots. If systematically growths are not cut, the bush is shaded and loses productivity.
Caring for the "black ash"
Caring for chokeberry Aronia is loosening the soil, watering, feeding, pruning and rejuvenating the bushes, fighting pests and diseases.
In the dry arid vegetation period, planting chokeberry chokeberry is watered in 12-25 days and immediately mulch in order to excessive loss of moisture. With age, the frequency of watering is reduced, as individual roots deepen to 2 - 3 meters and can independently provide the bushes with the necessary moisture.
Feed chokeberry Aronia 2-3 times a year. In the spring, a mixture of manure or bird droppings with potassium salt or ash is prepared and applied before bud break. The second time is fed with an aqueous solution of fertilizers before flowering. Ash (1-2 cups), nitrophoska (20-25 g), Kemira (20-30 g), other fertilizers containing macro- and microelements are used for top dressing. In the autumn after harvesting (according to the state of the crop), superphosphate and potassium sulphate are used for feeding, respectively, 50 and 30 g / bush.
In the spring before blooming buds spend annual sanitary pruning. The shoots of chokeberry chokeberry are cut at ground level. When pruning also destroy unnecessary shoots, leaving 5-6 well-developed, fruitful shoots. At the age of 5-7 years, substitute trimming is performed. To replace the sprouting shoots and limit the growth of the black chokeberry bush, leave 2-3 young shoots. Escape actively forms a harvest of 5-7 years and must be replaced. A properly formed shrub contains 40-45 different-aged stems. Complete rejuvenation is carried out in 10-12 years, depending on the condition of the bush. Systematic rejuvenation prolongs the fruiting of the bush for a long period.